Unlike Piaget’s view that children’s development must necessarily come first their learning, Lev Vygotsky argue that social learning comes before development. Vygotsky’s theories stressed the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition, as he placed more emphasis
• on culture affecting cognitive development, he believed that cognitive development varies across cultures. In contrast Piaget states that cognitive development is mostly universal across cultures;
• on social factor contributing cognitive development, in other words, the environment in which children grow up will influence how they think and what they think about;
• on the role of language in cognitive development, as cognitive development results from an internalization of language;
• adults are an important source of cognitive development, as adults pass on their culture’s tools of intellectual adaptation that children internalize.
Sigmund Freud developed a topographical model of the mind; he used the analogy of an iceberg to describe the three levels of the mind. On the surface of iceberg is consciousness, which consists of those thoughts that are focused of our attention now. The preconscious consists of all which can be retrieved from memory. The third level is the unconscious, primitive impulse and wishes, as the real cause of most behaviour. He used the similarity of iceberg, because the most important part of the mind is the part you cannot see. So a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behaviour to a greater degree than people suspect. And the main task of psychoanalyse is to make the unconscious conscious.
According to S. Freud theory of Psychosexual Development and the Oedipus complex, children are born with a libido. There are a number of stages of childhood, during which the child seeks pleasure from a different object – a particular body part. Freud outlined these stages as an oral and anal, when Ego develops, and a phallic, latency and genital, when the Superego develops. The mind is having three aspects, such as: the Id, the conscious mind, basic needs and feelings, the pleasure principles; Ego and Superego, the unconscious mind, need to be well balanced to have a good mental health. Superego is a moral part of mind, and Ego is the reality principle. As an example, when a child hurt another child. So the aggressor can tell a lie and deny it or start to cry, because they know what they have done wrong.
Sigmund Freud believed, that each stage of child’s development directly related to a specific needs and requirements. He suggested that if the child doesn’t successfully complete the stage, they rather develop a fixation, and fixation will influence to adult’s personality and behaviour later.


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