Walberg et al. (1986) already identified the main variables that affect the student outcomes: prior achievement or student’s ability, developmental stages age, motivation, quality of instruction, quantity of instruction, environment at home, climate in the classroom, peer group and the exposure of the students to mass media outside of the school campus.
The student’s academic performance can affect to the gadgets that they are using outside the school, it has a case to case basis: The students that can search information that widens the knowledge of the individuals, it can really affect the learning performance where in the student at the school can give much more information and can share knowledge to his/her classmates.
Barakati (2011) proposed that teacher’s motivate students to maximize the use of smart phones and smart tablets by using existing applications to the classroom. Smart phones and smart tablets were used not only as a communication tool but can also be used to learn and enhance students skills especially in English language learning if it is used properly in an innovative and fun way.
Wood Cock (2012) stated that smart phones and smart tablets in learning can lead learners to become more sensible, what were the advantages and benefits to ease learning anywhere that motivate learners in different activities. He claimed also that the continuous expand number of learners who have smart phones and smart tablets that make their lives change. They begin to operate these devices to expand their learning experience.
Friedel H., Bos, B. ; Lee, K. (2013) smartphones and smart tablet have now become commonly found to among students. Whereas many classroom management policies prohibit mobile phone use and text messaging in the classroom, a growing body of research has found that mobile phones and short message service (SMS) texting can positively contribute to student learning by facilitating concurrently collaborate learning to provide framework for the delivery of interactive content, and assess student learning and participation Researchers assimilate the implicit for these devices to cultivate collaboration and extend learning opportunities by allowing anywhere-anytime learning. This mobile framework can be used inside and outside of classrooms. It examines and summarizes the current body of research on how smartphones have been used to raise student achievement in the particular academics.
Norries, Hossain ; Soloway (2011) demonstrated on their study that learner’s achievement grow significantly when smartphones and smart tablets use by the students during their learning time. This is because when they have the smartphones and smart tablet at hand their time spent on completing the task will increase. They also discovered that learners were stable in using their smartphones and smart tablets to take pictures of abstract concepts taught by the teacher in class so that later they can construct concrete ideas through it.
Woodcock et al. (2011) reported that the respondents in their study believed that smartphones and smart tablets had permitted them to enhance productivity and eventually their academic performance. Smartphones and smart tablets provide a wide access to the learners to search informative information regarding to their lesson and this helps them to enhance their academic performance.
Kumar (2011) indicated that learners can improve their learning by downloading online lectures and reading from e-books. Reading educational online lectures and e-book can help learners widen their knowledge.
Mtega, Bernard, Msungu, & Sanare (2012) flaunts in their study that their respondents do not just utilize traditional smartphones and smart tablet applications such as calls and messages but they use applications such as Google drive, emails, voice calls, camera and GPS to download, upload and share academic resources with their peers.
M. J. Stollak, A. Vandenberg, A Burklund and S. Weiss (2011) Learners who have smartphones and smart tablets are must likely both to the learner’s access social media tools and spend time with classmate, friends, relatives and teachers. Education may have to be cautious in assigning school works involved in social media to the learners as may have a great benefit to complete the school work the others. Educational purposes it means there may well be a “digital divide” the space of number of users and control what have access in modern information and communication technology and those who have limited access.
Becker (2009) Technology aids users in their daily life with the help of the different gadgets. In this new generation gadgets are very contagious especially in new design and brand. Through interactive application users implicate different designation.
Balakrishnan ; Raj (2012) Smart phones and smart tablet can help the people specifically the students to communicate with the people far from them with the use of so called “messenger” and it also have a messaging to message the person directly. Smart phones or smart tablets can also use in security purposes they can also contact others with the use of these devices if they are in danger, the use of GPS is also helpful for security purposes wherein the owner of the device can be located in case the owner is in danger.
Maguth (2013) stated that smartphones has many capabilities just like computers. Making PowerPoint presentation, using text messaging to translate and search, disseminating information to students and parents are some of functions of smartphones that computer also possess.
Smart phones and smart tablets today is competing computers, in today’s modern era smart phones and smart tablet is handy compared to the computers, it also has the ability that in the past the computer can only do but today, smart phones can now do what the computers do like making PowerPoint presentation, using different Microsoft and spread information to parents and students.
Oksman (2010) stated that in addition to the new media, the newspapers, radio and television which are the traditional media are also available on the smartphones through internet. Dean (2010) Ryerson University students’ has an experience and expectation with their mobile library site. The students’ top the future request were getting research, contacting librarian, checking out new books, reading some documents and searching for articles. It further stated that the two (2) most commonly used functions of smartphones to called students were text messaging and e-mailing followed by watching videos, reading books or wattpad and news.
