UNIVERSITY OF THE FREE STATE EDUB1613 SCHOOL OF EDUCATION STUDIES FINAL SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT CRITICAL ESSAY DUE DATE 30 MAY 2018 MARKS 100 This assignment contributes 30 towards your module mark R.R. Van Wyk 2017378338 Contents TOC o 1-3 h z u HYPERLINK l _Toc514265092 Glossary Key PAGEREF _Toc514265092 h 2 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265093 Guidelines for structuring essay PAGEREF _Toc514265093 h 3 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265094 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc514265094 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265095 My Biography PAGEREF _Toc514265095 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265096 Identity and Multiple Identities PAGEREF _Toc514265096 h 5 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265097 Social Identity PAGEREF _Toc514265097 h 5 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265098 Multiple Identities PAGEREF _Toc514265098 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265099 Intersectionality of Identities and Multiple Identities PAGEREF _Toc514265099 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265100 Cycle of Socialisation PAGEREF _Toc514265100 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265101 Being Aware of Societal Inequalities PAGEREF _Toc514265101 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265102 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc514265102 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265103 Glossary PAGEREF _Toc514265103 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265104 Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc514265104 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc514265105 ASSESSMENT RUBRIC PAGEREF _Toc514265105 h 11 Glossary Key Words written in Italics Guidelines for structuring essayChecklistConstruct a title that reflects the content of your essay.Make use of headings and subheadings to structure a coherent and cohesive essay. Number your headings and sub-headings and provide a table of contents (pages should be numbered).Your essay should have an introduction in which you provide a brief background and a road map of what to expect from your essay or the flow of your essay. The body of your essay should unpack (with the help of sub-headings) the various themes covered in this module with specific focus on the followingGive a very brief biography of yourself, e.g. place of birth, family history, schooling, history ,etc.Unpack the concept of social identity and multiple identities and explain the intersectionality of identities/multiple identities.Provide a brief discussion of the cycle of socialisation as espoused by Bobby Harro.Apply the cycle of socialisation to your personal lived experience, by referring to the different levels of socialisation. Include the following in your discussion making specific reference to the messages you have received (from parents, family, friends, teachers etc.) that influenced your socialisation with regards to your own social identities (multiple identities) such as gender, racial, sexuality, ability, nationality and religious identitiesindicating how your social identities position you in society, i.e. those identities that are valued by society and give access to social power or privilege and those that do notconsidering the intersectionality of your personal identities/multiple identities.Identify and discuss a critical inciden(t)(ces)/moment(s) in which you became aware of the existing societal inequalities/started question what you and society have often taken for granted as the norm.The conclusion to your essay should outline some of your personal goals towards your journey of becoming an agent of change in the fight against the many kinds of oppression. Draw on the messages that you have received but which you would like to question.Make use of in-text referencing (consult the reference guide on Bb) and include a list of references at the end of your essay. Please note the reference list does not count as part of your essay word count.Essay formatFont size 12Font Times New Roman, Calibri or ArialSpacing 1.5 Justify textLanguage English (UK)Have your final submission language edited.Self-assess your essay by highlighting applicable aspects in the assessment rubric. Complete the checklist. Attach the completed rubric and the ticked checklist to your essay.Include a word count of your essay the reference list must be excluded.You are advised to consult the Write Site for assistance with your essayIntroduction As we have started our journey towards becoming teachers, I believe it is of vital importance to expand our understanding of the world, to adapt our perceptions of reality and to become active citizens in our society. Being an active citizen encourages one to participate in community, to contribute positively and to be an agent of change. I believe that it is the purpose of EDUB1613 to allow us to go beyond merely learning in the classroom and to become actively involved in our societies, communities, and one day, our schools. I regard EDUB as a challenging module, not academically challenging, but rather challenging in the sense of my believes, values and perceptions. By taking into consideration our own individual identities and where we come from, one is able to see the importance of or social and multiple identities, as well as the intersectionality thereof. Furthermore, we are able to see how the cycle of socialisation has experienced in or own lives as well as influenced our position in society. The cycle of socialisation, combined with our social and multiple identities, have made us aware of social inequalities and enabled us to be agents of change and active citizens. My Biography On 4 February 