van Baarda, T. A., Verweij, D. E. M. (2006). Military Ethics Its nature And pedagogy. In Military Ethics The Dutch Approach – A Practical Guide (pp. 124). https//doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004154407.i-395 DEVELOP A MILITARY LEADERSHIP MODEL FOR AFRICA NAME LT G.D NELSON STUDENT NUMBER 17429781 NAME Sub Lt Khobane STUDENT NUMBER 20653174 MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY 214 SUBMISSION DATE 23/04/2018 DECLARATION We herewith declare this work to be our own, that we have acknowledged all the sources we have consulted in the assignment/essay itself and not only in the bibliography, that all wording unaccompanied by a reference is our own, and that no part of this assignment/essay has been directly sourced from the internet without providing the necessary recognition. We acknowledge that if any part of this declaration is found to be false we shall receive no marks for this assignment/essay, shall not be allowed to complete this module, and that charges can be laid against us for plagiarism before the Central Disciplinary Committee of the University. We acknowledge that we have read the Guidelines for Writing Papers in Industrial Psychology and have written this paper accordingly, and that we will be penalised for deviating from these guidelines. Signed Date ……………………….. Signed Date ……………………….. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. DEFINITION OF MILITARY 1 2.1. Military 1 2.2. Military psychology 1 2.3. Psychological process 1 3. ADOLESCENCE AS A STAGE OF LIFE 2 4. ATTACHMENT THEORY 2 4.1. Process of transfering attachment 3 5. HOME LEAVING TO MILITARY SERVICE 3 5.1. The two important features of the situation 3 6. TRANFORMATION IN RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENTS 4 7. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFECTS 4 8. READINESS FOR CHANGE DURING BASIC MILITARY TRAINING 5 9. HIGHER LEVEL OF PERSONAL GROWTH 5 10. COMMON CHALENGES DURING TRAINING 6 11. COHESIVE IDENTITY 6 11.1 Readiness for social growth 6 12. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL COMPETENCE 7 12.1. Sociability and ability to maintain close relation 7 13. SELF DIRECTION 7 14. ASPIRING FOR INDEPENDENCE AND ADAPTABILITY 8 14.1. Adjustment 8 14.2. Characteristics to narrow down the concept adjustment 9 14.3. Relevant adjustment disorders 9 15. ADAPTATION 10 16. CONCLUSION 10 17. REFERENCES 11 1. INTRODUCTION Leadership in Africa has never been a more relevant topic for debate and writing as at this moment in time. The vast amount of natural resources of African countries is endowed with, as well as the remarkable progress many have made, in growing their economies, are compromised by the erroneous choices and decisions of the continents political and economic leadership ADDIN CSL_CITATION citationItems id ITEM-1, itemData ISBN 9780702189005, abstract 1st ed., author dropping-particle , family Ngambi, given Hellicy Chakosamoto., non-dropping-particle , parse-names false, suffix , id ITEM-1, issued date-parts 2011 , number-of-pages 130, publisher Juta, title RARE total leadership leading with the head, heart amp hands, type book , uris http//www.mendeley.com/documents/uuid279aeb98-ba4f-3d4f-a2ca-9aef3bbcfc85 , mendeley formattedCitation (Ngambi, 2011), manualFormatting (Ngambi, 2011), plainTextFormattedCitation (Ngambi, 2011), previouslyFormattedCitation (Ngambi, 2011) , properties , schema https//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Ngambi, 2011). Over the last few years we have seen various news articles depicting African leaders, behaving in ways that are devoid of the traditional leadership values, and principals, sadly most of them have been able to escape prosecution or have not been brought to book. The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) has not been immune to these controversies. Recent newspaper reports from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) implicate SANDF troops in crimes such as Torture, assault and rape, fathering babies of minors (SANDF troops accused, 2018). These as just some of the stains that taint the image of SANDF, as a role model for peacekeeping in Africa. Although many authors attribute Africas problems to emanate from its dark colonial past ADDIN CSL_CITATION citationItems id ITEM-1, itemData DOI 10.18820/9781920689964, ISBN 9781920689964, author dropping-particle , family t Wout, given Carien, non-dropping-particle van, parse-names false, suffix , dropping-particle , family Dyk, given Gideon, non-dropping-particle van, parse-names false, suffix , editor dropping-particle , family Dyk, given Gideon, non-dropping-particle Van, parse-names false, suffix , id ITEM-1, issued date-parts 2016, 3, 17 , number-of-pages 216, publisher Sun Media, title Military Psychology for Africa, type book , uris http//www.mendeley.com/documents/uuid37469018-4804-4e3f-9d40-0589c22ea2f4 , mendeley formattedCitation (van u2019t Wout van Dyk, 2016), manualFormatting (van Dyk, 2016), plainTextFormattedCitation (van u2019t Wout van Dyk, 2016), previouslyFormattedCitation (van u2019t Wout van Dyk, 2016) , properties , schema https//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (van