The effect of school leadership style on students’ academic achievements in government secondary school of Jhang.

By
Ammarah Hameed
Roll No.BJ656273
Submitted in a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the B.ED (1.5 year) program in Leadership and Management at Allama Iqbal Open University Jhang Campus.

FACULTY OF EDUCATION
ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD
Month and year(12font times new roman centeral)
Full name of researcher, year
APPENDIX C
Faculty of Education Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
APPROVAL FORM
The research project attached hereto, titled*__________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Proposed and submitted by ____________________Roll No._______________ in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.Ed. (1.5 year) (Leadership and management) is hereby accepted.

Supervisor: ________________________ (Signature)
Dr. Khalid Mehmood
Evaluator: ________________________ (Signature)
Name
Dated: ____________________________ (Day-Month-Year)
DECLARATION
I____________________________ Daughter/Son of __________________________ Roll No.__________________________ Registration # ______________________ A student of B.Ed. (1.5/2.5 year) programe (mention here area of specialization) at Allama Iqbal Open University do hereby solemnly declare that the research project entitled ______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________ submitted by me in partial fulfillment of B.Ed. (1.5/2.5 year) programe, is my original work, and has not been submitted or published earlier. I also solemnly declare that it shall not, in future, be submitted by me for obtaining any other degree from this or any other university or institution. I also understand that if evidence of plagiarism is found in my thesis/dissertation at any stage, even after the award of a degree, the work may be cancelled and the degree revoked.

___________________________________
Signature of Candidate
Date: ______________________________
(Day-Month-Year) ____________________
Name of Candidate
APPENDIX E
Research Project Submission Approval Form
(Dr. Khalid Mehmood)
Research Project entitled “the effect of school leadership style on academic achievement of students in Government secondary school of district Jhang”. Submitted by Ammarah Hameed Roll No.BJ656273 Registration No. 16-PJG-03704 Programe B.ED (1.5 year)Leadership and Management has been read by me and has been found to be satisfactory regarding its quality, content, language, format, citations, bibliographic style, and consistency, and thus fulfils the qualitative requirements of this study. It is ready for submission to Allama Iqbal Open University for evaluation.

____________________________
Name of Supervisor
Date: _____________________________ _______________________________
(Day-Month-Year) Signature of Supervisor
Acknowledgements
“Up and above everything all credit to ALMIGHTY ALLAH. The Beneficent, The most Merciful and Most Compassionate, Who created man and taught him manners and the source of entire knowledge and wisdom endowed to mankind and His Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him), who is forever a torch of guidance and knowledge of humanity as a whole”.

My sincere thanks are given to my thesis supervisor, Dr. Khalid Mehmood for his participation and guidance in completion of this research work. During the past 6 months I have learned from him and appreciated the opportunity he has provided me in pursuing the degree of leadership.

I also extended my thanks to all of my fellows who helped me in providing guidance and advices in completing research work.

Words are lacking to express my humble obligation to my parents and my families whose hands always rise in pray for my success and their moral support to make me able to understand my duties and need to reach higher knowledge for making my academic career with success and glory.

ABSTRACT:
Now a day’s educational institutions are facing problems of applying appropriate school leadership style in their administration to increase the students’ academic achievements, reported by the Educational Work Unit. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of school leadership style such as transformational and participative leadership style on student academic achievement. The study is supported by situational leadership theory. The study is of primary nature and collected with the help of questionnaire. The area of this study is the public sector educational institutes of Jhang. Due to time and financial resources study is delimited to secondary level. The questionnaire is completed by school heads and teachers in district jhang (approximately 150). A survey approach at Five point Likert scale with 15 items and random sampling technique is used for data collection. Multiple regression analysis is used as statistical technique for data analysis. Findings showed that transformational and participative leadership styles of school heads and teachers have significantly affecting students’ academic achievements. In conclusion, in order to increase students’ academic achievements, school heads should promote, practice, and improve these two leadership styles, namely transformational leadership and participative leadership styles on a regular basis.

Keywords: school leadership style, school head and teachers, students’ academic achievements
APPENDIX G
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
1.8 Research Methodology
1.8.1 Population
1.8.2 Sampling Technique
1.8.3 Sample
1.8.4 Research Instrument
1.8.5 Data Collection
1.8.6 Data Analysis
1.9 Operational Definition(s)
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1Theoretical Framework
2.2 Heading 1–
2.3 Heading 2—
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population
3.3 Sample& Sampling Technique
3.4 Instrumentation
3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
3.6 Data Collection
3.7 Data Analysis
4. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Descriptive Statistics
4.1.1 ABC01 Analysis of Responses
4.2 Inferential Statistics
4.2.1 XYZ01 Analysis of Data
5. SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary
5.2 Findings
5.3 Discussion 5.4 Conclusion
5.5 Recommendations
Bibliography
APPENDIX H
LIST OF TABLES
Table Name
Table 2.1 Studies on Students’ Academic Success
Table 3.1 Distribution of Individuals According to Their Admission Status
Table 4.1 Gender Wise Status of Admissions of Students
Table 4.2 Information About Professional Training of Individuals
APPENDIX I
LIST OF FIGURES
Figures
2.1 Decision-Making Model
2.2 Admission Decision Process
APPENDIX J
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendices
A: List of Government Schools in District
B: Academic and Professional Qualification of Various Demographic Subgroups
C: Questionnaire about Student Perception of Instruction
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Chapter objectives:
The objective of the current chapter is to provide an introductory overview of project. The chapter starts with introduction of school leadership style and its effect on students’ academic achievements and also give brief review of past research studies on school leadership style and students’ academic achievements. Next, it highlights the aims and objectives of current study with its significance. In the last part of the chapter provides details about structure of research project.

Background of the study:
Educational institutions are established for the purpose of teaching and learning. The main goal of establishing these institutions is to increase students’ academic achievements. It is significant that the relationship between teachers and learners are properly managed to enable effective teaching and learning practices that go on there ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Abstract. This study examined the Impact of Instructional Supervision on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nasarawa State with reference to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE). Five research questions were used to guide the study to a rational conclusion. Descriptive Survey method was adopted in which Instructional Supervision and Studentsu2019 Academic Performance Questionnaire (ISSAPQ) were used to obtain relevant data from 92 teachers in 37 selected Senior Secondary schools using the simple random sampling techniques. Pearson product moment correlational statistics (Pearson r) and t-test at 0.05 level of significance was used to analyse the data generated and answer the research questions. The study show that regular instructional supervision using robust supervision strategies like checking of studentsu2019 notebooks, classroom visitation/inspection by school administrators, checking teachersu2019 lesson plan/notes and inspection of teachers record keeping have significant correlation with teachersu2019 performance and academic achievement of students in Secondary Schools. Recommendations like proper alignment of government policies with educational needs of the society, provision of adequate and relevant instructional materials for teaching, regular in-service training for teachersu2019 capacity development, depoliticization of the free education programmes and proper evaluation of school administrative procedures and educational outcomes were adduced for remediation. Keywords: Students Academic Performance, Instructional Supervision, Secondary School”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dangara”, “given” : “Yunusa”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Education and Practice”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “10”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “160-168”, “title” : “The Impact of Instructional Supervision on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nasarawa State ,”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=06183dc3-32f0-44ab-ad7c-cf58c2a3868a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dangara, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dangara, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dangara, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dangara, 2015). Therefore, modifications in school management systems is clear analysis and physical expression of the school curriculum to visualize student academic achievements as it is the central outline for every educational institution. That’s why to empower academic authority action and cooperation from all parties is compulsory. According toADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/IJEM-05-2016-0113”, “ISSN” : “0951-354X”, “abstract” : “Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model on studentsu2019 academic achievement that is well grounded in the academic research in the domain. The paper aims to weave together the divergent research findings into a comprehensive model for use by all the stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach It is a literature review-based paper wherein research papers on the factors that influence the academic achievement of the students were studied. The empirical evidence from literature that fits the context of this study was analyzed and used to propose a workable model. Findings A framework to understand the role of factors affecting studentsu2019 academic achievement was proposed. It was found that school leadership and climate together affect the academic achievement of the students, but mediated by the involvement of the parents of the students. Research limitations/implications As this paper is a literature review, a framework on the determinants of academic achievements of the students has be…”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Singh”, “given” : “Sanjay Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Moza Tahnoon Al Nahyan”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Educational Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “843-851”, “title” : “Role of School Leadership and Climate in Student Achievement: The Mediating Role of Parental Involvement”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “31” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=07b48e35-928f-4eae-af02-c1c066f057e7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni, Singh, & Moza Tahnoon Al Nahyan, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni, Singh, & Moza Tahnoon Al Nahyan, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni, Singh, & Moza Tahnoon Al Nahyan, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni, Singh, ; Moza Tahnoon Al Nahyan, 2017) school heads have an indirect effect on students’ academic achievements. However, there is strong association between school environment and students’ academic achievements. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/09620210802351342”, “ISBN” : “0962021080235”, “ISSN” : “09620214”, “abstract” : “Following Edward Saidu2019s (2001) observations on traveling theories this paper considers the origins of inclusive education as a field of education research and policy that is in jeopardy of being undermined by its broadening popularity, institutional adoption and subsequent adaptations. Schools were not an invention for all and subsequently the struggle with demands for broadening participation is more profound than is widely acknowledged. The institutional separation of u2018regularu2019 and u2018specialu2019 schooling constructs pupils as cases for regular or special treatment and in doing so makes inclusion contingent upon satisfactory diagnosis of student defects and the deployment of resources that are more frequently structured for containment than for the building of school capacity to engage with difference. 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An inclusive education reform agenda”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=32efa878-6709-4270-94ee-652afb38b240” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Slee, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Slee, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Slee, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Slee, 2008). The school environment should include all the different parties such as school heads, the parents, and the students to increase students’ academic achievements ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.ijedudev.2011.07.002”, “ISBN” : “0738-0593”, “ISSN” : “07380593”, “abstract” : “This article presents a model for research on the effects of school organizational heath factors on primary school academic achievement in Trinidad and Tobago. The model can be applicable for evaluating schools in other developing countries. As proposed, the model hypothesizes relationships between external factors (exogenous variables), school-level factors (endogenous variables), and school outcomes (student achievement and positive school climate). The endogenous variables are sub-scales of school organizational health. They include principal leadership, psycho-social environment, school-home-community relationships, teacher characteristics, curriculum quality, and school culture. These subscales are partially influenced by the Organizational Health Inventory OHI (Hoy and Feldman, 1987) and by school health indices set forth by the World Health Organization (1996). It is hoped that this school organizational health model can provide a conceptual tool for formulating a more comprehensive measure of healthy schools. u00a9 2011 Elsevier Ltd.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ramdass”, “given” : “Mala”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lewis”, “given” : “Theodore”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Educational Development”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “482-492”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Ltd”, “title” : “Towards a model for research on the effects of school organizational health factors on primary school performance in Trinidad & Tobago”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “32” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=21253aa5-2d58-4f12-a499-d78eadbebcb0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ramdass & Lewis, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ramdass & Lewis, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ramdass & Lewis, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ramdass & Lewis, 2012).