1999, I, Rochelle Roos van Wyk, was born in Westville Hospital, Durban. The screaming pink bundle of flesh I was back then, would have never guessed the journey I had lying ahead of me. I lived a peaceful life for 4 years, until an even louder and pinker bundle of flesh came into the world my little sister. My family then existed out of me and my sister, my mom and dad, as well as my half brother and sister. We lived in Pietermaritzburg for most of my life and I attended an Afrikaans primary school, Gert Maritz, and an English high school. The transition from Afrikaans to English was one of the biggest hurdles I had to overcome in high school. I immensely enjoyed high school and still believe it was the place where I had grown the most. It was also here that I became aware of the diverse group of people we have in our country, their cultures, religions and values and believes. During this time I continuously challenged my own believes, values and perceptions of society. I believe that it was due to my high school, and my upbringing, that I have always been an open minded individual always aware of injustices and oppressive behaviors. It was also then when I discovered who I am my own social identity and my multiple identities. Identity and Multiple Identities Social Identity Social identity relates to the way we identify ourselves according to that which we have in common with others. Some identities are stigmatized and some social identities are multiple. Together, the different roles a person plays helps them understand their overall identity. (Howstuffworks.com contributors N/S) As a result, the social identity theory was developed as an integrative theory, that aimed to connect cognitive processes and behavioral motivation. British social psychologist, Henri Tajfel, and his student, John Turner, developed this social identity theory in the 1970s. The key ideas of social identity theory are the following (Ellemers 2017) Cognitive Processes This process involves the following the inclination of individuals to identify themselves as members of a group rather than individuals, individuals determining the relative value or social standing of the group, and their own sense of who they are is affected by the way they view other individuals in the group. Motivation – social behaviour is determined by the individual (interpersonal behaviour) as well as by the individuals group. As a result, individuals are inclined to seek out positively valued traits, attitudes, and behaviours that can be seen as acceptable by their group. Strategies For Status Improvement – The motivation to create a positive social identity lies at the core of intergroup conflict. Disadvantaged groups attempt to improve their groups position and social status, while members of advantaged groups aim to protect and preserve their privileged position. As evident above, our social identities are determined by the groups we join and their views of us. As a result, the factors of identity which are most evident in dominant groups are often ignored due to individuals perceiving them to not be important enough to mention when considering ones identity. (Tatum 2000) Certain forms of identity, such as race, have been discriminated against for many years. We therefore have to keep our privilege in mind as part of certain dominant groups. By discussing and bringing up these issues, minority groups gain traction as we encourage others to be more accepting and prevent discrimination because of identity. Multiple Identities Multiple identities, however, is the idea that we do not have one central identity, but multiple. (JRank N/S) Ones multiple identity can encompass different, and often contradictory, identities. Our multiple identities are generally the identities we associate with, or use to describe ourselves. A number of these identities, such as race or ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, age, and physical or mental ability, have an element of oppression associated with it. Each one of these identities presents us with a dominant (privileged by society) and a subordinate or targeted (disadvantaged by society) group. (Tatum 2000) Each individual is both a member of a dominant and targeted group, yet we focus on the targeted and the dominant identities are left unexamined. Since our multiple identities are socially constructed, the specific number and characteristics of our identities are constructed over time due to the social environments that shape us. Consequently, our multiple identities, both social and personal, are relevant and engaged in our social milieu. (JRank N/S) Each of our identites respond to our social environmnet and the context of the situation and, as a result, no one identity is more self-defining or true than any other. Intersectionality of Identities and Multiple Identities Intersectionality can be defined as incorporating the immense range of cultural, structural, and social contexts and roles through which we are shape and with which we identify. (Roysircar 2016) Our identity and its self-definition are complexly interlinked between individuals, families, groups, communities, organizations, and relationships. Intersectionality focuses on our similarities and differences experienced by individuals in the same social groups, with a focus on marginalized aspects of identity that result from structural inequalities and oppressions. (Roysircar 2016) An example of this would be the experiences of black homosexual professional male, in contrast to that of a white homosexual professional male. Here oppressions, such as being homosexual, and privileges, such as being professional males, are elements of their interlocking identities. This can therefore result in various systems of inequality that are transformed by the intersections of