Dyk, 2016). However more research can be conducted in this regard, as colonialism is not only attributing factor that justifies poor leadership in Africa. The objective of this paper is to lay out to our fellow soldiers a general idea on the process of developing military leadership for the SANDF, and in so doing spread the coals of knowledge through them into Africa. In this paper, a broad explanation of the following key words would be covered military provided by different authors will first be outlined Followed by the definition of military leadership The concept super-leadership The purpose of explaining the abovementioned key words is to assist the reader to understand what the main topic covers. In addition this paper will go beyond just describing the generalised commercial use of the term leadership. As military leadership can be used in the civilian domain, the opposite is not true. Therefore this paper seeks to introduce a holistic model in the development of a leadership model, especially within the African context, where concepts such as Ubuntu and other African values which seems to have diminished, through colonization (or more recent industrial colonisation). 2. DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPTS 2.1. Military The military is an organisation that is very unique from other organisations in terms of its rules and culture and it is the most disciplined working environment. The military way of life is governed by set of rules, laws and regulations that military members must abide by. Military training and discipline emphasize compliance with commands within the organization and penalties attached to failure to comply with these directives (Van Dyk, 2012). 2.2. Military Leadership Extensive literature already exists on the concept of leadership. However the ADDIN CSL_CITATION citationItems id ITEM-1, itemData DOI 10.5787/40-1-986, ISBN 10228136, ISSN 1022-8136, abstract The result of this article is an alternative model for leadership character development in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). The SANDF reflects the racial and cultural diversity of South Africa as a nation. The need for a unifying leadership related mechanism, which will provide for the military milieu in which humane leadership development will flourish, is evident. This statement is based on the premise that no evidence was found that any previous efforts by the SANDF to instil a leadership philosophy or policy as a way of military life was successful. The model also addresses further shortcomings in the current SANDF leadership development model as the selection process of officer candidates needs improvement because political guidance and participation in the development of military leaders are absent. Officer formative training consequently reflects emaciated attention to the development of the character side of leaders, and the SANDF has no military leadership institution to ensure that its leadership development policies and practices are based on sound academic research., author dropping-particle , family Erasmus, given Willem D, non-dropping-particle , parse-names false, suffix , container-title Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, id ITEM-1, issue 1, issued date-parts 2012 , page 95-116, title Military Leadership Development a Model for the Sa National Defence Force, type article-journal, volume 40 , uris http//www.mendeley.com/documents/uuid75d7b89b-4f2c-4f43-bc70-4a30e240c921 , mendeley formattedCitation (Erasmus, 2012), plainTextFormattedCitation (Erasmus, 2012), previouslyFormattedCitation (Erasmus, 2012) , properties , schema https//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Erasmus, 2012) argues that, the of concept of military leadership for new wars is a has not yet been fully researched. For the purpose of this paper military leadership will be examined through the scope of two definitions. First as An art, a creative activity based on character, ability, and mental power J. Keller (pg 1, 2014). The action of a surgeons decision making during an operation, or that of a bus driver commuting passengers, for its potential impact on society could be seen as devastating, if such a failure on their part is due to incompetence. However, military failure often has far more serious consequences (J. Keller, 2014). In the South African Air force, a pilot flying a Hercules C130 troop carrier can cause the death of hundreds of paratroopers if he/she makes a mistake, while a decision of a general in the field of battle can cause the death of tens of thousands of people. Given that the actions and decisions of military commanders have such far reaching consequences one would expect to find extensive research on the topic of military leadership. Second, activities intended to influence the behaviour of others in order to carry out appointed tasks in an efficient manner with the available resources ADDIN CSL_CITATION citationItems id ITEM-1, itemData DOI 10.1163/ej.9789004154407.i-395, ISBN 9789004154407, author dropping-particle , family Baarda, given Th A., non-dropping-particle van, parse-names false, suffix , dropping-particle , family Verweij, given D. E M, non-dropping-particle , parse-names false, suffix , container-title Military Ethics The Dutch Approach – A Practical Guide, id ITEM-1, issued date-parts 2006 , page 1-24, title Military Ethics Its nature And pedagogy, type chapter , uris http//www.mendeley.com/documents/uuid322719c8-cc35-49f8-bd76-809b26f7179d , mendeley formattedCitation (van Baarda Verweij, 2006), plainTextFormattedCitation (van Baarda Verweij, 2006), previouslyFormattedCitation (van Baarda Verweij, 2006) , properties , schema https//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (van Baarda Verweij, 2006). Three major words come to the fore, when one look at the heart of this definition. First, behaviour needs to be influenced, that is done by the leader. Second, others are influenced meaning they are the led. In addition tasks are carried out effectively , meaning that there is a specific aim to achieving result , and therefore these results are the critical factor i.e. the objective ADDIN CSL_CITATION citationItems id ITEM-1, itemData DOI 10.1163/ej.9789004154407.i-395, ISBN 9789004154407, author dropping-particle , family Baarda, given Th A., non-dropping-particle van, parse-names false, suffix , dropping-particle , family Verweij, given D. E M, non-dropping-particle , parse-names false, suffix , container-title Military Ethics The Dutch Approach – A Practical Guide, id ITEM-1, issued date-parts 2006 , page 1-24, title Military Ethics Its nature And pedagogy, type chapter , uris http//www.mendeley.com/documents/uuid322719c8-cc35-49f8-bd76-809b26f7179d , mendeley formattedCitation (van Baarda Verweij, 2006), plainTextFormattedCitation (van Baarda Verweij, 2006), previouslyFormattedCitation (van Baarda Verweij, 2006) , properties , schema https//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (van Baarda Verweij, 2006). 2.3 THE CONCEPTUALISATION OF A LEADERSHIP MODEL AFRICA The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption dictatorship military coups rebellious leaders greediness misuse of power and incompetent, politically unstable leaders – in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies ADDIN CSL_CITATION citationItems id ITEM-1, itemData DOI 10.5787/40-1-986, ISBN 10228136, ISSN 1022-8136, abstract The result of this article is an alternative model for leadership character development in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). The SANDF reflects the racial and cultural diversity of South Africa as a nation. The need for a unifying leadership related mechanism, which will provide for the military milieu in which humane leadership development will flourish, is evident. This statement is based on the premise that no evidence was found that any previous efforts by the SANDF to instil a leadership philosophy or policy as a way of military life was successful. The model also addresses further shortcomings in the current SANDF leadership development model as the selection process of officer candidates needs improvement because political guidance and participation in the development of military leaders are absent. Officer formative training consequently reflects emaciated attention to the development of the character side of leaders, and the SANDF has no military leadership institution to ensure that its leadership development policies and practices are based on sound academic research., author dropping-particle , family Erasmus, given Willem D, non-dropping-particle , parse-names false, suffix , container-title Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, id ITEM-1, issue 1, issued date-parts 2012 , page 95-116, title Military Leadership Development a Model for the Sa National Defence Force, type article-journal, volume 40 , uris http//www.mendeley.com/documents/uuid75d7b89b-4f2c-4f43-bc70-4a30e240c921 , mendeley formattedCitation (Erasmus, 2012), plainTextFormattedCitation (Erasmus, 2012), previouslyFormattedCitation (Erasmus, 2012) , properties , schema https//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Erasmus, 2012). Therefore scholars of African leadership endorse all efforts that suggest a shift from western influences, ADDIN CSL_CITATION citationItems id ITEM-1, itemData DOI 10.18820/9781920689964, ISBN 9781920689964, author dropping-particle , family t Wout, given Carien, non-dropping-particle van, parse-names false, suffix , dropping-particle , family Dyk, given Gideon, non-dropping-particle van, parse-names false, suffix , editor dropping-particle , family Dyk, given Gideon, non-dropping-particle Van, parse-names false, suffix , id ITEM-1, issued date-parts 2016, 3, 17 , number-of-pages 216, publisher Sun Media, title Military Psychology for Africa, type book , uris http//www.mendeley.com/documents/uuid37469018-4804-4e3f-9d40-0589c22ea2f4 , mendeley formattedCitation (van u2019t Wout van Dyk, 2016), manualFormatting (van Dyk, 2016), plainTextFormattedCitation (van u2019t Wout van Dyk, 2016), previouslyFormattedCitation (van u2019t Wout van Dyk, 2016) , properties , schema https//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (van Dyk, 2016) argues that efforts must be taken to create valid