Cognitive Psychology
Presented To:
Mr. Kenneth Blake
Presented by:
Patricia Paul
27 November 2018
Assignment Question

Cognitive Psychology and it impact on Motivation
Motivation is defined as the desire and action towards goal-directed behavior. This is an important concept in psychology as well as in business, schools, and other areas. Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic.

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Intrinsic motivation is where a person is intrinsically motivated if the desire for change or personal and professional development comes from within the individual. The person may want to learn something because he or she is interested or want to enhance their capabilities. Another person may want to accomplish a goal or task because it is something he or she feels competent at and enjoys doing.

Extrinsic motivation on the other hand comes from outside the person. They are bribed to do something or they earn a prize or reward. Pay checks are extrinsic motivators, fear of punishment and coercion are also extrinsic motivators.

According to Robert Solso (2005), Cognitive psychology is the study of processes underlying mental events. In general, Cognitive psychology can thus be defined as that branch of psychology that is concerned with how people acquire, store, transform, use and communicate language. The cognitive processes requires attention, the process through which we focus on some stimulus; perception, the process through which we interpret sensory information; pattern recognition, the process through which we classify stimuli into known categories; and memory, the process through which information is stored for later retrieval.
Being aware of one’s cognitive state of being impacts what motivates them and how they go about accomplishing their desires to feel self-actualized.

Abraham Maslow was a humanistic psychologist who believed people were motivated by survival and other needs. The needs he identified were physiological, security, needs of belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. The physical needs are food, water, and sleep. Security or safety is shelter and safe environment. Belongingness and love refers to friends, family, and intimacy. Esteem is having respect, self-esteem and recognition of who you are. Self-actualization is achieving an individual’s full potential. He organized these needs into a triangle he called the hierarchy of needs. Maslow believed all people had an innate desire or drive to become self-actualized; however, people met their needs according to a particular order or hierarchy. The most important needs for life are those that are physically sustaining such as food, water, and shelter. Maslow stated that people had to fulfill these basic needs before other needs such as esteem and belonging could be met.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs shows how accomplishing as much as a basic aspect of existence motivates an individual to continue wanting more.

Douglas McGregor proposed “Theory X” and “Theory Y” to explain motivation in the workplace. His Theory X was that people avoid work because they don’t like it. People who meet the criteria for theory x are not ambitious, they want to do the minimum of work required, and they only complete tasks for job security. On the other hand, “Theory Y” refers to people who are creative and want responsibility. These people are usually ambitious and gain satisfaction from work.

McGregor believed that if the motives behind work were understood, managers could meet workers on their level and use the correct strategies to motivate each type. For example, if you are a theory x worker, then you won’t be motivated to try harder if the reward was a promotion. To you, a promotion would mean more responsibility and more work that you
didn’t want to do. Therefore, managers would need to use tactics such as performance reviews that you would need to score highly on to keep your job. As for theory Y where
persons are already intrinsically motivated, managers only need to reinforce that they appreciate their efforts, work and that they are an asset to the organization.
Studying cognitive psychology provides a vast array of knowledge that would allow an individual to have an understanding of themselves and others and the approach to be taken to maintain an environment that has rational thinking individuals. It also exposes you to the various stages of development, behaviorism, and coping mechanisms so as to monitor yourself and identify same within others around you. The knowledge gained is a control tool which in itself motivates you to be a better person who understands the world and the challenges in it. This aspect of psychology also allows for individuals to maintain a high interest in a valuable lifestyle versus one that is invaluable.
For anyone to understand and appreciate how valuable or invaluable cognitive psychology is, what is leant must be applied to our daily lives. This means that there must be observations, investigations, and experiments, based on the knowledge gained for one to adequately contribute to the study or for this aspect of psychology to be of any use to them.

The application of psychology boosts self-esteem and self-determination. It allows for you to look at life with a holistic and rational approach which in turn adds value to your being. Having control over a situation and its outcome because your mind is equipped with valuable approaches helps to maintain a positive lifestyle. On the other hand, if one is incapable of applying psychological approaches to better help them cope with the challenges of growth and development both personally and professionally as well as boost their level of motivation, in most cases these individuals become frustrated, stressed, or turn to psychoactive drugs. When this happens it posits that these individuals have an invaluable lifestyle. It is to be noted that, not only knowledge in psychology aids in promoting a certain lifestyle but a vast knowledge and adjustment to society also helps in this regard. But ultimately the choice is based on the individual’s resilience, a strong mental capacity,
self-worth and self-determination as it relates to the lifestyle he or she wants to live. Studying cognitive psychology is an asset for development but there are basic principles such as wrong and right discourse of behavior.

References, R. L., MacLin, M. K., ; MacLin, O. H. (2005). Cognitive psychology. Boston: Pearson/A and B.


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