Smart phones and smart tablet is now the easiest instrument to research information, finding new books and articles. With the use of internet, students can easily access whenever they needed some information from an article. Smart phones and smart tablet is also use for entertainment purposes where they can search videos, read articles from the book, read news or even reading wattpad.
Alfawareh & Jusoh (2014) use as a watch, an alarm clock, watching movies, taking pictures and videos, listening to music, downloading software, installing applications, surfing internet, reading some documents. Sending text messages, checking email and website pages and making calls are inclusion in the usage of smartphones
Elder (2013) It was found that cellphones anticipates lower score rather than to those who did not use their smart phones and smart tablets. It indicates distraction to nature of learning to the students. This descriptive evidence updated by the student’s self-reported use of gadgets and their beliefs. Moreover, those students who used their gadgets during discussion wouldn’t retain as much information than those students who focuses their attention to the discussion.
Students who use smart phones during discussion wouldn’t clearly understand the discussion it leads to a low grade than to the students who don’t use their smart phone during discussion.
Hanson, Drumheller, Mallard, Mckee and Schlegel (2011) states that e-mail, instant messaging and web surfing are being used when the students are in the library rather than checking the library’s online resources. Students have a difficulty in balancing their time for their school life with their need for financial and social support even though they want to prioritize their academics. Updating their facebook status rather than doing their assignments was found.
Froese et al. (2012) employed expectations of the effects of the student’s cellphone activity on learning outcomes and self-report survey to assess it. In 2009, October through December there are 693 students participated in the study, all come from the seven colleges and universities across the United States. Through the survey it was found out that using smart phones or smart tablets can disrupt in their learning during the class discussion.
Alexander (2004) stated that the world islooking for the mobile devices such as smart phones and smart tablet specifically schools. The universities and even the world are aiming to integrate smartphone devices in order to enhance the education of their students. Smart phones and smart tablets are a great resource specifically in classroom, it has a helpful applications such as dictionaries which able the students to find meaning to a jargon words into a simpler one. Also, students can easily research, information in Google that enables them to understand clearly a topic
Leslie Kahari (2013) Most of the learners use their smartphones, smart tablets and is a very important tool for study purposes. Smartphones and smart tablet can be use but learners may abuse the usage of these devices. The presence of these devices brings challenges and options for today’s generation, smartphones are convenient, accommodating tools most especially for study and might be hurtful cause oy distraction but depends on how the learners manage the proper utilization of their smartphones and smart tablet.
Smartphones and smart tablet are the not the ones that distracts the students it is how the students handle the distraction that may affect to their academic performance, these device doesn’t really affect the academic of the students but how the learners handle the distraction that it may give.
John Ireland (2014) the study habits of the students change because of the advances of technology. With the use of smart phones and smart tablets, students don’t necessarily jot down notes because with the help of smart phones and smart tablets they can take pictures of what is written in the board or in a book they can also research when they want to do an advance reading. It also greatly affect the way teachers discusses their lessons wherein they can easily send files that contains information that is needed to be discuss to their students through group chat in the messenger where the learners will just study the content of the file. On the other hand the teacher will just clarify everything and won’t need to discuss deeply. Smart phones and smart tablets have a great impact to the learners as well as to the teachers.
Laurilla (2009) There are various facts indicate that the used of gadgets are common to the younger sector of the society which reported by the “Media Use Statistics”. It is stated that almost two-thirds of the teenager in todays are gadget’s owners. The youths are expected to be frequent users since as they grew along the trends and modernization. Technological innovations of gadgets are become more high-tech because of this, there is a tremendous debate about the condition of writing and how high-tech the communication of the youth might affect their ability to create idea.
In today’s generation the youth are becoming inspired to have their gadget specifically smart phones to make their selves convenient than before because gadgets now a days can almost make everything easy but it is also a problem that the students only rely to those gadgets and just search for some information or idea than having their own idea.
James Kendrick (2013) highlighted that smart phones and smart tablet devices in the last ten years and these days has improved a lot. They had gotten smaller, more powerful and very useful because of its features that are very useful especially for the learners.
In today’s generation smart phones and smart tablet makes the life of the people easier where they can search through these devices and widen their knowledge. People can also easily communicate through texting and calling to keep in touch with their loved ones and to watch their child’s performance in school even though they are far away.
Lenhart, Smith and Zickuhr, (2011) they surveyed and is said that there are forty-two (42) percent use their smartphones for weather updates and thirty (30) percent to follow local news. The ability to access information and communication is the primary assistance a smartphone can give to its user.