and reliable sources of authentic African leadership, as Western ideology many scholars attribute to be the root cause of African problems. However many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. Given the above argument it seem that the concept of leadership is ambiguous, abstract, mysterious it follows therefore that it presents the opportunity to explore and generate hypotheses and solutions that are authentic and within an African context ADDIN CSL_CITATION citationItems id ITEM-1, itemData DOI 10.18820/9781920689964, ISBN 9781920689964, author dropping-particle , family t Wout, given Carien, non-dropping-particle van, parse-names false, suffix , dropping-particle , family Dyk, given Gideon, non-dropping-particle van, parse-names false, suffix , editor dropping-particle , family Dyk, given Gideon, non-dropping-particle Van, parse-names false, suffix , id ITEM-1, issued date-parts 2016, 3, 17 , number-of-pages 216, publisher Sun Media, title Military Psychology for Africa, type book , uris http//www.mendeley.com/documents/uuid37469018-4804-4e3f-9d40-0589c22ea2f4 , mendeley formattedCitation (van u2019t Wout van Dyk, 2016), manualFormatting (van Dyk, 2016), plainTextFormattedCitation (van u2019t Wout van Dyk, 2016), previouslyFormattedCitation (van u2019t Wout van Dyk, 2016) , properties , schema https//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (van Dyk, 2016). Subsequently, this paper highlights the five theories of leadership, namely traditional leadership, ethical leadership and within the African context, as it illustrate the abundant potential of African leadership in the armed forces and the relevance of such theories to bridge the gap within the security sphere ADDIN CSL_CITATION citationItems id ITEM-1, itemData author dropping-particle , family Mphofu, given RA, non-dropping-particle , parse-names false, suffix , dropping-particle , family Africa, given G van Dyk – Military Psychology for, non-dropping-particle , parse-names false, suffix , dropping-particle , family 2016, given undefined, non-dropping-particle , parse-names false, suffix , container-title books.google.com, id ITEM-1, issued date-parts 0 , title miliTary leadership proCess approaCh for afriCa, type article-journal , uris http//www.mendeley.com/documents/uuid21233946-4b0f-39d9-a61e-a93412c6e06f , mendeley formattedCitation (Mphofu, Africa, 2016, n.d.), manualFormatting (Mphofu, Africa, van Dyk, 2016), plainTextFormattedCitation (Mphofu, Africa, 2016, n.d.), previouslyFormattedCitation (Mphofu, Africa, 2016, n.d.) , properties , schema https//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Mphofu, Africa, van Dyk, 2016). Consequently, the genesis of this paper in creating a leadership model for Africa and their armed forces starts a discussion on super-leadership, thereafter looking at the abovementioned leadership theories, in fulfilment of a conceptualised model for Africa. TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP Ngambi (2002) compares traditional leadership to an African village. Based on South Africas history the uniqueness as well as the diversity, leaders needs hearts skills to bond with the local population. A typical African village would consist of a Chief as leader with the folk as the followers. Rituals and dances are a manner to build cohesion and strengthen the bond between those members. This type of leadership encourages empathic listening and builds character. Furthermore, this type of leadership encourages dialogue within the community which in return builds trust and often those who follow became very fond of their leader. This can set an example to the other leaders worldwide which employs a dynamic and formal environment to conduct business. People behave differently, and a leader should recognise that. Researchers are focussing on emotions within the workplace. Goleman (1995) states a person can be hired due to a high intelligence quotient (IQ) but a persons emotional intelligence would eventually sustain ones career. He further affirms in his personality and brain research that people with emotional skills thrive in life. He explains emotional intelligence as the way to relate to other people. Emotional leaders have trademark qualities like self-awareness, motivation and social skills. These abilities enable them to control themselves and prevent impulse. Social skills are imperative in a leader and assist him to persuade people into a specific direction. The role of emotions in leadership decision making Leadership can be strenuous and most often peoples lives depended on a level headed and decision maker. The importance of decision making in either combat situation, natural disaster or even a sport match needed a person which are relatively calm and stable under the pressure. In the work place it can be meeting a deadline which is crucial to the organisation. Sayegh, Anthony and Perrewe (2004) suggested that emotions duly influence decision making. An emotion not only leads to good decision making but are an imperative component in the process. Experience obtained through training and similar events leads to the leader making a rational decision. Sayegh et al (2004) in their studies conclude that leaders rely on their emotional memory to decide on a certain outcome. Our past mistakes and past experiences affect our emotional memory which leads to a gut feeling. Split second decisions emanate from memories stored in the subconscious mind and without recalling the precise event, the emotions stored on that precise event will be evoked by means of emotional memory which will ultimately guide the final decision. Compassion, links with emotions in the sense that a compassioned leader grasps the suffering of others and in return implements initiatives to eliminate those suffering. Schuller (2005) identified such a leader as the late Nelson Mandela, who leaded his followers with compassion and trust. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP Leadership is an apparatus of carrying out standards of society, hence a commander who leads should act in accordance with the moral codes and laws which society dictates (Robinson, 2007 as cited in Van Dyk, 2016 363). Commanders are expected to be the anchors of the code of conduct and ethical practices. Ethical obligations are bestowed unto military leaders and their armed forces for various reasons. Ethics has become the new end state to leadership in armed forces due to reasons suggested by (Heinecken, 2013 cited in Van Dyk, 2016363) which are Maintaining discipline, to ultimately separate military professionals from murder, and to avoid being crucified by the society the military serves. Following adoption of the rules of war. Protecting the territorial integrity of a sovereign state. Protecting non-combatants, their property and religious or cultural monuments. Engaging in war as the last resort, especially if the state indicates threat of territorial integrity. Mandela as an ethical leader employed a liberation ethics, not a liberation theology in restructuring South Africa. Mandela was more intent in establishing a democracy where all people were treated equal under the law than he was in demonstrating Christian theology that rejects oppression (McMahon, 2004119). Each of the profiled leaders operated within a social context. This social context can be classified along a range as high to low as it relates to cultural analysis. Edward hall (1976 cited in Mcmahon, 2004120) explored this conceptualization of culture as high context requires the profiled leader to relate to others in a warm, friendly manner of experimental trust. A person has to feel comfortable with the other person before she or he will submit to a commitment. Ethical leadership of the moral person relates to the individuals moral character as well as the moral nature of the individuals own decision making and behaviour, integrity , trustworthiness, responsibility are the main moral traits of ethical leaders. Ethical leaders make decisions that are consistent, coherent and constant and treat followers justly and fairly (Jurkiewicz and Giacalone, 2017104). In the case of a bad leader or a politician without leadership qualities, the public, society and entire country are at the receiving end of poor leadership. The physical injuries incurred by the society are the mismanagement of state resources and abuse of power. This trait in leadership is experienced in different parts of the world, particularly in the African continent, where leaders find themselves as heads of state, with no bit of leadership qualities. Any politician or government who are officials and who fail to deliver are simply fake leaders because of a lack of leadership qualities. Good leaders are not born rather, if you have this desire and will of power, you can become an effective leader. A leader without leadership qualities is dangerous (Udeze 2009279-278). Raising consciousness is crucial for citizens to realise that the way things are is not how they should be, and that the way political leaders are leading their nation requires urgent improvement. Freire (1999) cited in Mayanja (2013) suggests that liberation necessitates raising political consciousness of the oppressed to become aware of the context in which they live and its impact on their lives. The leadership crisis is a latent conflict where some citizens are unaware of power imbalances and injustices that affect their lives. Thus, Curle (19909-10) cited in Mayanja (2013) proposes three forces to establish and preserve a constructive order, namely the active force that fosters development in terms of purposeful growth and change the passive force of peacemaking, which builds and restores a state of harmony and the neutralising force of education as a source of knowledge and attitude that enhances development and peace. Africa has religious and cultural ethical elders, who must be instrumental in educating citizens and speaking truth to political leaders (Curle 199049) cited in Mayanja (2013). Curle (199054) cited in Mayanja(2013) observes If leaders know that we are aware of something of which according to our social or religious principles we should disapprove, yet say nothing, they may suspect both our courage and our integrity. Volkan (2001) cited in Mayanja (2013) underscores the