Education has been found to play a major role in social, administrative, economic and cultural features of a countryADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www.ijern.com 2 ABSTRACT Effective schools have been said to have been run by principals that exhibited transformational leadership practices. School effectiveness can be measured by the contribution it has made to the improved academic and students’ discipline. This study investigated the relationship between secondary school principals’ leadership practice of modeling the way and students’ academic performance in secondary schools. Modeling the way practice was measured using Kouzes ; Posner’s Leadership Practices Inventory. Academic performance was measured using Kenya Certificate of secondary Education Examination. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership practice of modeling the way and academic performance. The results indicated positive but a weak correlation between the transformational leadership in ” modeling the way and students’ academic performance. 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It is found that the school principal has a direct effect on students’ behavioral outcomes. Efficiency of any school may be measured by the contribution it has made to the improved academic performance and students’ discipline. It is therefore important to establish how the school principals can perform their job effectively. In an attempt to achieve high academic performance and discipline, school principals exhibit various leadership behavior’sADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/09578230210440294”, “ISBN” : “0309056061066”, “ISSN” : “0957-8234”, “PMID” : “220459182”, “abstract” : “For decades educators have espoused the importance of the principal as the instructional leader of the school. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between principal leadership behaviors and teacher instructional practice descriptors. 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In the last era there has been given a more attention on school leadership styles and its effect on students’ performance. Leadership is important approach in teaching that influence student learning ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/0013161X08321501”, “ISBN” : “0013-161X”, “ISSN” : “0013161X”, “PMID” : “25246403”, “abstract” : “Purposes: This study aimed to improve our understanding of the nature, causes and consequence of school leader efficacy, including indirect influences on student learning. We asked about district contributions to school leader efficacy, whether leader self- and collective efficacy responded to the same or different district conditions and the effects of leader efficacy on conditions in the school and the learning of students. 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This emphasis has occurred within a global context where there has been an extraordinary focus on student outcomes, and increased school accountability, both at the school and teacher level. The success or failure of any organization depends heavily on the quality of its leaders. Effective leader is necessary for every organization successADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.04.008”, “ISBN” : “1048-9843”, “ISSN” : “10489843”, “PMID” : “25619064”, “abstract” : “Organizations are increasingly being described as complex adaptive systems (CAS). In this view, the behavior and structure of an organization emerges out of the interaction of a collection of organizational agents. Seemingly, there is no role for strategic leadership because the system self-organizes. We argue that strategic leaders play a crucial role in moving organizations to the “edge of chaos” and aid in organizational learning and adaptation by influencing the tags that produce the structure of interactions among organizational agents. Through dialogue and storytelling, strategic leaders shape the evolution of agent interactions and construct the shared meanings that provide the rationale by which the past, the present, and the future of the organization coalesce. u00a9 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boal”, “given” : “Kimberly B.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schultz”, “given” : “Patrick L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Leadership Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “411-428”, “title” : “Storytelling, time, and evolution: The role of strategic leadership in complex adaptive systems”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bec6d5db-7591-417e-bee2-e885d50af739” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Boal ; Schultz, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Boal ; Schultz, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Boal ; Schultz, 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Boal & Schultz, 2007). A school like any other organization requires an effective leader to achieve its goalsADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The effect of school leadership on educational outcomes has been widely debated in recent decades. Only a small fraction of available studies on school leadership deal with its effects on specific educational outcomes. The paper aims to provide an overview of research on the effects of two contemporary leadership theories (distributed leadership and transformational leadership) on educational outcomes. The theoretical basis for each theory is discussed, with reference to different approaches to the conceptualisation of distributed and transformational perspectives in the literature. Moreover, the paper attempts to analyse the main limitations of the two theories and to assess their contribution to the investigation of the effects of leadership on educational outcomes. The overview of evidence on the effects of distributed and transformational leadership is used as the basis for suggestions and recommendations in relation to future research.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Menon”, “given” : “Maria Eliophotou”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The 24th International Congress for School Effectiveness and Improvement”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “1-15”, “title” : “Leadership theory and educational outcomes: The case of distributed and transformational leadership Maria”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d8ea6e0b-b12a-413c-8d96-c65884651bf2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Menon, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Menon, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Menon, 2013).When schools are not performing well, the responsibility usually comes on the head of school who is the leader of the school. Researchers have tried to establish different kinds of leadership behavior that would enhance productivity of organizations ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Posner”, “given” : “Barry Z”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Cross Cultural Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “1-40”, “title” : “The Impact of Leadership Practices Within Cultures”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a69a492f-0a60-44a0-ad01-69e34664e29f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Posner, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Posner, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Posner, 2011)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Posner, 2011).Two kinds of leadership behavior’s transformational and participative leadership have been recognized among researchers for the past decade ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “West”, “given” : “Deborah L”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Angel”, “given” : “Roma”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “694-714”, “title” : “The Voices of Principals”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7591942e-9df9-4061-8daf-0a9dcc32e170” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(West ; Angel, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(West ; Angel, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(West ; Angel, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(West & Angel, 2008).

Transformational leadership is theorizedto occur when leaders create within followers a capacity to develop higher levels of commitment to organizational goals ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/09243450600565829”, “ISBN” : “0924-3453”, “ISSN” : “09243453”, “abstract” : “Using data from a larger 4-year evaluation of England’s National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies, this study tested the effects of a school-specific model of transformational leadership on teachers (motivation, capacities, and work settings), their classroom practices, and gains in student achievement. Some 2,290 teachers from 655 primary schools responded to 2 forms of a survey (literacy and numeracy) measuring all variables in our framework. Our measure of student achievement was gains in the British government’s own Key Stage 2 tests over either 2 (numeracy) or 3 (literacy) years. 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Results indicate significant effects of leadership on teachers’ classroom practices but not on student achievement.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Leithwood”, “given” : “Kenneth”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jantzi”, “given” : “Doris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “School Effectiveness and School Improvement”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “201-227”, “title” : “Transformational school leadership for large-scale reform: Effects on students, teachers, and their classroom practices”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b3669408-6ec1-44de-8757-63423490d7bc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood & Jantzi, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood & Jantzi, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood & Jantzi, 2006)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kenneth Leithwood & Jantzi, 2006).The leaders are able to do this by displaying assured characteristics in their leadership. Transformational leaders are probable to be model role for their followers, encourage them to be more committed to the vision of the organization, inspirefor creativity and also act as consultantsto their followers. While participative leadership is theorized by the way to empower followers by involving as a leader ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/09585192.2014.934890”, “ISBN” : “0958-5192”, “ISSN” : “14664399”, “abstract” : “This study examines the mediating effects of cognitive trust and affective trust on the relationship between supervisorsu2019 participative leadership behavior and subordinate work outcomes, using data obtained from 247 dyads in a manufacturing organization located in mainland China. Structural equation modeling revealed that while affective trust fully mediated the relationships between participative leadership of supervisor and subordinate job performance and organizational citizenship behavior, cognitive trust had non-significant effects. These findings underscore the importance of interpersonal interactions between the supervisor and subordinate for engendering subordinate work outcomes. 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It is associated with increased work performance through intrinsic motivation and psychological empowerment.When a leader gives followers a chance for their opinion and they freely express their suggestions, they are likely to learn important job-related skills and experiences from each other, simplifying them to perform their duties. Such learning mechanisms persuaded by participative leadership may be particularly relevant for managerial subordinates, and thus permits more inspection in future research ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/job”, “ISBN” : “0143-7739”, “ISSN” : “12045357”, “PMID” : “21451395”, “abstract” : “Unhappy IT workers will eventually leave their company. Some employees seek new positions with different firms. Others will choose to leave the IT field altogether. These mutually exclusive options have different outcomes for IT workers, organizations, and the computing professions. This research investigates the causes and consequences of each. A content analysis is first performed in order to identify possible determinants. Next, a canonical correlation analysis is conducted to determine which constructs load with job change intention and which associate with career change intentions among IT workers in the United States. The analysis was conducted using data from a survey of IT professionals. The results indicate that quantitative demands, cognitive demands, work pace, stress, work family conflict, and predictability lead to job change intention, while meaning of work, job satisfaction, recognition, role conflicts, role clarity, job insecurity, burnout, and perceived supervisor support lead IT workers to consider changing careers. 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A comparative analysis of job and career change intentions among USA it workers”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a8eb79e2-184a-413e-9937-f16e1093cf40” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Shropshire & Kadlec, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Shropshire & Kadlec, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Shropshire & Kadlec, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Shropshire & Kadlec, 2012).

Student achievement is the measurement of the staff performance especially Head of school is accountable for the performance of all members that are under his or her supervision, not only teachers but also students (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). Consequently to enhance students’ academic achievement, effective school leadership style play a vital role. Leadership style is commonly defined as the process of guiding followers to achieve some desired outcomes (De Jong ; Den Hartog, 2007). Teacher as a leaders are a helper to take responsibilities during the educational processes and activities both in the classroom and school; they retain their wisdom of determination active and deep in a way to persuade the other participants of the school to provide an atmosphere of independence. That is, they recognize themselves and identify their targets so that they are not scared into silence by others (Lambert, 2000).Therefore, by strengthening the school leadership style, schools can better enhance the students’ academic achievements.