Some people rely to their smart phones and smart tablet to know the weather and also to read news, they don’t need to cost money in order buy newspaper to know the weather and the news of the day.
Tindell and Bohlander (2012) in an emergency, sending a message directly to students’ smartphones and informing them about the emergency and indicate some instructions on how to respond can be made quickly with the help of smartphones. Using smart phones or smart tablet teachers can send directly the information to the students; it would not be hard for the teacher to inform everyone that there is an emergency wherein they can respond to the teacher directly.
Embedded a survey from a private university the purpose of their survey is to gain understanding of the use and abuse of smart phones and smart tablets. It’s potential aid in policy making decisions and in college classroom setting that found out most of the students spends more time in texting rather than paying attention to the class discussion.
Smart phones and smart tablet can help students especially when they are in danger, they can call someone to help and rescue them. With these devices the teacher can easily communicate to the students whenever there is an emergency.
Kevin M. Thomas, Blanche W. O’bannon and Natalie Bolton (2013) they surveyed the seventy-nine teachers in order to know their perceptions when smart phones and smart tablets are being use for classroom instruction. Majority of the teacher which is sixty-nine percent agreed to use smart phones and smart tablets especially if it is school-related works, teachers said that it enhances the students motivation and as well as engagement with their classmates.
Many teachers agreed to use smart phones and smart tablets during class especially if the students is working for their school projects, the teacher trust these devices to help their students to make their life more convenient. The students can also enhance their engagement with their peers. The class disruption and lack of access are included for barriers. Refuel, 2013 & Yazdanfar & Aghili, (2012).
DeAndrea, Ellison, LaRose, Steinfield, & Fiore, (2012). As stated that when students communicate with peers and classmates on social media programs through the consideration, interactions and other activities, these may the ramification in the behavioral outcome which might affect the academic performance unquestionably.
To summarize, smartphones or smart tablets does not really affect in their academic performance in terms of their social aspect.
Kaplan and Haelein,(2010) that social media as a notion has been variously distinguish. One of such depiction describes it as a multi-purpose design and a web-based technology which has the ability to allow the sharing of videos, text, sound and images in a more collaborative and interactive manner.
Marla Paul (2017) Using smart phones up to four times a day can help to ease depression. The apps in the smart phones gives exercises to ease stress, to diminish worrying and self-criticism, help to feel life more meaningful, highlight strengths and a plan for a good night’s sleep and more. Most apps provide many features that offer’s variety of entertainment that will surely help in easing depression.
Kim et al., (2015) states that technology addiction is due to anxiety or depression, smartphones can help individuals suffering with depression or anxiety as a coping method in dealing their depression and negative emotions.
Students find smartphones and smart tablets as a reliever. They use it to ease their depressions, anxiety and even stress. They find companion on it and feel better when using it.
National Institute of Complementary Discipline, Western Sydney University (2017) led research inveterate that smart phones and smart tablet apps are an efficient treatment for depression, anxiety and stress, paves the road for safe and access interventions for the people who diagnosed with this condition around the world.
The apps being downloaded on smart phones and smart tablets are a great help in diminishing one’s depression, anxiety and stress.
Lindsay Holmes and Jerome Sarris (2017) that using smartphone or smart tablet apps is the easier way to some people to reduce depression without encountering social stigmas. This means that students find the downloadable apps on their smartphone or smart tablet as a great help in easing their depression, anxiety and relieves their stress.
Usage of smart phones and smart tablet could help student’s academic performance with the student’s proper usage of these devices for educational purposes, it can help through out to their performance which leads in enhancement to their cognitive aspect, social aspects and emotional aspects.
Smartphones are typically pocket-sized, have the ability to received messages, calls, or video calls and create text messages or can be able to communicate through calling. Smart phones and smart tablets provides a portable, lightweight platform through which you can read a book where it is a kind of application, watch movie, listen to music and explore the Internet. It controls your experiences through a touch screen that provides an intuitive interface to technology, appealing to young and old users. From individual entertainment to family learning, smart phones can put the world of enjoyment which can eases stress, especially if you take full advantage of its capabilities. A smartphone and a smart tablet that has a computing ability that make it closer to laptops and it is invented with an aim to have and receive calls, send messages and other unique features that helps people to communicate their love ones. Aside from that, smartphones provides access information to the learners that are relevant to their lesson.
The researchers chooses these literatures because it connects and give relevant information that supports to the study which is the effects of smart phones and smart tablets to the academic performance of the college students.


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