Women and Islam
Gender Identity remains to be a controversial debate among Muslim community in Islamic culture. There are varied stance on acceptable principles and standards founded by the religion to control relationship and social conduct between female and male members of the Islamic culture. Therefore, the analysis provides key arguments made by two female authors, namely McMurray (2008) and Zine (2008) concerning double standard in Islamic culture. Some of issues examined in the article include rigid regulation of the community gender based structure, gender inequality, policing of the Muslim women’s body, and control of their mobility. Both the authors examine and criticize the double standards led by both Muslim men and women in minority groups.
In addition to that, the authors also keenly examine the reasons for the double standard as seen in both communities. As a result, the analysis in the article will focus on the arguments concerning the effects of the double standards to youthful women. McMurray (2008) in her article argue that Black Muslim Women born in the era of hip-hop generation construct temporary expedient zone by incorporating the culture of hip-hop with Islamic culture. On the other hand, Zine (2008) examine how different schools in Canada create varied notions of gendered Islamic sensibilities and identities. Most significantly, she examines how gender roles and identities are constructed and upheld via schooling practice and socialization, which are essential in manifesting their double standards. In the proceeding sections, the article will examine the reasons and concerns about the effects of these double standards on young Muslim Women and men.
Specifically, Zine studies the standards and controls set up by Islamic schools in the Greater Toronto Area to have a thought regarding how gender socialization that happens among the youngsters while at school, what they are educated, how the basic Muslim conventions are imposed and how the subjects (understudies) get or see them. Then again, McMurray (2008) analyzes the religious separation inside the American Muslim group, concerning hip-hop, gender, and race. From the beginning, the noticeable topic in Zine’s and McMurray’s discourses is the distinction in the identity and socialization of female and male Muslims – making a feeling of double standard inside the religion’s practices and norms
McMurray and Criticism on Islamic Double Standards
As indicated by Zine (2008), females in Muslim schools were handled similarly within their academic institutions, where female understudies were given equal opportunity and anticipated to perform similarly with their male partners, incorporating subjects, for example, arithmetic and science, which were believed to dominated with the males. In any case, in the midst of such apparent scholastic balance, there exists a feeling of unbending control and sexual orientation based structure, which was showed as young women being more limited by the cultural and social standards than young men, an effects she asserts, is taking note of the spirit of Islam. For example, young women are not permitted to openly blend with young men subsequent to achieving grade seven or more, other than having their body totally concealed with their garments. In spite of this, such directions were intended to anticipate unreasonable connection amongst young men and young women, adequate to keep them from taking part in dating and pre-marriage relations, (Zine 2008 pp. 46-59) contend that such standards restrained and compelled the Muslim students past the bounds of the Muslim standards and culture. Notwithstanding that (Zine 2008, pp. 40-43) further, contend that such controls were all the more a community and cultural standard than simply profound spiritual standards.
Anaya McMurray, in her article “Hotep and Hip-Hop,” investigates the connection between Islam and hip-hop, especially how the music communicates the double standard established for Muslim women by their group. McMurray upholds that music construct exceptional space known as improvisation zone. The zones highpoints the sensibility of the religion as it travels through spaces of obstruction and societies. She plots the political ramifications joined by perceiving these zones inside the contemporary USA society. At the point when individuals compose, plays melodies, or take part in every day discussion the construction of thoughts is directed by their daily encounters and narratives. Overall, the thoughts do not come up arbitrarily. Whenever individuals and their social and melodic antiquities cooperate, there is improvisation among the general population included, which demonstrates a communicative and synergistic quality (McMurray 75).
McMurray via improvisation as an analogy portrays how Islam changes through assorted societies. She contends that Islam is sufficiently adaptable to such an extent that it has a numerous implications in varied conditions, while consuming some rationale or recognizable structures inside various groups. She alludes to Islam as a limit that has various implications relying upon a community’s social and political antiquities. Prominently, the power and existences of individuals goes about as agents who shape the Islamic faith among various societies.
In her analysis, Zine stresses that the male dominant discourse to be pervasive among Muslim schools. Zine demands that there is a fight between religious writings and the identity of the youthful female. Zine claims Young Muslim ladies are in a functioning battle and progressing transaction to strive for better choices that permits positive developments on who they need to be; instead of basically following the depiction of male centric authoritative opinion. Zine’s double standard contention is: men just have less worry upon them and accordingly more extra flexibilities, while ladies must take after, certain convention that stems from the carelessness of men, by and large, ladies must comply with a standard in light of the activities of men.
The issue of sexual orientation value with regards to classrooms brings about the thought that young men are more candid then young ladies, a general perception and not intelligent of the whole boy populace. Additionally, young ladies who are normally less timid than young men feel burdened when they have little space to talk, this is valid, yet again not intelligent of the whole young girl populace. Zine recommends that this coyness, which is a type of unobtrusiveness, is chiefly developed in the home culture and delivered at schools keeping young women from speaking their thoughts. Generally, in light of the fact that Islamic convention of unobtrusiveness is imparted in young women more than young men, which is disagreeable itself, young women are persistently kept from seeking after their scholarly and social interests. It at that point it is the mission of the instructor to ensure young ladies talk up as much as young men.