In literature, numerous studies concluded that effectiveness of teaching learning not only depends upon the students learning style but also effective teaching style is key element in increasing academic achievements of students ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/87567550009596080”, “ISBN” : “87567555”, “ISSN” : “19308299”, “PMID” : “274717330”, “abstract” : “Questionnaires were completed by 50 college faculty who each evaluated a course they had taught which emphasized technology and another course taught more traditionally. Several correlations were found among presence or absence of technology, instructors’ teaching styles, and instructors’ perception of average student learning style. (DB)”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Grasha”, “given” : “Anthony F.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yangarber-Hicks”, “given” : “Natalia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “College Teaching”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2000” }, “page” : “2-10”, “title” : “Integrating Teaching Styles and Learning Styles with Instructional Technology”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “48” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8e91f3fd-3993-4392-bfde-98d57ed3e877” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Grasha & Yangarber-Hicks, 2000)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Grasha & Yangarber-Hicks, 2000)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Grasha & Yangarber-Hicks, 2000)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Grasha & Yangarber-Hicks, 2000). According to the Learning Systems Institute, Florida State University (2002), student achievement is very momentous to regulate the success of the school and to determine the level of understanding of the students towards the course they had taken. In order to make certain this idea is achieved, it is the only leader to develop the strategies and best approach to his or her followers. According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “22191933”, “abstract” : “This study examines the mediating effects of attitude on the relationship between transformational leadership and life satisfaction. Using data obtained from 304 respondents from the Homestay program participants in Malaysia, structural equation modeling results revealed that attitude mediated the relationships between transformational leadership and life satisfaction. Transformational leadership positively contributes to attitude and life satisfaction. The results also indicate that attitude was positively related to the life satisfaction.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Amin”, “given” : “Aziz”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ibrahim”, “given” : “Mohd Yusri”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of business and social Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “235-244”, “title” : “Transformational Leadership and Life Satisfaction among Homestay Participants Program : The Mediating Effect of Attitude”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5d65bd14-d44f-46c1-84ab-3fc8479ba274” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Amin & Ibrahim, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Amin & Ibrahim, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Amin & Ibrahim, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Amin & Ibrahim, 2013), it is compulsory for education leader to ensure student academic achievement in every level of education including higher education institution. Teachers who can skillfully and ef?ciently apply interpersonal skills in the delivery of educational services developed atmosphere of friendship with students that create positive feelings in them about their learning environments. By encouraging students to struggle for high levels of academic achievement, and by rewarding those who succeed, teacher raise the value of achievement itself ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Awal”, “given” : “Selatan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “A”, “given” : “B”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1974” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “Robert king merton”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=81bf6219-53fc-4a67-b475-64faa73d1697” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Awal & A, 1974)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Awal & A, 1974)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Awal & A, 1974)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Awal & A, 1974).

In specific terms, school principals by adopting different leadership styles is an important factor that relates to the teacher acceptance, better performance and increased job satisfaction at school. In other words, leadership style of principals increases job satisfaction, creates positive school environment, enhances performance at school, connected with problem solving and decision making approach, develops quality at all levels, increases school members’ commitment, capacity and engagement in meeting goals and improves teachers’ acceptance, motivation, commitment and professional growth. This leadership style of teachers affects positively the learning outcomes of students, and primarily relates to the development of high-quality learning and teaching in schools. It focuses at its core on improving learning and representing a mode of leadership based on the principles of professional cooperation, development and growth. Dialogue about teachers, this style is an important factor that impact student satisfaction, motivation, empowerment and learning and it is style where students’ active engagement in developing knowledge and skills, critical thinking, higher-order skills, and communication are facilitated by the teacher. It includes greater teacher commitment to school, higher collective efficiency, effectiveness of teaching, student engagement in teaching activities, participation in decision making, academic self-concept, and aspects of self-esteem. The benefits of transformational leadership style of teachers comprise in authorizing and increasing student motivation, enhance learning and engagement of students, and achievement, developing quality of relations in classroom etc. In comparison to all other theoretical frameworks (such as instructional) transformational leadership provides a powerful theoretical framework for the interpretation of the behavior of principals/teachers because thinking about principals/teachers as transformational leader’s guides researchers to study workplace conditions. It also refers to the competence of teachers in decision-making at the level of school association and the level of educational groups. The focus should be on creating a positive school environment for all participants in educational process which would make the school a “better place for living and learning” and that can be achieved by the practice of leadership style.

The educational system of developing countries like Pakistan is in transition and the evolutionary process from the last couples of decades. According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “02560100”, “abstract” : “Our aim was to investigate differences in teacher stress and perceptions of school climate among teachers from schools with differing matriculation success rates in the Limpopo province of South Africa. Two schools with matric pass rates of 100% and two schools with matric pass rates of less than 25% were selected from a list of schools provided by the province’s Educational District Circuit. The schools were matched in terms of area, size, resources, and equipment. Thirty-three teachers from the high performing schools and forty-two teachers from the poor performing schools participated in the study. Student’s tests were used to assess the differences between the schools on the variables under investigation, and the results showed the teachers’ experience of stress across the different schools was not significantly different, but significant differences did emerge with regard to school climate. The implications of these findings for the study population are discussed. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Milner”, “given” : “Karen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Khoza”, “given” : “Harriet”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “South African Journal of Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “155-173”, “title” : “A comparison of teacher stress and school climate across schools with different matric success rates.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “28” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1303646b-9141-4daa-a1d3-9eb342c97c89” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Milner ; Khoza, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Milner ; Khoza, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Milner ; Khoza, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Milner & Khoza, 2008) the lack of discipline, baseless studies and system of punishment, unfair postings, unfair justice, departmental politics regarding promotion, retirement packages for the teachers and new curriculum approach are all the main factors that increase the level of distrust, dissatisfaction, stress level and lower the level of commitment between teachers and learners. In other researches undertaken by ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00461520.1991.9653136 Ulrich Schiefele”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schiefele”, “given” : “Ulrich”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Psychologist”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3-4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1991” }, “page” : “299-323”, “title” : “Universitu00e4t Potsdam Perspektiven Interest , Learning , and Motivation”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “26” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8147131c-027c-415e-825b-b64ee7df9b6e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Schiefele, 1991)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Schiefele, 1991)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Schiefele, 1991)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Schiefele, 1991) point out that if teachers become disappointed with their work environment and demonstrate lack of commitment to their institute, then it will result not only to the teachers suffer the student will also the suffer as well. To enhance the trust and commitment between teachers and students, school leadership styles are important tool to enhance students’ academic achievements.

The main objectives of this study to examine the effect of school leadership style on student academic achievements in secondary level school in district Jhang. Furthermore, this study also identify the effective leadership styles practiced by the school heads as well as teachers in realizing high level of commitment between teachers and excellent students’ academic achievement. However, it also determines which leadership style influences the most on student academic achievement in secondary level school in district Jhang.

Problem statement:
Currently, Educational institutions are facing numerous complications, particularly in leadership practices. This might be due to various stages of covering work arisen from administration work model and management technique that create misperception in the work practice, administration, and ordering or commanding among the level of work component ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.022”, “ISBN” : “6689711676”, “ISSN” : “18770428”, “abstract” : “Currently, most of the administrators are facing problems of applying suitable leadership style in their administration, reported by the Educational Work Unit. Therefore, applying suitable leadership may assist administrators to solve the confusion due to the overlapping of work occurred in work practice, administration, and ordering or commanding among the top level of management team work unit. The Path-Goal Theory was used as the main theory to support this study. The objectives of this study were to investigate the leadership styles of school administrators that affecting teacher effectiveness. This study employed quantitative method survey design using questionnaire as an instrument. Simple random sampling technique was utilized in this study. A total of 254 administrators and teachers from schools under the Office of Kalasin Primary Educational Service Area 1 were involved as respondents. Data was analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean value, standard deviation, correlation Pearson product moment, and multiple regression Stepwise method. Findings showed that there are two types of leadership styles of school administrators, namely supportive leadership and participative leadership styles which have significantly affecting teacher effectiveness. In addition, both leadership styles have been jointly predicted teacher effectiveness at 56.80 percent at the significance level as 0.01. In conclusion, in order to increase teachersu2019 working effectiveness, administrators should promote, practice, and improve these two leadership styles, namely supportive leadership and participative leadership styles regularly.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sirisookslip”, “given” : “Saowanee”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ariratana”, “given” : “Wallapha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ngang”, “given” : “Tang Keow”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1031-1037”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “The Impact of Leadership Styles of School Administrators on Affecting Teacher Effectiveness”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “186” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e5d742e8-a051-4324-8a2e-8632e6a08f8c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sirisookslip, Ariratana, ; Ngang, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sirisookslip, Ariratana, ; Ngang, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sirisookslip, Ariratana, ; Ngang, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sirisookslip, Ariratana, & Ngang, 2015).

Research objectives:
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of school leadership style such as transformational and participative leadership secondary school principals and teachers on students’ academic achievements because it is one of the main indicator of school efficiency in secondary schools in Pakistan country. The study also determines if transformational and participative leadership behavior is related to other secondary school Principals’ characteristics such as the Principal’s age, academic experience, professional qualifications and their gender, what will be the effect on the students’ academic performance as well as school performance. Hence following are the main objectives of this study:
To study the leadership styles of school heads, teachers and student’s academic achievements.

To study the relationship between leadership styles of school heads, teachers and student’s academic achievements.

To study the effect of leadership styles of school heads, teachers on students’ academic achievements.

Research Questions:
What are the leadership style of school heads, teachers and their level of effectiveness on students’ academic achievement?
What is a relationship between leadership styles of school heads, teachers and student’s academic achievements.?
What is the effect of the leadership style of school heads, teachers on student academic achievement?
The significance of study:
Findings of this study are important for the school to identify more appropriate leadership styles for school heads and teachers to maintain and enhance the students’ academic achievements. More over this study also gives awareness for both academic scholars and experts, who may take the results into account in formulating an efficient and effective leadership style.The study intended to provide a basis for school heads to re-examine their leadership behavior and consequently improve on their weaker areas. Transformational and participative leadership style also provides school heads with practical guidance on how to lead,as well as, practical recommendations on how to act as they work towards improvement of their schools. The results of this investigation, therefore, will serve as a basis for schoolheads to assess their leadership strengths and weaknesses, and use the finding to become more effective school leaders.