impact of trans generational trauma whereby a traumatised generation of society passes on the trauma to future generations through stories and behaviours. Parents and teachers need to heal and to learn positive parenting skills that empower and teach children life-giving approaches to leadership and power. Children learn to be leaders, peacemakers or aggressors from home. However, while childhood experiences are crucial, an adult politician is responsible for fostering his or her personal change. For example, Nelson Mandela witnessed various forms of violence and abuses, but strove for personal change that enabled him to work with different races and classes of people to end apartheid in South Africa. The ethics of leadership has to be examined along a variety of dimensions that cannot be understood separately. These dimensions are as follows 1. The ethics of a leader as a person, which includes things like self-knowledge, discipline, and intentions. 2. The ethics of the leader/follower relationship (i.e., how they treat each other). 3. The ethics of the process of leadership (i.e., command and control). 4. The ethics of what the leader does or does not do. These dimensions give us a picture of the ethics of what a leader does and how he or she does it. But even after an interdependent examination of these dimensions, the picture is not complete. We then have to take one more step and look at all of these interdependent dimensions in larger contexts. For example, the ethics of organizational leadership would have to be examined in the context of the community. Ethical leadership suggests that leadership possess strong personal character. Given the massive challenge that confronts the African in post-colonial Africa ethical leaders are needed to bring their intellectual moral skills to bear in the resolution of these issues in ways that maintains the values and unity of the African people. By this means, leadership decisions will be driven by the mission to achieve the interest of the country and not the self-centred interest of the leader. These leaders acquire an obsession to do the right. With such a positive desire to do the right, and will strive to find ways in which it will focus the attention of its followers on national values and interest and introduce these interests and values firmly into the structure of public life in ways that will guide the daily interactions of all, including leadership itself. African ethical leaders will have the courage to fight corruption and any other non-productive means of operation simply because such means waste both present and future opportunities. This character of ethical leadership will enable African leadership to be positive in their operations. It will make African leadership aware of both the internal and external needs of their followers and enable them to make use of all resources, not supporter resources, available within their nations in achieving both the short-term and long-term goals of their nations. This will also empower African leadership to analyse situations and design a course of action that draws on the strength of all followers. Through this means, all followers may feel ownership of the process and thus perform their best with the objective of achieving corporate interests. Additionally, ethical leadership has high value for the diverse interests that exist within their group. By this means, leadership in Africa will strive to balance the various interests (tribal, ethnic, or partisan) within the group with the objective of making the group exist and achieve its task as a unit. Such leadership will communicate respect for the various interests by avoiding activities that have the potential of harming their human rights or identity. Furthermore, ethical leadership suggests that leaders model the values of the group they lead. By embodying the national values of ones country in their attitudes and actions, African ethical leadership expresses some concern for the ethical culture of the country in a manner that will influence the thoughts and behaviour of their followers. The underlining idea is that African ethical leaders have the moral right to hold their followers accountable for acting in ways that contradict national values. Moreover, ethical leadership in Africa will create a leadership atmosphere within which transparency and a critique of all actions, including that of leadership, become major features. Such a leadership environment will serve as a check and balance for African leadership. Besides, it will encourage the free sharing of ideas and productive exchanges that target total growth of the country (Dei, Bonsu and Dowuona, 2016 97). 2.4 Super-leadership Super Leadership has contested definitions, However the best description of super-leadership is contained within an African proverb which according to (Manz Sims, 2001) cited in (Van Dyk, 2016) states that give a man a fish and you feed him for a day, but teach him to fish and you feed him for a lifetime (Van Dyk, 2016, p.351). Supper Leadership according to Van Dyk (2016) can be the most effective type of leadership in dealing with new wars, which require a decentralised type of leadership as opposed to the rigid conventional autocratic leadership( Van Dyk, 2016, p.352). 