multiple identities. Thus, intersectionality is more than just incorporation, as it can be used to make groups conscious of inequalities by creating common injustices between these two previously unrelated groups as we see with the white and black male who would not have previously been associated, had it not been for oth of them being homosexual. One therefore has to be aware of ones own intersecting identities, as well as those with whom you interact. This is due to each of your multiple identities providing one with various levels of power, privilege, and oppressive experiences. One should however not be ashamed of your multiple identities, as it is this sense of multiple identities which is what adds colour and flavour to our lives, what makes us more dappled as individuals and which is something to cherish. (Rajab 2014) Economist and philosopher, Amartya Sen, has emphasised the following I can be at the same time an Asian, an Indian citizen, a US resident, a British academic and a Bengali with Bangladeshi ancestry. (Rajab 2014) It is however important to be aware of the roles each of these identities plays in your live, and the privlidges and injusties accompanied with each. To name these identities is an empowering process and leads to a better understanding of the positive and negative implications that the multiple identities have on the individuals ability to participate equally and free of prejudice and assumptions, at all levels of society. (Johnson 2017) Cycle of Socialisation The Cycle of Socialization helps us understand the way in which we are socialized to accept specific roles, how we are affected by oppression, and how we help maintain an oppressive system based upon power. (Adams 1997) The cycle of socilization is therefore that which creates, adpats and influences our identities. The cycle take place in seven stages The first circle in the cycle represents the circumstances we are born into and have no control over. When we are born, we are born without bias, assumptions, or questions and we are born either into a privileged or underprivileged situation. The first arrow illustrates the fact that we are immediately socialized. This socialization is generally on the grounds of our gender a pink blanket if you are a girl or a blue blanket if you are boy. We are therefore immediately associated with a certain group and will be judged if we do not act accordingly. This socialization takes place interpersonally and intrapersonally. The institutions and cultures that shape our view, beliefs and prejudices or acceptance, is represented by the second circle. The institutions include ones school and church, whereas the cultures include media and language. (HARRO 1982) The second arrow shows how our instilled of ideas, beliefs, and behaviours can reinforce the cycle of oppression. We therefore feel compelled to act a certain way, as it is perceived as the norm. The third circle signifies the continuous cycle of oppression that we, ourselves, now create based on our identities. The last arrow is the results of the cycle. We are forced to come to a conclusion with regards to the cycle. The conclusion may either affect us positively or negatively. At the centre of the cycle of socialization is fear, misunderstanding, insecurity, confusion. All the elements that may have been reason to keep us in the cycle for so long. In my own life, the cycle of socialisation has affected me in a number of ways. The beginning (circle no. 1) of the cycle resulted in me being born a white female in a middle-class home. Being white immediately categorised me in the dominant or agent group, as my racial group had never been historically oppressed or prone to harsh prejudices, and being of the middle-class gave me more opportunities than that of the lower-class. However, being a female place me in a target group, as women are perceived as the weaker sex. My first socialization (arrow no. 1) resulted in me often hearing phrases like girls dont sit like that or those toys are only for boys. I did not question these instructions, as they were coming from people more experienced in life, so I merely obeyed. As I was in completely Afrikaans and primarily white primary school, my institutional and cultural socialization (circle no. 2) resulted in me being affected by prejudices concerning black people, as I was made to believe that black people were different from us. Enforcements (arrow no. 2) therefore affected me as I was afraid (the core) to question these incentives due to a fear of seeming strange and being excluded. The Results (circle no. 3) of these socializations, was that when I came to a completely racially diverse high school, the prejudices comments affected my ability to make friends with individuals from different races. I had to experience, by my own incentive, that all races were equal and capable of being friends. I have therefore begun to take action (arrow no. 3) and not allow another individuals perceptions and prejudices to influence my own. I aim to be open minded and free to interpretation. Being Aware of Societal Inequalities 300 Identify and discuss a critical inciden(t)(ces)/moment(s) in which you became aware of the existing societal inequalities/started question what you and society have often taken for granted as the norm. Conclusion Words 250 The conclusion to your essay should outline some of your personal goals towards your journey of becoming an agent of change in the fight against the many kinds of oppression. Draw on the messages that you have received but which you would like to question. Total Words 2450 Glossary Stigmatized – regarded as worthy of disgrace or great disapproval. Integrative – combining two or more things to form an effective unit or system. Milieu – a persons social environment. Interpersonally refers to something involving, or occurring among several people. Intrapersonally involves oneself Bibliography Ellemers, Naomi. Social identity theory. Encyclopdia Britannica. March 16, 2017. https//www.britannica.com/topic/social-identity-theory (accessed May 16, 2018). Howstuffworks.com contributors. What is social identity N/S. https//people.howstuffworks.com/what-is-social-identity.htm (accessed May 16, 2018). Rajab, Kalim. An innocent conversation on dress conjures up deeper thoughts on identity and what it means to be a global citizen. . June 23, 2014. https//www.dailymaverick.co.za/opinionista/2014-06-23-on-multiple-identities/.WvwcbNR97s0 (accessed May 16, 2018). Roysircar, Gargi. Intersectionality of Social Identities. 