Delimitation of study:
The delimitation of the study was:
The research was limited to tehsil and district Jhang.

Due to the limitation of time, money and resources the researches gathered data by random sampling.

The researcher was limited to secondary level.

The sample size was consisting of 150 respondents.

Research Methodology:
Quantitative research approach was used. This study was designed to investigate the effect of school leadership styles on academic achievements of students at secondary level. In this study school leadership style is independent variable while academic achievements of students are dependent variable.

Population:
The population comprised of government secondary schools of Tehsil and District Jhang.

Sampling technique:
Random sampling was used for the sample selection. The sample of the study consist of 150 respondents from public sector secondary school of district Jhang.

Research instrument:
Questionnaire was developed at five point Likert scale to measure the effect of school leadership style on academic achievements of students.

Data analysis:
SPSS (statistical package for social science) was used for data analysis. ANOVA and t-test were applied to measure the effect of independent variable school leadership styles (transformational and participative leadership) on dependent variable academic achievements of students. And calculate frequency and percentage in tabulated form.

Structure of Research project:
Each chapter of research project begins with the chapter objectives. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview of the existing literature on school leadership style and students’ academic achievements. It also explains the aims and objectives of current research study. Chapter 2 gives the comprehensive literature review on the evolution of the concept of school leadership style and students’ academic achievements it deals in detail with the origin, nature, theoretical foundations, definitions. Chapter 3 deals with the design and methodology used in conducting this research study. It provides information about the nature of population sample used in this study, data collection procedure, measurement scales etc. Chapter 4 explains data analysis process and results of statistical tests used to test various hypotheses of this study. Chapter 5 is the last chapter of research project; it’s all about discussions on results of each hypothesis of this study, key findings, contribution, limitations, recommendations, and practical implications and in last but not the least conclusion.

Chapter 2
Literature review:
2.0.Chapter objectives:
This chapter aims to provide brief overview of school leadership style and students’ academic achievements. development from its early beginning to the form in which it is currently being used, Second, to analyze the different frameworks for conceptualization of school leadership style and students’ academic achievements. Third, to provide an insight to the theoretical basis of school leadership style from social situational leadership theory.

2.1. Students’ academic achievement:
Students’ academic achievements are major phenomenon now days such as academic achievement of students are based on the qualities of their attendances, punctuality, and attentiveness. Many researchers explored these aspects such as home background, learning environment, and government policies ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.130”, “ISSN” : “18770428”, “abstract” : “Individual learning styles are varying according to the tendency of each individual. An appropriate learning style could help students to achieve good academic record in any subject they learned. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between student achievement and learning style for technical and non technical subject. A total of 288 Diploma student enrolled in Electrical Engineering program participated in this study. Solomon Felder Learning Style Index was distributed to the participants and the Felder and Silverman model was used to interpret the data. Result showed that the electrical engineering students have an active type of learning style for the first dimension, the sensing for the second dimension, visual for the third dimension, and sequence for the fourth dimension. The result showed that there is no significant relationship between the dimensions of learning styles and academic achievement for Electrical Technology subject and only the second dimension has a significant relationship with academic achievement of the Polibriged subject. In conclusion, learning style is not the main factors to enhance studentsu2019 achievement, but it can be used to identify the tendency of learning styles possessed by students.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Omar”, “given” : “Norasyikin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mohamad”, “given” : “Mimi Mohaffyza”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paimin”, “given” : “Aini Nazura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “November 2014”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “172-182”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “Dimension of Learning Styles and Studentsu2019 Academic Achievement”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “204” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a036db8a-f207-42be-ab40-74d575a6f9db” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Omar, Mohamad, ; Paimin, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Omar, Mohamad, ; Paimin, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Omar, Mohamad, ; Paimin, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Omar, Mohamad, & Paimin, 2015). Previous studies state that family background and learning styles are key determinants to enhance academic achievements ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This study is conducted to identify how learning styles (LS) influence the studentsu2019 academic achievement based on cognitive mastery and vocational elements in Building Construction Subject (BCS) involving the students and teachers of Building Construction Course (BCC) from three secondary vocational schools in Johor. Descriptive case study was applied with quantitative and semi – structured interview as supporting components in this study. The quantitative data were gathered based on Felder and Silverman Le arning Styles Model (FSLSM), Felder – Soloman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and vocational cognitive elements which consist of the aspects of knowledge, skills and problem solving were taken into account in constructing the question items. Purposive samplin g was used to select the schools and stratified sampling procedure was applied in the selection of 128 students as research respondents. Purposive sampling was also chosen to select teachers as respondents for interview. The quantitative data was analyzed in descriptive and inferential statistic involving parametric test; Chi Square and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). Kruskal – Wallis was used for non – parametric test for this study. The content analysis for interview was managed to analyze the na rrative text from interview record. The study discovered that students in BCC tend to be visual learners. Visual learners represent the input dimension of FSLS M and the result showed there are significant differences between input dimension with skills and problem solving but not with knowledge. The discussions with teachers revealed that most teachers accommodate students learning styles with cognitive mastery by using visual approach to increase studentsu2019 academic achievement. Research findings suggested a few framework of learning styles with vocational elements in BCS and concluded the need for a framework based on the dominant studentsu2019 learning style through the cognitive mastery and vocational elements. In conclusion, the research proposed that the Co gnitive Learning Styles Framework (C – LSF) could act as a guideline for teachers to facilitate students to learn more effectively and to boost the academic achievement in Building Construction Subject.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mohaffyza”, “given” : “Binti Mohamad Mimi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “January”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “211”, “title” : “Learning styles and academic achievement among building construction students”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6f049bac-9f15-4c27-b152-2102d703bce2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mohaffyza, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mohaffyza, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mohaffyza, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mohaffyza, 2013).They also identify possible indicators that affect the student’s academic achievements. Different types of interferences are designed to increase student retention and facilitate students’ transition to school life. Such interventions often include alternative ways to support students academically in their core courses or aid in study skills. In other research, it is concluded that the school environment and teacher-related factors were the dominant factors influencing achievements, especially if the student was highly self-motivated.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.130”, “ISSN” : “18770428”, “abstract” : “Individual learning styles are varying according to the tendency of each individual. An appropriate learning style could help students to achieve good academic record in any subject they learned. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between student achievement and learning style for technical and non technical subject. A total of 288 Diploma student enrolled in Electrical Engineering program participated in this study. Solomon Felder Learning Style Index was distributed to the participants and the Felder and Silverman model was used to interpret the data. Result showed that the electrical engineering students have an active type of learning style for the first dimension, the sensing for the second dimension, visual for the third dimension, and sequence for the fourth dimension. The result showed that there is no significant relationship between the dimensions of learning styles and academic achievement for Electrical Technology subject and only the second dimension has a significant relationship with academic achievement of the Polibriged subject. In conclusion, learning style is not the main factors to enhance studentsu2019 achievement, but it can be used to identify the tendency of learning styles possessed by students.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Omar”, “given” : “Norasyikin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mohamad”, “given” : “Mimi Mohaffyza”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paimin”, “given” : “Aini Nazura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “November 2014”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “172-182”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “Dimension of Learning Styles and Studentsu2019 Academic Achievement”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “204” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a036db8a-f207-42be-ab40-74d575a6f9db” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Omar et al., 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Omar et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Omar et al., 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Omar et al., 2015).

2.1.1. Teacher evaluation:
Teacher valuation and effectiveness is one of the key determinant to enhance the students’ academic achievements in nationally. Most of us believe that good teaching always matters ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Goe”, “given” : “L”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stickler”, “given” : “LM”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “March”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “title” : “Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: Making the Most of Recent Research. 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It is commonly accepted that teacher efficiency and effectiveness are the most important aspects of the educational process influencing student academic achievements ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Piro”, “given” : “Jody”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shutt”, “given” : “Tammy”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “1-9”, “title” : “Using Student Achievement Data in Teacher and Principal Evaluations : 3 Student Achievement as a Measure of E ectiveness in Educator Evaluations 3 . 1 Teacher Evaluations”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=333da89e-867d-49a4-8a1d-90e6727ffcc5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Piro ; Shutt, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Piro ; Shutt, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Piro ; Shutt, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Piro & Shutt, 2010). The discussion is held to define what organizes teacher effectiveness among educators as teacher valuation, driven widely by increasing pressure from policy makers ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “continuum; impact”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bergeron”, “given” : “Liz”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dean”, “given” : “Michael”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “IBO Research Website”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “March”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “title” : “The IB Teacher Professional: Identifying, measuring and characterizing pedagogical attributes, perspectives, and beliefs”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e28577cd-64cf-4400-980a-78363f9439e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bergeron ; Dean, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bergeron ; Dean, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bergeron ; Dean, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bergeron & Dean, 2013). Characteristics of teacher effectiveness have changed with time ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/0305498032000120292”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Oxford”, “given” : “Source”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sep”, “given” : “No”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “347-362”, “title” : “Differential Teacher Effectiveness : Towards a Model for Research and Teacher Appraisal Author ( s ): R . J . Campbell , L . Kyriakides , R . D . Muijs and W . Robinson Stable URL : http://www.jstor.org/stable/3595446 REFERENCES Linked references are avai”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “29” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8e50f838-7dce-42ed-a4a3-ab18a2a6a372” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Oxford ; Sep, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Oxford ; Sep, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Oxford ; Sep, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Oxford & Sep, 2016).Some teachers contribute more effectively to student academic achievements than others, however the qualities of effective teachers have not been agreed upon ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004”, “ISBN” : “0803923414”, “ISSN” : “1098-6596”, “PMID” : “25246403”, “abstract” : “Employs analytical and numerical general equilibrium models to assess the efficiency impacts of two policies to reduce U.S. carbon emissions – a carbon tax and a carbon quota taking into account the interactions between these policies and pre-existing tax distortions in factor markets. We show that tax interactions significantly raise the costs of both policies relative to what they would be in a first-best setting. In addition, we show that these interactions put the carbon quota at a significant efficiency disadvantage relative to the carbon tax: the costs of reducing emissions by 10 per cent are more than 300 percent higher under the carbon quota than under the carbon tax. This disadvantage reflects the inability of the quota policy to generate revenue that can be used to reduce pre-existing distortionary taxes. Indeed, second-best considerations severely limit the potential of a carbon quota to generate overall efficiency gains. Under our central estimates, a non-auctioned carbon quota (or set of grandfathered carbon emissions permits) cannot increase efficiency unless the marginal benefits from avoided future climate change are at least $25 per ton of carbon abatement. Most estimates of these marginal environmental benefits are well below $25 per ton. Thus, our analysis suggests that any carbon abatement by way of a non-auctioned quota will not be efficiency-improving. In contrast, we estimate that a revenue-neutral carbon tax can be efficiency-improving so long as marginal environmental benefits are positive.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Little”, “given” : “Olivia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Goe”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bell”, “given” : “Courtney”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Evaluation”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “1-31”, “title” : “A Practical Guide to Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a1849ce3-1dd5-4d18-9dd1-2a0849c8a43c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Little, Goe, ; Bell, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Little, Goe, ; Bell, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Little, Goe, ; Bell, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Little, Goe, & Bell, 2009).

