There are a variety of different approach to the study of organisations and management, we can classify these into schools of thoughts, but we must not think that each school represent the same approach, rather they represent similar ways of thinking about ways the organisation operates and should be managed, the following are some of the mains schools
• The contingency theories of Woodward and Burns and Stalker.
• The human relations or behaviourist school, work of Mayo and Hawthorne studies, and the notion of participation in the organisation
• The system approach , incorporation the application of cybernetics to organisation
• The classic school, incorporation to scientific management theories of F W Taylor, the identification of management principles associated with Henri Fayol and Leonard Urwick, and the work of Max Weber on bureaucracy.
• Bureaucracy Theory
• Contemporary Theories
The above are most used and we will be looking on how they are applied in the work place on the following questions.
1.2: Select at least three theories you have researched. Give examples and analyse how you apply them to three different situations in your own practice. For example; When managing conflict, which style of management would you adopt? Would it be the same style of management as when managing a training session?
In addition, briefly explain why we adapt our management style accordingly. (Read 3.3 – you can answer 3.3 in section 1.2 if you wish to do so).
a. The Contingency Theory – these theory aims to help identify any particular approach to organisation and management, it takes view that there is no one best form of organisation that one needs to consider the impact of the situation in which the organisation finds itself, the form of organisation and management will be conditioned by the demands placed upon it.
In my work place we try not to use these theories but if situations come we don`t have other alternative but to use it, if just in case we have a problem with the internet and staff can`t be paid that month, we have to look at other ways we can be able to pay them, e.g. issue cheques to them, another one is when you follow all the policies and to try and calm down our service users and we can`t go out of it, then we have to use the seclusion room to try and keep them there as they would be destroying furniture and been dangers to other SU`s, another example is when we have staff off sick we have to get agency workers in to come and help us, I also use these theory when dealing with different staff and different situations in different environment, e. g solving conflicts with different people from different cultures.
b. Classical School of Management and organisation – these school of thoughts was the effectively the first coherent set of theoretical perspectives about organisation and management, these theory came up at the end of the last century as early writers sought to make sense of the newly emerging large scale forms of work organisation by concentrating firstly on purpose and structure, it approaches the centre on the understanding of the organisation and then examines its structures.
Like in my work place it would look at the objective of the organisation, and then move to more specific purpose and responsibilities, the breakdown of purpose into hierarchy of objectives would form the basis for both the structure of the organisation and of work itself.
It will also look at the operations which have to be undertaken within the organisation to meet the objectives.it will also look at how we section our work individually, sections, departments and so on, remember special care has to be taken over the span of control within management.
In my work place there is an effective and clear hierarchy which identifies authority, responsibilities and accountability and duties clearly specified for each and every one and for each post, these helps for my support workers to be able be responsible for what they are doing and to have experience or a special person for that job or task, e .g a Key Worker for that SU.
There is also a theory by Frederick W Taylor and he spoke about the Principles of Scientific Management, his view was that all work processes can be systematically analysed and broken down into a series of discrete tasks, and that one best way can be determined to undertake each task, the main elements of this view of management are as follows:
• The detailed and careful analysis of all processes and task within the organisation to identify each component part.
• The review of all routines and working methods using time and motion studies what we would call “work study” to find the best way to do the job
• The standardisation of all working methods, equipment and procedures, so that the precise way in which each task should be done be laid down and monitored
In my work place the above are in place and everyone knows what to do and all procedures are in place just in case you are not sure of how things are done, Rotas are in place for Support staff to know when they are working and when they are off or in training.
Lyndall Urwick wrote after Fayol about twenty years later, putting together his ideas and, to extent, synthesised them with the approach of scientific management, Lyndall also wrote ten principles of organisations and they as follows:
• The principle of objective – Every organisation and every part of the organisation must be an expression of the purpose of the undertaking concerned or it is meaningless and therefore redundant.
• Principle of authority – In every organised group of the supreme authority must lie somewhere, and there should be a clear line of authority from the supreme authority to every individual in every group (this is also known as the “scalar principle”).
• Principle of responsibility – The responsibility of the superior for the acts of his subordinates is absolute.
• Principle of correspondence – In every position, responsibility and authority should correspond.
• Principle of continuity – The organisation is a continuous process over time, and specific provision should be made for this continuity of process in every undertaking
• Principle of specialisation – The activities of every member of any organised group should be confined, as far as possible, to the performance of a single function.
• Principle of definition – The content of each position, including the duties involved, the authority and responsibility contemplated, and the relationships with other positions, should be clearly defined in writing and published to all concerned.
• Span of control – No person should supervise more than five, or at the six, direct subordinates whose work interlocks.
• Principle of co-ordinating – there of organising per se, as distinguished from the purpose of the undertaking, is to facilitate co-ordination – for example, to achieve unity of effort.
• Principle balance – it is essential that the various units of an undertaking should be kept in balance to the purpose of the organisation (a cryptic phrase, but, for example, in the health service there is constant criticism that the proportion of administrative staff to front line nursing staff is “out of balance”).
To these ten principles of Urwick’s let us add one of Fayol’s, as following
• Unity of command – each member of an organisation should have only one boss, with no conflicting lines of command.
Most of all the principle mentioned above by Lyndall is applied at my work place, and we try to do as much as we can to manager staff the way we would like to be managed.
c. Bureaucracy Theory – these theory was by a German sociologist called Max Weber, he turned his attention to the subject of organisations and postulated the concept of bureaucracy, which is keep with the classic school, Weber he described what seemed to him the prevailing kind of organisation, at that stage of social and economic development and to explain it`s growing importance, he also distinguished between kinds of organisation by diagnosing the source of authority in each case, he suggested a three-fold typology, which are as follows:
• Charismatic basis for authority – these refers to the special personal quality or power of an individual making him or her capable of influencing or inspiring others.
• Traditional basis for authority – the leader has the authority which by tradition attaches to the post of leader, as distinct from the authority being personal because of the individual`s “charisma”. The are no disciples everyone follows the leader because of the accepted power of the office, power is distributed by the leader and again derives from the power of the leader`s office.
• Rational – legal basis for authority – Based on the reason or logic, the means are specifically designed to serve the end goal with the organisation, “Legal” applies because authority is seen as “the rule” within the organisation, the rules being laid down by those allotted the right and duty to lay them down and accepted by staff precisely because that power is legitimate.
At my work place there is a clear chain of command where the team leaders have the authority to control the support workers and as a manager I have the author to control everything, if there are conflicts between team leaders and support workers they come to me to solve them.