The Human behavior is the internal coordinating replies to an internal and external stimulus 1. Human health is complete physical, mental and social well-being not merely the absence of disease 2, 3. Health care seeking behavior is defined as any action taken by someone to find an appropriate remedy after the child has a health problem 4.
Around 6.3 million children aged under five died worldwide, in which most of them could be prevented with simple and inexpensive interventions 5. Childhood illnesses are the main health problems globally predominantly in Asian and African subcontinents 6. Under-five children are the most vulnerable group of the population suffered from common childhood illness 5. The global under-5 mortality was 41 per 1000 live births 5 and 67 deaths per 1,000 live births in Ethiopia 7.
The child is a victim of nutrition, socioeconomic and health factors, which causes malnutrition 8. A high number of child deaths occur all over the world especially in san Saharan Africa is attributed to the delay of proper care seeking in modern health facilities 9, 10. Poverty and lack of education are the major factors associated with under-five mortality in Ethiopia. Moreover, Advice or treatment in a health facility was required for 31% of children with ARI, 35% of children with fever, and 44% of children with diarrhea 7.
The World Health Organization estimates that appropriate seeking of health care could reduce child mortality and morbidity by 20% 11. Health -seeking behaviors is a function of not only the accessibility of health facilities and other sources of healthcare but also inspiration and capacity of individuals to seek medical treatment 12.
Even though the common childhood illnesses are manageable successfully if timely recognized, facilitation of modern care seeking behavior remained a challenge today 13. A large number of children die without ever reaching a health facility and due to delays in seeking care 10. Therefore, appropriate care seeking behavior is an important parenting instrument in preventing the child from preventable morbidity and moralities 14.
To meet the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target one on under-five mortality by 2030 in reducing the number of under-5 deaths by 10 million between 2017 and 2030 6, a rapid improvement is needed to raise the community awareness in modern health-seeking behavior.
Although Ethiopia has improvement on universal access to standard management of common childhood illnesses, healthcare-seeking behaviors of caregivers for child illness has remained low. There are some studies on health-seeking behavior in our countries but there is no study conducted to identify modern health-seeking behavior and associated factors in the study area. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess modern health-seeking behaviors and associated factors among mothers having under five children in Shire town, Northwest Tigray, Ethiopia.

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