2.1.2. Principal Evaluations:
Several articles have been published over the last decade to determine how the principal has an effect on student achievement ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/09243450512331383272”, “ISSN” : “0924-3453”, “abstract” : “Our third research meta-analysis examines the effects of leadership practices on student achieve- ment. After analyzing studies conducted over a 30-year period, McREL identified 21 leadership responsibilities that are significantly associated with student achievement. We have translated these results into a balanced leadership framework which describes the knowledge, skills, strategies, and tools leaders need to positively impact student achievement.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Waters”, “given” : “Tim”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Marzano”, “given” : “R.J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mcnulty”, “given” : “B.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “McREL Working Paper”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2003” }, “page” : “1-19”, “title” : “Balanced leadership u2122 : 30 of leadership on student achievement”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cdf8190f-582b-49d4-b794-597e7e243682” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Waters, Marzano, ; Mcnulty, 2003)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Waters, Marzano, ; Mcnulty, 2003)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Waters, Marzano, ; Mcnulty, 2003)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Waters, Marzano, & Mcnulty, 2003). By highlighting comprehensive detail of leadership, school administrative have a positive effect on the students’ academic progress when the principals’ primary concern was for education quality ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/15700760500244793”, “ISBN” : “15700763”, “ISSN” : “1570-0763”, “PMID” : “18685034”, “abstract” : “One lasting legacy of the effective schools movement was the institutionalization of the term “instructional leadership” into the vocabulary of educational administration. Evidence from other recent reviews of the literature on principal leadership (e.g., Hallinger, 2001; Hallinger ; Heck 1996; Southworth, 2002) suggest that twenty years later, the instructional leadership construct is still alive in the domains of policy, research, and practice in school leadership and management. Indeed, since the turn of the twenty-first century, the increasing global emphasis on accountability seems to have reignited interest in instructional leadership. This paper ties together evidence drawn from several extensive reviews of the educational leadership literature that included instructional leadership as a key construct (Hallinger, 2001, 2003b; Hallinger ; Heck, 1996b; Southworth, 2002). The paper will seek to define the core characteristics underlying this approach to school leadership and management based upon both conceptual developments and empirical investigation. The review will identify the defining characteristics of instructional leadership as it has evolved, elaborate on the predominant model in use for studying instructional leadership, and report the empirical evidence about its effects. 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(Contains 1 figure and 3 footnotes.)”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hallinger”, “given” : “Philip”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Leadership and Policy in Schools”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “page” : “221-239”, “title” : “Instructional Leadership and the School Principal: A Passing Fancy that Refuses to Fade Away”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85f509bd-e21e-47ac-9367-049eeec8b0a9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hallinger, 2005)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hallinger, 2005)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hallinger, 2005)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hallinger, 2005). Student test scores were positively influenced when the principal protected time, maintained open communications between themselves and the faculty, addressed discipline issues with the students, emphasized the value of professional development, and readily acknowledged improvement ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0273-446X”, “ISSN” : “0273446X”, “abstract” : “This article reports a study of rural school principals’ assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a focus for school professional team. They saw themselves as teachers first, stressing their importance as sources of teacher support, seving a ‘buffer role,’ ameliorating external constraints to effective assessment and learning.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Renihan”, “given” : “Patrick”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Noonan”, “given” : “Brian”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Rural Educator”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “1-8”, “title” : “Principals as Assessment Leaders in Rural Schools”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “33” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=11d3d4bc-f3be-453e-aa3b-b5878bf33265” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Renihan & Noonan, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Renihan & Noonan, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Renihan & Noonan, 2006)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Renihan & Noonan, 2006).

Principals were advised to safeguard instructional time against any form of student or administrative disturbance for learning to be maximized and the most effective school settings are those in which student and teachers have a feeling of safety ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/0013161X08321509”, “ISBN” : “0013-161X”, “ISSN” : “0013161X”, “PMID” : “20460461”, “abstract” : “Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on studentsu2019 academic and nonacademic outcomes. Research Design: The methodology involved an analysis of findings from 27 published studies of the relationship between leadership and student outcomes. The first metaanalysis, including 22 of the 27 studies, involved a comparison of the effects of transformational and instructional leadership on student outcomes. The second meta-analysis involved a comparison of the effects of five inductively derived sets of leadership practices on student outcomes. Twelve of the studies contributed to this second analysis. Findings: The first meta-analysis indicated that the average effect of instructional leadership on student outcomes was three to four times that of transformational leadership. Inspection of the survey items used to measure school leadership revealed five sets of leadership practices or dimensions: establishing goals and expectations; resourcing strategically; planning, coordinating, and evaluating teaching and the curriculum; promoting and participating in teacher learning and development, and ensuring an orderly and supportive environment. The second meta-analysis revealed strong average effects for the leadership dimension involving promoting and participating in teacher learning and development and moderate effects for the dimensions concerned with goal setting and planning, coordinating, and evaluating teaching and the curriculum. Conclusions and Implications for Research and Practice: The comparisons between transformational and instructional leadership and between the five leadership dimensions suggested that the more leaders focus their relationships, their work, and their learning on the core business of teaching and learning, the greater their influence on student outcomes. The article concludes with a discussion of the need for leadership research and practice to be more closely linked to the evidence on effective teaching and effective teacher learning. Such alignment could increase the impact of school leadership on student outcomes even further.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Robinson”, “given” : “Viviane M.J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lloyd”, “given” : “Claire A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rowe”, “given” : “Kenneth J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Administration Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “635-674”, “title” : “The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “44” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2a22f177-65cc-476f-8416-ddbdae6c7f6c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008). teacher-student relationship are strong predictors of behavioral engagement of student’s. It is clear that students showed higher level of effort and preserve in learning when they felt to perform well academically. A standardized environmenthighlight academic excellence and creates expectations that students will work hard to achieve academically. The students who have positive relationship with teachers made more effort and preserved in learning because they adopted the academic values and expectations appreciated by others ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.ijer.2012.04.006”, “ISBN” : “0883-0355”, “ISSN” : “08830355”, “abstract” : “This study examined relationships between students’ perceptions of the school social environment and student outcomes, using U.S. data from the Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (OECD, 2000). The sample comprised 3748 fifteen-year-old 9th and 10th graders from 147 schools. The two-dimensional approach of parenting typology was here applied to the school environment. The results partially supported the advantage of authoritative schools with high levels of both demandingness (academic press) and responsiveness (the teacher-student relationship). Supportive teacher-student relationships and academic press were significantly related to behavioral and emotional student engagement whereas only the teacher-student relationship was a significant predictor of reading performance. The effects of the teacher-student relationship on student outcomes were not contingent on academic press of the school. u00a9 2012 Elsevier Ltd.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lee”, “given” : “Jung Sook”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Educational Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “330-340”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Ltd”, “title” : “The effects of the teacher-student relationship and academic press on student engagement and academic performance”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “53” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=045ff8ff-fada-40b9-b1fa-bc60f0cc581f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lee, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lee, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lee, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lee, 2012).

In the late 1970s, scholars interested to investigate what school heads actually do and how their leadership behaviors and styles are related to student outcomes ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0305006952910”, “ISSN” : “0037-7783”, “abstract” : “Research findings reinforce the relevance to pupil performance of the institutional elements of leadership, expectations, and atmosphere. (Author/MLF)”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Edmonds”, “given” : “Ronald”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Leadership”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1979” }, “page” : “15-24”, “title” : “Effective Schools for the Urban Poor”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “37” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c1038c80-59c8-4477-b33b-ccb0ea6b40fc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Edmonds, 1979)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Edmonds, 1979)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Edmonds, 1979)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Edmonds, 1979). The results of this school effectiveness research suggest that leadership is an important characteristic of effective schools. Effective school heads are characterized by the performance of leadership tasks which are positively connected to student achievements, such as: emphasis on basic subjects; facility of an arranged atmosphere and a learning environment; setting instructional strategies; organization of instructional programs; managing and supporting teachers; direction towards educational development and innovation; mission-orientation and distribution of school’s vision.

