The words and phrases below are translated by using ‘literal’ and ‘translation procedures’.
Literal Translation
1.ST – ?????????
TT – his mouth water
The phrase “?????????” in ST is literally translated as ” his mouth water”, meaning ‘arouse the appetite’. The translator exactly used the equivalent word in TT. Thus, the above phrase is literally translated.

2.ST – ?????????????????????
TT – the statuette of a princess
The word “?????????????????????” in ST is literally translated as “the statuette of a princess” in TT. Translator used the exact words in TT like “????????” as “princess” and “????????” as “statuette”. So, the above word is literally translated.

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3.ST – ????????????????
TT – top-knot
The word “????????????????” is literally translated as “top-knot” in TT, meaning “tuft of hair in the top of the head”. The translator used the nearest word that is close to TL. Thus, the above word is literal translated.

4.ST – ????????????
TT – every time he recalled
The above clause is literally translated. “??????” is translated as “recalled” and “??????” is translated as “every time”. Nothing is added nor reduced in translation. So it is literally translated.

5.ST – ?????????????
TT- kerosene oil lamp
The above phrase “?????????????” is literally translated as “kerosene oil lamp”. The word “??????” in the source text is defined as “kerosene oil” in target language definitely. Similarly, for the second word, “???????” in the source text is literally translated as “lamp” in the target language. Thus, the above phrase is literally translated.

6.ST- “??????????????”
TT- “gasping incoherently”
The phrase is literally translated as: “gasping incoherently”.
The phrase “??????”is translated in one word as “incoherently” and the phrase “????????” is translated in one word as “gasping” which indicated the literal translation. Here, nothing is added or reduced in translation.

7.ST – “???????????????”
TT- “The misery of desire unfulfilled”
The above phrase is literally translated. “?????????” is translated “desire unfulfilled” and “??????” is translated as “misery” which indicated the literal translation. Here, nothing is added or changed in translation.

Expansion
8.ST – ?????
TT – he recollected with a pang of sorrow
If literally translated, it will be as:
“he was grief-stricken”
The above clause “?????” (he was grief-stricken) is translated in “he recollected with a pang of sorrow” which indicates the procedure of “expansion”.

9.ST – ????????
TT – fore-noon meal of the pongyis
The word “????????” in ST is translated as “fore-noon meal of the pongyis” in TT which is translated by using the translation procedure if “expansion”.
By translating the original word as “fore-noon meal”, its translated meaning won’t be clearly understood without knowing the culture.
That’s the reason why the translator expanded its sourced text by adding the phrase “of the pongyis. So that the readers will totally understand how to call ‘the meal do pongyis have’.

Reduction
10.ST- ????????????????????
TT- smoking
The above phrase “????????????????????” in the source text is translated into “smoking” in the target text. The translator reduced the similar expanding meanings and words in the source text and clearly translated into one word in the target text.

Couplets
11.ST – ????????? ????????????? ??????????????
TT – he had boycotted all such refections as can only be had by purchased
If literally translated, it will be as:
“he had boycotted the snacks got only by purchase”
The above sentence is translated in the form of couplets; combining literal translation, and expansion.
It is obvious that “??????????????” is translated as “boycotted “, applying literal translation.
“????????? ?????????????” is translated into ” all such refections as can only be had by purchase”. Instead of translating as ” the snacks got only by purchase”, the translator expanded with some additional words in TT. That’s why expansion is used out of other procedures.

12.ST – ???????????????
TT – Ashay Kyaung boys
If literally translated, it will be as:
“Eastern schoolboys”
Although it is literally translated, the word doesn’t portray the original meaning. The above word is translated in the form of couplets, combining transference and shifts.
The first part “????????????” is translated as “Ashay Kyaung” which is the name of monetary and indicates the procedure of transference and the second part “???” is translated as “boys” which indicates the procedure of shifts because its grammar form changes from single in ST to plural “s” in TT.

13.ST – ????????????
TT – the Sabbath days (which were holidays)
The phrase “????????????” is literally translated into “the Sabbath days”. As “the Sabbath days” is the phrase concerned with culture in SL, the translator used the additional information “(which were holidays)” to be understood by the readers. So, procedure of Addition is applied in TT. Hence, the above phrase “????????????” is translated in the form of couplets; using literal translation and addition.

14.ST- “???????”
TT – “Sayardaw (Abbot)”
If literally translated, it will be as “the monk”.
As the “???????” is the phrase concerned with culture in SL, the translator used the additional information (Abbot) gave the meaning of the word to the reader. In this case, the translation procedure, addition is applied in TT. Hence the phrase “???????” is translated in the form of couplets: using naturalization and addition.

Naturalization
15.ST – ????????????
TT – Wundaukmin
If literally translated, it will be as “Town Governor”.
In the above word “????????????” in ST, the translator adapted the ST word first to the normal pronunciation than to the normal morphology of the TT “????????????” as “Wundaukmin” which indicates the translation procedure of naturalization. The translator addressed “Town Governor” as “????????????” as a name rather than its position.

16.ST – ?????????????????
TT – E wun may thu than eken thamayan
The above words are the religious prayers in Pali and there is no equivalent word to describe them in TT. Hence, the translator adapted SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal word-forms of TL. Naturalization is used translating in such circumstances because of cultural difference between SL and TL.

17.ST – ???????
TT – Sayagyi
In the word “???????”, the translator adapted the ST word first to the normal pronunciation than to the normal morphology of the TT “???????” as “sayagyi” in which naturalization is applied.

Shifts
18.ST – ???????????????
TT – Uncle Aung – You are a humbug
If literally translated, it will be as:
“Uncle Aung lies to me”
The clause “???????????????” in ST is translated as “humbug” in TT. The translator changed the grammar form from “?????” (verb) in ST to “humbug” (noun) in TT and also changed the whole sentence structure which can be considered as “Shifts”.

Functional Equivalent
19.ST – “????????????????????”
TT – “all the time sad and pinning”
The phrase is literally translated, it will be as:
“He is in despair and lost in his own train of thought”
The phrase “????????????????????” is translated as “all the time sad and pinning” which indicates the translation procedure of Functional equivalent. Here, there is no TL equivalent in SL technical word. That’s why functional equivalent is used as a procedure to translate in the nearest meaning.

20.ST – ??????????? ?????????????
TT – turning it this way and that
If it is literally translated, it will be as:
“turning it from left to right and from right to left back again and again”
The phrase “??????????? ?????????????” is translated as “turning it this way and that” which indicates the translation procedures of functional equivalent. Here, there is no TL equivalent in SL technical word. To translate in the nearest meaning, functional equivalent is used.

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