Young ladies in the JK/SK classes may likewise perceive the works amid the congregational invocations where a man can lead the Salah and men are in the front lines while ladies are most certainly not. Men involve the primary supplication hall, while the women, as indicated by Zine, do not have such solaces “Despite the fact that the sex – isolated spaces require not be hierarchized, numerous centers and Islamic school all things considered arrange women invocation regions outside of the male-overwhelmed principle petition lobby.” (Zine, 45) Zine is developing a reality where the crucial Islamic practices are not implied for women and utilizing the puerile musings of youngsters to base her decisions. In the contention I find exploitive states of mind I cannot help contradicting. The primary supplication hall does not make any hierarchy situation for men. In Islam, a devotee has the privilege to pray anywhere they need insofar as it is untarnished, so it does not make a difference where you implore..
McMurray’s contention is of communicating through creative shape, which is not taboo in Islam. Nevertheless, utilization of instruments or sounds other than from the voice or a level drum is disallowed from valid Islamic conventions, in one perspective. Most black hip-hop originates from an order of Islam called Nation of Islam that elevates strengthening to black culture, a portion of their belief system lines up with Islamic custom. However, because of McMurray’s contention they do not. It is imperative to take note of that nasheeds and acapellas or foundation voices joined by poetry is permitted and in actuality urged if used to praise God as well as His religion. Nevertheless, present day standard hip-hop undisputedly extols generalizing sex, women, infidelity, wantonness, riches through murder, medication, crime, and murder among others. It goes to a point where individuals make good examples out of such rappers, imitate their lives, and are desensitized to indecencies that are precluded in the Islamic convention. This is one reason why hip-hop and music overall are disallowed. Consequently, essentially the whole of McMurray’s contention is invalid regardless of whether the rendition of her hip-hop mirrors a positive, cognizant, or religious undertone; despite everything, it takes after an impermissible medium in any case you are male or female. Islamic conventions have little to do with present day hip-hop culture aside from mediums of verse outside the presence of current melodic instrumentals.
McMurray supports that hip-hop is an enabling instrument and makes articulation and improvisation zone to advance black culture and hence contends black Muslim guys have more presentation and chance to this than females, eventually, sidelining black Muslim ladies. “Muslim ladies are frequently anticipated to fit into convention ‘good girl’ character by Muslims and non-Muslims alike. These desires urge them to be attached to the home, docile, and hidden.” (McMurray, 87) This is a dumbfounding proclamation, it is basic that all Muslims follow up on great and take after Islamic conventions to submit to God, nonetheless, McMurray considers accommodation to God convention. Black Muslim men taking part in rapping unlawfully does not legitimize Black Muslim women from rapping unlawfully. To try to say that there is a sexual orientation imbalance in this situation does not reflect Islamic customs notwithstanding how cognizant or clearly religious rapping might be. McMurray recommends that the conventional business work for a black female in the hip-hop industry is a position that includes sexualization, which is not permissible in Islam.
McMurray recommends that cognizant Muslim black rappers have discovered a road to express their ‘religion’ while staying in the music business. She records numerous rappers and a fast online pursuit of their melodic discography, just by the title of their tunes alone, gives a sensible portrayal of what kind of Islam is being rehearsed here. It is extremely uncommon to hear a rap melody committed exclusively to the religion of Islam without saying different verses that regularly incorporate condemnations or generally sketchy substance. McMurray contends that the normal rap audience can without much of a stretch name ten male Muslim cognizant rappers though it is hard to give some examples of females. She calls this sexual orientation imbalance, which extremely well is valid, however no obvious religious specialist will battle for women’s or men’s rights if the whole organization depends on in a general imperfect standards.
Regarding keeping the versatility of young Muslim ladies, I concur that senior young lady understudies ought to be provided sensible self-governance and control over their development. Once more, it is essential to remember it must be inside the limits of Islamic custom, in that, pre-military relations ought not be a goal outside of school limits. Young ladies require social and instructive encounters that originate from settings not bound to a classroom. There must be a center route all the while. To assert man centric love or misrepresentation of reputational danger of the school in truth constantly conflicts with the Islamic school approaches and the simple things guardians and principals guarantee. Basic measures like instructor supervision, aggregate frameworks, sign-in sheets are suitable.
Oddly, I observe this to be in my own comprehension of double standard inside the Islamic setting. Rappers like Mos Def have past music from their past that would recommend the same shameless conduct that is displayed in current standard hip-hop culture. McMurray contends why Mos Def is still great according to Muslims; he is a human dissident, activist of crime and over-sexuality among other, yet at the same time has music that speaks to a similar thing he is against? In spite of the fact that this is valid and great proof, McMurray needs to make her own particular decisions in view of past activities of others that are not any more their perspectives. Truly, it is genuine a few rappers have made shameless melodies, yet is it genuine they right now confer or advocate their unethical behavior now? No. However McMurray argues this as confirmation to cut a world for herself so she can keep making rap music therefore dismissing the genuine lawfulness of Islam. Black male Muslim rappers don’t make the religious tenets, they are vulnerable to falling into similar blames and traps, and can without much of a stretch set aside the genuine guidelines of Islam in the event that they which to seek after their wants. Their choice to make corrupt music does not permit or offer ascent to female Muslim rappers.
Overall, Zines contention raises a few issues of versatility and male centric individual need that should be tended to inside the Canadian Muslim group. Else, doubtlessly the larger part of her work is a push to intimate after corrupt conduct of Western culture without endeavoring to take care of the issues inside the Islamic culture. McMurray gives a contention of sex imbalance proposed in a defective way. Generally, the two authors have communicated their apprehensions; however, it appears they are attempting to utilize scholastic mind and common perspectives against Islamic convention without understanding the knowledge of Islamic law or religious philosophy.
Varshney, T., ; Jahan, F. (2014). WOMEN IN ISLAM. Issues in Women’s Rights: A Practitioner’s Resource Book, 1, 238.