Gender appears to be an important variable. Research shows that women are stronger instructional leaders than their male colleagues. They carry out more instructional activities and spend more time on instructional matters than men. Their male counterparts spend more time and attention on administrative tasks and external contacts ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/09243450600797638”, “ISSN” : “09243453”, “abstract” : “This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the antecedents and effects of educational leadership, and of the influence of the principal’s leadership on intervening and outcome variables. A path analysis was conducted to test and validate a causal model. The results show no direct or indirect effects of educational leadership on student commitment; instead a reciprocal relationship was found between student commitment and strategic leadership. A range of antecedent variables appears to have more effects on the school culture than educational leadership has. Finally, the principal’s vision has a substantial impact on his or her educational leadership behaviours. The findings suggest the importance of cognitive processes in order to understand the complex chain of variables through which principals have an impact on school effectiveness and school improvement. The results also underline the importance of conceptualizing leadership from a contingency approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kru00fcger”, “given” : “Meta L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Witziers”, “given” : “Bob”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sleegers”, “given” : “Peter”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “School Effectiveness and School Improvement”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “1-20”, “title” : “The impact of school leadership on school level factors: Validation of a causal model”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1c9e58fc-3166-4295-86db-c426317c8fd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(M. L. Kru00fcger, Witziers, & Sleegers, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(M. L. Kru00fcger, Witziers, & Sleegers, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(M. L. Kru00fcger, Witziers, & Sleegers, 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(M. L. Krüger, Witziers, & Sleegers, 2007). Even the decision to become a principal is determined for women in the ?rst place by their desire to be an instructional leader, while for men the decision tends to rest on the salary because gender is important factor in leadingADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/13603120701576266”, “ISBN” : “13603124”, “ISSN” : “13603124”, “PMID” : “31499096”, “abstract” : “The biological basis for differences between the sexes has become increasingly clear in recent years. The natureu2013nurture debate has made way for the view that the individual is a product of the interaction between genes and environment. For the world of school leadership this means that instead of arguing about them, we should acknowledge the differences between female and male leadership and turn the differences to our advantage with respect to the effec-tiveness of school leadership. This is becoming all the more necessary now that the principal’s job is progressively becoming more complicated. Men and women working together have a wider range of alternative strategies at their disposal than either acting alone, creating a case for mixed teams. A mix of masculine and feminine elements in school management leads to a broader repertoire of behaviour and consequently to more flexible action.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kruger”, “given” : “Meta L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Leadership in Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “155-168”, “title” : “School leadership, sex and gender: Welcome to difference”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=74cfefe1-689a-4e7a-8cad-45e27ee1023b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kruger, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kruger, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kruger, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kruger, 2008).

Many meta-analytic study concluded the role of school leadership and its indirect effects on student achievement and suggest further study on students’ academic achievements ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/09243450600797638”, “ISSN” : “09243453”, “abstract” : “This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the antecedents and effects of educational leadership, and of the influence of the principal’s leadership on intervening and outcome variables. A path analysis was conducted to test and validate a causal model. The results show no direct or indirect effects of educational leadership on student commitment; instead a reciprocal relationship was found between student commitment and strategic leadership. A range of antecedent variables appears to have more effects on the school culture than educational leadership has. Finally, the principal’s vision has a substantial impact on his or her educational leadership behaviours. The findings suggest the importance of cognitive processes in order to understand the complex chain of variables through which principals have an impact on school effectiveness and school improvement. The results also underline the importance of conceptualizing leadership from a contingency approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kru00fcger”, “given” : “Meta L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Witziers”, “given” : “Bob”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sleegers”, “given” : “Peter”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “School Effectiveness and School Improvement”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “1-20”, “title” : “The impact of school leadership on school level factors: Validation of a causal model”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1c9e58fc-3166-4295-86db-c426317c8fd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(M. L. Kru00fcger et al., 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(M. L. Kru00fcger et al., 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(M. L. Kru00fcger et al., 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(M. L. Krüger et al., 2007). However, leadership style by heads has been found to be significantly and positively correlated with progress in school achievement ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/09578231011027860”, “ISBN” : “0320130029”, “ISSN” : “0957-8234”, “PMID” : “42012058”, “abstract” : “The influence of school leadership styles and culture on students’ achievement in Cyprus primary schools”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kythreotis”, “given” : “Andreas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pashiardis”, “given” : “Petros”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kyriakides”, “given” : “Leonidas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Educational Administration”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “218-240”, “title” : “The influence of school leadership styles and culture on students’ achievement in Cyprus primary schools”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “48” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=301d5c63-c8b4-4473-8c9d-940537df8f9d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kythreotis, Pashiardis, ; Kyriakides, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kythreotis, Pashiardis, ; Kyriakides, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kythreotis, Pashiardis, ; Kyriakides, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kythreotis, Pashiardis, & Kyriakides, 2010).Similarly, It is also stated that there is a significant relationship between leadership style and academic achievement of students ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/13632430701800060”, “ISBN” : “1363-2434”, “ISSN” : “13632434”, “PMID” : “34612131”, “abstract” : “This article provides an overview of the literature concerning successful school leadership. It draws on the international literature and is derived from a more extensive review of the literature completed in the early stage of the authorsu2019 project. The prime purpose of this review is to summarise the main findings from the wealth of empirical studies undertaken in the leadership field.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Leithwood”, “given” : “Kenneth”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Harris”, “given” : “Alma”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hopkins”, “given” : “David”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “School Leadership and Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “27-42”, “title” : “Seven strong claims about successful school leadership”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “28” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b4f60767-c93e-4ae8-9bfa-9cee6337c25c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood, Harris, ; Hopkins, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood, Harris, ; Hopkins, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood, Harris, ; Hopkins, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kenneth Leithwood, Harris, & Hopkins, 2008).leadership play important role in improving theacademic performance of students. The reason behind this is that the main purpose of school leadership styleis to enhance the teaching and learning process through proper guidance and planning to improve teachers professionally ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Okendu”, “given” : “John Nyem”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “490-497”, “title” : “the Influence of Instructional Process and Supervision on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students of Rivers State , Nigeria”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0da046c8-1f8a-44dd-8ce1-cd0d4b0cb856” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Okendu, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Okendu, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Okendu, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Okendu, 2012).

School leadership as a social process concerned with identifying, maintaining, stimulating, controlling and combining formally or informally organized human and material energies within an appropriate system. School leadership styles weregenerally linked with students, teachers, rules & regulations and policies that govern the school system. In the school system, leadership was as tradition as the teaching profession and has undergone chain of development. It is necessary technique towards sustaining the teaching-learning process in the educational system because education plays an essential role in the growth and development of any nation socially, politically, and economically ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dangara”, “given” : “Yunusa”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “13”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “27-37”, “title” : “Educational Resources : An Integral Component for Effective School Administration in Nigeria”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f4d38384-e3eb-4a35-95c4-58a04635a1ee” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dangara, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dangara, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dangara, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dangara, 2016).

2.2. School leadership style:
Leadership is a complex (Douglas, 2012) and famous (Rowold and Borgmann, 2013) phenomenon.Leadership refer to as social processin which leader influence the followers. For example leadership is process where intentional influence is applied by one person over other persons to guide, assemble and simplify the activities and interactions in a group and organization ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yukl”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gary”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “2006”, “title” : “Effective Leadership”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=529580b4-c54e-44a8-8ab9-5ad97c519178” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yukl ; Gary, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yukl ; Gary, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yukl ; Gary, 2006)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Yukl & Gary, 2006). In most definitions, leadership consists of three elements such as leader, follower, and interactions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.10.008”, “ISBN” : “1048-9843”, “ISSN” : “10489843”, “PMID” : “19628854”, “abstract” : “Numerous traditional theories and paradigms of leadership purport to describe what leadership is. It is difficult to reconcile these traditional approaches, however, if each one alone, independent of the others, is viewed as capturing the actual identity of leadership. In this article, we take an integrative view of traditional approaches to leadership. To do so, we first identify some underlying ideas common to them. Next, we explain how these underlying ideas lead us to a fundamental theory about close relationships-that is, self-expansion theory, which refers to a psychological process in which an individual incorporates another into the self (Aron ; Aron, 1986). We then review the traditional leadership theories to explore whether these theories may be linked through self-expansion theory and whether self-expansion may help to explain why boundary conditions have been discovered for all of them. In this process, we explore whether traditional approaches to leadership might also be linked with more contemporary approaches through self-expansion theory. Finally, we discuss the implications for future research and professional practice of the integration of traditional approaches to leadership. u00a9 2013 Elsevier Inc.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dansereau”, “given” : “Fred”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Seitz”, “given” : “Stephanie R.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chiu”, “given” : “Chia Yen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shaughnessy”, “given” : “Brooke”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yammarino”, “given” : “Francis J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Leadership Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “798-821”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “What makes leadership, leadership? Using self-expansion theory to integrate traditional and contemporary approaches”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “24” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5d4acc28-991e-4937-88ff-7a5b666f064f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dansereau, Seitz, Chiu, Shaughnessy, ; Yammarino, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dansereau, Seitz, Chiu, Shaughnessy, ; Yammarino, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dansereau, Seitz, Chiu, Shaughnessy, ; Yammarino, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dansereau, Seitz, Chiu, Shaughnessy, & Yammarino, 2013). Hence Leadership is based on a social collaboration between leaders and followers ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.5465/amp.2012.0088”, “ISBN” : “15589080”, “ISSN” : “1558-9080”, “PMID” : “84930149”, “abstract” : “Executive Overview Extensive research on leadership behavior during the past half century has yielded many different behavior taxonomies and a lack of clear results about effective behaviors. One purpose of this article is to describe what has been learned about effective leadership behavior in organizations. A hierarchical taxonomy with four meta-categories and 15 specific component behaviors was used to interpret results in the diverse and extensive literature and to identify conditions that influence the effectiveness of these behaviors. Limita- tions and potential extensions of the hierarchical taxonomy are discussed, and suggestions for improving research on effective leadership behavior are provided.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yukl”, “given” : “G.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Academy of Management Perspectives”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “66-85”, “title” : “Effective Leadership Behavior: What We Know and What Questions Need More Attention”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “26” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aca2051c-41e7-496e-bddf-3e22e8d05b58” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(G. Yukl, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(G. Yukl, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(G. Yukl, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(G. Yukl, 2012), but theories of leadership ignore the followers and suppose that leaders behave with his followers in a same manner.