2.4.1 In order to stimulate super leadership in subordinates within subordinates Van Dyk (2016) proposes seven steps to achieving this aim which are as follows a. Become a Self leader. The leader should inspire his subordinates to make autonomous and rational decisions in the absence of the leader during unforeseen and difficult situations. Therefore the leader inspires the subordinates through leading by example. b. Model Self Leader. The leader encourages the subordinates to have self-confidence, responsible behaviour and positive leadership attributes. As a result the subordinates should be able to make legal and rational decisions in difficult situations. c. Encourage Self- Set Goals. The leader encourages subordinates to have a sense of goal ownership, buddy correcting culture, common group identity based on high self-esteem, and a high level of individual competence within a group. d. Create a Positive Thought Pattern. Subordinates are encouraged to use techniques such as self-talk, in order to evoke and cultivate a culture of positive thinking. The habit of positive thinking can assist the soldier in dealing with difficult combat situations. e. Develop Self Leadership. The leader develops self-leadership behaviour, through rewarding good behaviour and condemning bad behavioural habits. Moreover the objective is to instil integrity and accountability among the subordinates. f. Promote Self Leadership. The promotion of unity in thought and behaviour is vital for group cohesion, especially in highly specialised teams such as divers, special-forces and paratroopers. The team should display common professional values, in order to be efficient and effective. g. Facilitate Self Leadership Culture. Super leadership has not been the most popular type of leadership in the military, because of the fear that it would encourage a loose command system. However, super leadership develops thinking soldiers unlike the strong man leadership which encourages soldiers to act automatically like machines which cannot think. Consequently super-leadership can be viewed as a shift away from an authoritarian leadership style to one where subordinates have the support of the commander to make decisions, especially within situations which make require an immediate response. This is truer where it is already applied in practise e.g. small team tactics used specialised forces, RECCES, Spesnaz. These armed force divisions thus 16. CONCLUSION In summing up, Reference Caforio, G. (1998). The Sociology of the Military. Cheltenham, UK Edward Elgar. Crowley S.K., L.L. Wilkinson and S.D. Youngstedt . (2015). 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Retrieved from HYPERLINK http//www.dod.mil.za www.dod.mil.za (2017). Thomas, P.J. Rosenfeld, P. (1998). Equal opportunities as a factor influencing motivation of armed forces. Journal of Military Psychology, 10, p64-65. Wakin, M.M. (1979). War, Morality and the Military Profession. Colorado, USA Westview Press. Werner J.M. R.L. DeSimone. (2009). Human Resource Development- Career Development. South- Western Cengage Mason, OH. LECTURER LT COL (Prof) G.A.J. VAN DYK PAGE MERGEFORMAT ii PAGE MERGEFORMAT 6 Y, dXiJ(x(I_TS1EZBmU/xYy5g/GMGeD3Vqq8K)fw9
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L./bCorporate/bAuthor/bAuthorbTitleThe psychology of the recession on the workplace/bTitlebYear2013/bYearbCityNew York/bCitybPublisher Edward Elgar Publishing/bPublisherbRefOrder2/bRefOrder/bSourcebSourcebTagBot95/bTagbSourceTypeJournalArticle/bSourceTypebGuidDDF68C9B-CDC8-4400-91BF-80A86FCAAB3B/bGuidbAuthorbAuthorbCorporateBotman, C, L. Hamilton, V, L. Hoffman, W, S. amp Mavaddat/bCorporate/bAuthor/bAuthorbTitleRace, gender and response to stress Autoworkers vulnerability to long-term unemployment. /bTitlebYear1995/bYearbJournalNameAmerican Journal of Community Psychology/bJournalNamebPages23,813-842/bPagesbRefOrder3/bRefOrder/bSourcebSourcebTagCha04/bTagbSourceTypeJournalArticle/bSourceTypebGuid225895A6-32A2-4518-9E22-0C88CFB19DD3/bGuidbAuthorbAuthorbCorporateCharles, K, K, amp Stephens, M. (2004). . Journal of , /bCorporate/bAuthor/bAuthorbTitleJob displacement, disability, and divorce/bTitlebJournalNameLabor Economics/bJournalNamebYear2004/bYearbPages22, 489 522/bPagesbRefOrder4/bRefOrder/bSourcebSourcebTagGor78/bTagbSourceTypeJournalArticle/bSourceTypebGuidBBFC7833-AECC-4673-97B2-75C09ED2DE74/bGuidbAuthorbAuthorbNameListbPersonbLastGore/bLastbFirstS./bFirstbMiddle(1978). t. , 38./bMiddle/bPerson/bNameList/bAuthor/bAuthorbTitleThe effect of social support in moderating the health consequences of unemployment/bTitlebJournalNameJournal of Health and Social Behavior /bJournalNamebYear1978/bYearbPages38/bPagesbRefOrder5/bRefOrder/bSourcebSourcebTagJoh82/bTagbSourceTypeReport/bSourceTypebGuidA39E6A4E-1638-45F6-9496-C0A1034151F2/bGuidbTitle Employment and Unemployment,/bTitlebYear1982/bYearbAuthorbAuthorbNameListbPersonbLastJohoda/bLastbFirstM/bFirst/bPerson/bNameList/bAuthor/bAuthorbPublisher Cambridge. 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