6-18-16 Working Document, New England Antioch University New England , 2016. Tatum, Beverly Daniel. The Complexity of Identity. 2000. https//uucsj.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/The-Complexity-of-Identity.pdf (accessed May 16, 2018). ASSESSMENT RUBRIC CRITERIAIN PROGRESSPROFICIENTEXEMPLARY012TITLENo title title not aligned with the content of the essayThe title is not succinct title partially reflects the contentThe title is succinct and reflects the content of the essay0 – 1 2 – 3 4 – 5 INTRODUCTION No introduction provided or introduction does not follow given instructions. Essay has a poorly constructed introduction, does not give the reader a sufficient road map of what to expect or does not provide a sufficient background to the topic.The introduction provides a brief background and a road map of what to expect from the essay or the flow of the essay. 0 – 12 34 – 5BIOGRAPHY No brief biography is provided or the one provided says very little or nothing about who the student is.Vague and not very precise biography has been given. Does not give the reader a good picture of who the student is, or provides too many details.A brief, but well-constructed biography has been provided that gives the reader a good picture of who the student is.0 – 56 1415 – 20THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVESEssay provides no discussion on some of the theoretical foundations or a poorly constructed discussion.Not so clear an exposition of theoretical perspectives is provided. Missing a few key discussions on the concept of identity and multiple identities, and/or the cycle of socialisation is absent.Essay provides a critical discussion and explanation of some of the theoretical foundations such as the concept of identity and multiple identities and cycle of socialisation. 0 -89 – 1516 – 25DEVELOPMENT Essay is simplistic or too general, lacks critical reflection on personal lived experiences or experiences shared are not relevant to the theme of the essay. No concrete examples of messages received during own socialisation. No or little reflection on a critical incident and realisation of societal inequalities.Although lacking in some aspects, the essay demonstrates some level of critical reflection on their own, personal lived experiences, name their own multiple identities discuss personal socialisation and the various kinds of oppression and how these affect their life experiences. Some concrete examples of messages received are included. Student also discusses a critical incident/moment in which he/she became aware of existing societal inequalities. Student is able to reflect critically on his/her own, personal, lived experiences, name his/her own multiple identities, discuss personal socialisation, the various kinds of oppression, and how these affect their life experiences. Concrete examples of messages received are included. Student also discusses a critical incident/moment in which he/she became aware of existing societal inequalities. 0 – 34 – 78 – 10USE OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKNo terminology learned in the module was used, the use thereof is neglected, or has been misunderstood in how they were used in the essay.Little use of terms or concepts from the module throughout the essay. Made use of terms or concepts used in the module throughout the essay. For example, horizontal, vertical oppression, internalised oppression, comfort zone, learning edge, etc. 7 – 1011 – 15CONCLUSIONThe student has not provided a conclusion to the essay. The conclusion does not follow the guidelines provided. Conclusion not realistic. Personal goals that the student still needs to work on towards in their quest to becoming change agents need more critical thought. Some of the goals are impractical or vague. Some messages indicated to be questioned.Conclusion provides practical, personal goals that the student still needs to work on towards in their quest to becoming change agents. Various concrete examples are indicated as sources of question.0 – 34 67 – 8FORMAT The essay does not comply with any of the specified format guidelines. Some guidelines were followed.Student has complied with most format guidelines, but has neglected a few. The essay is typed in font size 12, 1.5 spacing, Times New Roman or any of the specified font styles. The student has justified essay text and used UK English0 – 34 – 77 – 8MECHANICS Little evidence of editing. Many errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling.Some errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling.Few to no errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling. Essay shows careful attention to editing and spellcheck.012SELF-ASSESSMENTNo rubric and checklist attached.Rubric and checklist attached but assessment is careless and not in line with the students essay.Rubric and checklist is attached and the self-assessment is aligned with the students essayTOTAL /100 PAGE MERGEFORMAT 9 90,bB bE [email protected]_Ig8(0U)o F.io5rD
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