Results from previous research has shown that different behaviors and features of leaders, various results of leadership styles, and many leadership theories have been suggested so far ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/IJEM-04-2016-0079”, “ISBN” : “0320130029”, “ISSN” : “0951-354X”, “PMID” : “42012058”, “abstract” : “Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method to find the appropriate leadership styles based on the followersu2019 preferences using the decision tree technique. Design/methodology/approach Statistical population includes the students of the University of Isfahan. In total, 750 questionnaires were distributed; out of which, 680 accurate questionnaires were used for data analysis. This research in five steps proposes a framework to extract the information about the leadership styles that followers like and this method is examined for situational leadership theoryu2019s styles among the university students. Findings Based on the results of the decision tree model, 27 rules were discovered. Also, the findings imply that, most undergraduate, postgraduate, and PhD students prefer directing, coaching, and supporting styles, respectively. Originality/value The results of this research help leaders to find a better understanding about the followersu2019 preferences.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Salehzadeh”, “given” : “Reza”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Educational Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “7”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “865-877”, “title” : “Which types of leadership styles do followers prefer? A decision tree approach”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “31” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2251779f-2c3d-4e18-819a-ae9176a60355” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Salehzadeh, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Salehzadeh, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Salehzadeh, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Salehzadeh, 2017).Studies have discovered that some particular leadership behaviors have more effect on follower’s outcomes compared to other behaviors ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3926/ic.476”, “ISBN” : “1697-9818”, “ISSN” : “16979818”, “abstract” : “Purpose: The aim of this work is the study and the discussion of the relationship between leadership styles and organizational commitment dimensions. Both styles of leadership known as transformational and transactional styles differ in the process by which the leader motivates his subordinates. Organizational commitment defined by its three types (Affective, Normative and Continuance) measures the strength of an individual identification with and involvement in the organization. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive literature research has been done in order to increase our understanding of leadership and organizational commitment as well as the relationship between these two concepts. Findings: The present study of the relationships between leadership styles and organizational commitment has shown how leadership dimensions can influence employee organizational commitment. Although there is considerable research available suggesting that transformational leadership is positively associated with organizational commitment in a variety of organizational settings and cultures, there has been little empirical research focusing on the precise ways in which style of leadership impacts employee present and a number of areas for future research will highlight. In this sense, various areas that require additional research are developed and possible incorporation of some mediation variables are proposed in order to gather a better understanding about the mechanism that links leadership styles and followers organizational commitment. organizational commitment. Originality/value: Some critics about previous empirical and theoretical studies will”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Keskes”, “given” : “Imen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Intangible Capital”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “26-51”, “title” : “Relationship between leadership styles and dimensions of employee organizational commitment: A critical review and discussion of future directions”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “10” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=78c458d4-ec9b-43e2-87b5-52e572bb5ac0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Keskes, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Keskes, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Keskes, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Keskes, 2014). The behaviors of leadership were different. The aimof highlighting the followersin leadership effectiveness is because of the role of followers in acceptance or rejection of leader ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.12737/4477”, “ISBN” : “9780132834872”, “ISSN” : “1098-6596”, “PMID” : “25246403”, “abstract” : “Welcome to the fifteenth edition of Organizational Behavior! Long considered the standard for all organizational behavior textbooks, this edition continues its tradition of making current, relevant research come alive for students. While maintaining its hallmark featuresu2014clear writing style, cutting-edge content, and engaging pedagogyu2014the fourteenth edition has been updated to reflect the most recent research within the field of organizational behavior. This is one of the most comprehensive and thorough revisions of Organizational Behavior weu2019ve un- dertaken, and while weu2019ve preserved the core material, weu2019re confident that this edition reflects the most important research and topical issues facing organiza- tions, managers, and employees”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Robbins”, “given” : “Steven”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Zhurnal Eksperimental’noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “number-of-pages” : “676”, “title” : “Organizational Behavior”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0ed519a5-cb72-4a24-a4e7-4ab223998fcc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Robbins, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Robbins, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Robbins, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Robbins, 2013).

In the era of 1950 to 1980 the research on leadership behavior more concentrate on explaining the influence of leaders on follower’s behavior and performance. The detail of leader’s behaviors was usually obtained from followers who opportunity to observe their leaders cooperating with people outside the work unit. However, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, research on leaders found that it is important to influence superiors, peers, and subordinates ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/014920638901500207”, “ISBN” : “01492063”, “ISSN” : “15571211”, “PMID” : “5689668”, “abstract” : “This article reviews and evaluates major theories of leadership and\r\nsummarizes ftndings from empirical research on leadership. Major\r\ntopics and controversies include leadership versus management.\r\nleader traits and skills, leader behavior and activities, leader power\r\nand influence, situational determinants of leader behavior, situational\r\nmoderator variables, transformational leadership, importance of\r\nleadership for organizational effectiveness, and leadership as an attributional\r\nprocess. Methodological issues in leadership research and\r\nimplications for improving managerial practice are discussed also. An\r\nintegrating conceptual framework is presented to show how the different\r\ntheories and lines of research ftt together.\r\n”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yukl”, “given” : “Gary”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1989” }, “page” : “251-289”, “title” : “Managerial Leadership: A Review of Theory and Research”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “15” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7e3d734c-cde4-47a1-9428-60ddb1a57e42” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gary Yukl, 1989)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gary Yukl, 1989)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gary Yukl, 1989)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gary Yukl, 1989). leadership behavior includes actions such as observing, monitoring, and evaluating classroom practices and instructional procedures and protecting teachers from internal and external distractions from their teaching responsibilities ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/IJEM-05-2016-0113”, “ISSN” : “0951-354X”, “abstract” : “Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model on studentsu2019 academic achievement that is well grounded in the academic research in the domain. The paper aims to weave together the divergent research findings into a comprehensive model for use by all the stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach It is a literature review-based paper wherein research papers on the factors that influence the academic achievement of the students were studied. The empirical evidence from literature that fits the context of this study was analyzed and used to propose a workable model. Findings A framework to understand the role of factors affecting studentsu2019 academic achievement was proposed. It was found that school leadership and climate together affect the academic achievement of the students, but mediated by the involvement of the parents of the students. Research limitations/implications As this paper is a literature review, a framework on the determinants of academic achievements of the students has be…”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Singh”, “given” : “Sanjay Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Moza Tahnoon Al Nahyan”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Educational Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “843-851”, “title” : “Role of School Leadership and Climate in Student Achievement: The Mediating Role of Parental Involvement”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “31” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=07b48e35-928f-4eae-af02-c1c066f057e7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni et al., 2017). Leadership is a process whereby planned inspiration is use by one person over other people to guide, structure, and simplify activities and relationships in a group or organization” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Research on leadership and management during the past several decades provide strong evidence that flexible, adaptive leadership is essential for most managers. The evidence comes from several different types of research and many different theories. Flexible, adaptive leadership is especially important when there is substantial change in situation and the leadership behaviors that are relevant for it. Differences in the situation occur within the same position, when a person is transitioning to a different leadership position, or when major changes are made in the current position (e.g., reorganization, merger). This paper provides a brief review of the relevant literature in management and leadership. The relevant literature from the past half century is vast, and my review only provides representative examples of different types of research.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yukl”, “given” : “Gary”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “1-7”, “title” : “The Importance of Flexible Leadership”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=74ea99e0-feae-4a2d-89fb-239a7ce9dd67” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gary Yukl, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gary Yukl, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gary Yukl, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gary Yukl, 2008). While leadership style is an arrangement of the leader who needs to motivate behaviors as required by various situations which is not a natural behavior. So leadership style is a requirement of effective leader who would lead to the success of group work and product of the organization ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Macfarlane”, “given” : “Michelle June”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “title” : “An Exploration Into My Leadership Style as a New Principal by”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e1ae60a7-1ebd-4d52-a7d4-1a6ae2eb645f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Macfarlane, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Macfarlane, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Macfarlane, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Macfarlane, 2009).Organizational policies and process play a vital role in creating the requirement for effective classroom instruction ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wheeler”, “given” : “Christopher W”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chuaratanaphong”, “given” : “Jaithip”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bhumirat”, “given” : “Chinnapat”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eamsukkawat”, “given” : “Suwanna”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shinatrakool”, “given” : “Ravewan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sirijirakal”, “given” : “Veeravan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pumsa-ard”, “given” : “Srisamon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Okakit”, “given” : “Benjalug Sooke”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “SCHOOL CLUSTERS IN THAILAND : A ~ AGE ~ ENT STRATEiGY FOR IMPROVING PRIMARY SCHOOL QUALITY”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5019f402-83d3-4fd2-aae1-597caa15adca” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wheeler et al., n.d.)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wheeler et al., n.d.)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wheeler et al., n.d.)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wheeler et al., n.d.).

School principal play a vital role in shaping and facilitating students learning through their leadership style,communication, attitudes and expectations. Beside this principal who shares school leadership among teachers will be more successful in accomplishing goals ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “1097-9638”, “abstract” : “School success is a complex and abstract notion. Asking questions about what is meant by school success is important, since the ways in which educators and administrators define school success tends to guide their practice, and may have implications for current and future policy initiatives. This qualitative case study explores how one publicly funded Catholic school in Ontario, Canada, conceives of school success. First, a brief historical description of publicly funded Catholic schooling in Ontario is given, followed by a short introduction of the contemporary school success discourse. Next, the methodological approach is described, leading into a detailed account of the study’s findings. Last, a comprehensive discussion follows around a particular publicly funded Catholic school’s notions of success in their local context. This study pays particular attention to the question of whether or not narrow achievement priorities from the provincial government dominate local school discourse and practices.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pollock”, “given” : “Katina”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “309-334”, “title” : “Administrator and teachers’ perceptions of school success in a publicly funded Catholic school in Ontario, Canada”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “16” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=de21ae4e-0f55-4997-a92a-4968bb3283c9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pollock, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pollock, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pollock, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pollock, 2013). Many studies concluded that school principal have indirect effect on students’ academic achievements. While a rare number of studies explain that school leadership has indirect effect on students’ academic achievements ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/09578231011027860”, “ISBN” : “0320130029”, “ISSN” : “0957-8234”, “PMID” : “42012058”, “abstract” : “The influence of school leadership styles and culture on students’ achievement in Cyprus primary schools”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kythreotis”, “given” : “Andreas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pashiardis”, “given” : “Petros”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kyriakides”, “given” : “Leonidas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Educational Administration”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “218-240”, “title” : “The influence of school leadership styles and culture on students’ achievement in Cyprus primary schools”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “48” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=301d5c63-c8b4-4473-8c9d-940537df8f9d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kythreotis et al., 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kythreotis et al., 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kythreotis et al., 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kythreotis et al., 2010). This argument is in accordance with the theories, which support that school leadership is categorized by one to one relationships between the leader and the follower ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/0013161X03261742”, “ISSN” : “0013161X”, “abstract” : “Transformational approaches to leadership have increasingly been advocated for schools. Research evidence suggests that the effect of leadership on student learning outcomes is mediated by school conditions such as goals, structure, people, and school culture. Using the combined approach of multilevel analysis and structural modeling, this study investigated the relationships of leadership with school learning culture.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Barnett”, “given” : “Kerry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “McCormick”, “given” : “John”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Administration Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “page” : “406-434”, “title” : “Leadership and individual principal-teacher relationships in schools”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “40” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=615405e3-d226-4ba4-899b-a0a9badcd19c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Barnett ; McCormick, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Barnett ; McCormick, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Barnett ; McCormick, 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Barnett & McCormick, 2004). Leadership consists of different styles such as autocratic leadership, directive leadership, transformational leadership and transactional leadership but in our study, we focused on the transformational and participative leadership style and their influence on students’ academic achievements.

2.2.1. Transformational leadership:
Transformational leadership style is style in which leader seek to change the personal values of their followers to achieve the desired result ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.08.001”, “ISBN” : “10489843”, “ISSN” : “10489843”, “PMID” : “8190083”, “abstract” : “The multi-dimensionality of the transformational leadership construct has been under debate in the last decades. To shed more light on this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis (k = 58 studies), examining the transformational leadership sub-dimensions and their links to leader personality and performance in order to gather empirical evidence of the multi-dimensionality of transformational leadership. First, the results showed that the Big 5 personality traits are directly linked to transformational leadership sub-dimensions and to the overall measure, and are indirectly linked to leader performance. Interestingly, however, different combinations of the personality traits are differentially related to the transformational leadership behaviors. For instance, whereas inspirational motivation is related to all personality traits, only openness to experience and agreeableness affect individualized consideration. These findings emphasize the importance of examining the transformational leadership sub-dimensions separately to gain a deeper understanding of the nature and the antecedents of these leadership behaviors.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Deinert”, “given” : “Anika”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Homan”, “given” : “Astrid C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boer”, “given” : “Diana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Voelpel”, “given” : “Sven C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gutermann”, “given” : “Daniela”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Leadership Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1095-1120”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “Transformational leadership sub-dimensions and their link to leaders’ personality and performance”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “26” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b7c62964-359d-4552-8135-9d11e70eb87d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Deinert, Homan, Boer, Voelpel, & Gutermann, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Deinert, Homan, Boer, Voelpel, & Gutermann, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Deinert, Homan, Boer, Voelpel, & Gutermann, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Deinert, Homan, Boer, Voelpel, & Gutermann, 2015). This leadership style has its origins in James McGregor Burns’s (1978) publication in which he studied about the characteristics of leaders,by conducting survey of many types of organizations, to involve with staff in ways that inspired them to new levels of energy, commitment, and moral purpose ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/1521-3773(20010316)40:6<9823::AID-ANIE9823>3.3.CO;2-C”, “ISBN” : “0805847626, 9780805847628”, “ISSN” : “17266890”, “PMID” : “21635741”, “abstract” : “n”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Burns”, “given” : “James Macgregor”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bass”, “given” : “Bernard M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Handbook”, “given” : “The Bass”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Creative Commons”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “1-5”, “title” : “Transformational leadership”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ee947cd1-d108-450a-805c-4e07c5f5ee0a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Burns, Bass, & Handbook, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Burns, Bass, & Handbook, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Burns, Bass, & Handbook, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Burns, Bass, ; Handbook, 2008). It was recognized that by identifying the capacity to work together to handle challenges and to reach the determined goals, energy and commitment is key element.

Transform leaders can modify followers’ values so that followers are encouraged to accept group goals and work together toward common objective and shared vision ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “1048-9843”, “abstract” : “This study examines the impact of transformational leader behaviors on organizational citizenship behaviors, and the potential mediating role played by subordinates’ trust and satisfaction in that process. Measures of six transformational leader behaviors (Articulating a Vision, Providing an Appropriate Model, Fostering the Acceptance of Group Goals, High Performance Expectations, Individualized Support, and Intellectual Stimulation), one transactional leader behavior (Contingent Reward Behavior), employees’ trust in their leader, and satisfaction were obtained from 988 exempt employees of a large petrochemical company. Matching evaluations of five citizenship behaviors of these employees (Altruism, Conscientiousness, Courtesy, Civic Virtue, and Sportsmanship) were obtained from their supervisors. In order to determine whether transformational behaviors augment the impact of transactional behaviors, their effects on followers’ trust, satisfaction, and citizenship behaviors were examined in the context of the effect of transactional leader behaviors on these same”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Podsakoff”, “given” : “Philip M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mackenzie”, “given” : “Scott B”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Moorman”, “given” : “Robert H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fetter”, “given” : “Richard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Leadership Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1990” }, “page” : “107-142”, “title” : “Transformational Leader Behaviors and Their Effects on Followers’ Trust in Leader, Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=623f886a-2a16-43af-a25c-effbe9581880” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990). Numerous studies have suggested that transformational leaders’ can inspire and motivate subordinates at a great level ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/03637751.2010.499368”, “ISBN” : “03637751”, “ISSN” : “03637751”, “PMID” : “55568574”, “abstract” : “The literature on both the Transformational and Charismatic theories of leadership espouse the importance of communication as part of the leadership phenomena. However, the existing measurement scales (The Multidimensional Leadership Questionnaire, the Congeru2013Kanungo Charisma Scale, the Followership Scale and the Romance of Leadership Scale) that are used to assess both the Transformational and Charismatic Theories fail to adequately address and measure the communication behaviors that are believed to be a part of charisma. Four-hundred twenty-two respondents completed the standard measurement scales and were asked to define u201ccharismau201d and to discuss the communication behaviors of a charismatic leader. Using text analysis and correlations, no relationships were found between the existing scales and the definitions and behaviors associated with charisma. This manuscript suggests the creation of a new leadership measurement that includes charismatic communication behaviors to assist in a proper understandin…”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Levine”, “given” : “Kenneth J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Muenchen”, “given” : “Robert A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brooks”, “given” : “Abby M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Communication Monographs”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “576-591”, “title” : “Measuring transformational and charismatic leadership: Why isn’t charisma measured?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “77” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d59f48a8-6eec-4884-9e00-a10ac344219c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Levine, Muenchen, & Brooks, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Levine, Muenchen, & Brooks, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Levine, Muenchen, & Brooks, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Levine, Muenchen, ; Brooks, 2010). Furthermore, transformational leaders affect the students’ academic achievements by acting as role models ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zia-ur-rehman”, “given” : “Muhammad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Javed”, “given” : “Ms Saman”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-30”, “title” : “Examination of the impression management of transformational leadership in public sector and governance”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cc0eafe6-fb26-4d77-8ee3-66cb09efca2e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Zia-ur-rehman & Javed, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Zia-ur-rehman & Javed, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Zia-ur-rehman & Javed, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Zia-ur-rehman & Javed, 2015). the leader validates his/her belief in the mission of the organization and provides the students with an effective role model through his/her behavior. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bono”, “given” : “J. E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Judge”, “given” : “T. A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Follower perceptions of leaders: The joint effects of follower characteristics, social networks, and contextual factors.”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2000” }, “page” : “1-40”, “title” : “Responses to transformational leadership: Are some followers immune?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=74e6baae-90a3-4da3-8ef2-f199f97392f6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bono & Judge, 2000)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bono & Judge, 2000)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bono & Judge, 2000)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bono & Judge, 2000).In transformational leadership style one or more teachers connected with others in such a way that school heads and teachers raised higher levels of commitment, devotion, inspiration and ethics ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.15405/epsbs.2016.09.64”, “abstract” : “Following expansive changes in the management of schools and the methods of organizing the teaching as well as the changes in the styles of leadership as the function of management, contemporary approaches to leadership: transactional, charismatic, transformational and interactive become more often the focus of research interest. Each of these theoretical approaches has far-reaching impacts and values not only in time but also in a certain context. However, in this paper we give priority to transformational leadership taking into consideration the claim that transformational leadership style is the most suitable for guiding the students within the school conditions. This type of claim has its stronghold in these three points: 1) the ethical dimension of transformational leadership, that is, the moral basis; 2) the validity of previous researches supported by evidence, and 3) evidences of the leaders’ practice in the field of education. (C) 2016 Published by Future Academy www.FutureAcademy.org.uk”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jovanovic”, “given” : “Dragana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ciric”, “given” : “Marina”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April 2016”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “496-503”, “title” : “Benefits of Transformational Leadership in the Context of Education”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=62d8f503-d3a9-4442-aaf6-7cffdeb68cc6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jovanovic ; Ciric, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jovanovic ; Ciric, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jovanovic ; Ciric, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jovanovic & Ciric, 2016).

Previous studiesconceptualizes transformational leadership along eight dimensions such as building school vision, establishing school goals, providing intellectual stimulation, offering individualized support , modelling best practices and important organizational values, demonstrating high performance expectations, creating a productive school culture and developing structures to foster participation in school decisions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Leithwood”, “given” : “Kenneth”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jantzi”, “given” : “Doris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “title” : “Effects Of Transformational Leadership On Organizational Conditions AThend Student Engagement With School Kenneth Leithwood and Doris Jantzi”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9bf7d17-e902-4f66-8cfc-98380edb4168” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood ; Jantzi, 1999)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood ; Jantzi, 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood ; Jantzi, 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kenneth Leithwood & Jantzi, 1999). Transformational leadership is always connected to higher order values that recognize morality ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/1521-3773(20010316)40:6;9823::AID-ANIE9823;3.3.CO;2-C”, “ISBN” : “0805847626, 9780805847628”, “ISSN” : “17266890”, “PMID” : “21635741”, “abstract” : “n”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Burns”, “given” : “James Macgregor”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bass”, “given” : “Bernard M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Handbook”, “given” : “The Bass”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Creative Commons”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “1-5”, “title” : “Transformational leadership”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ee947cd1-d108-450a-805c-4e07c5f5ee0a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Burns et al., 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Burns et al., 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Burns et al., 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Burns et al., 2008). According to him, the level of morale values and motivation increased due to the mutual corporation between leaders and followers. Burns actually defines transformational leadership as a moral leadership by describing the characteristics of this style. Many authors have found that transformational leadership continuously predict theenthusiasm of teachers to dedicate extra effort and change in their teaching practices. Manyfindings linked transformational leadership with organizational learning, organizational effectiveness and organizational principles ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/0013161X94030004006”, “ISBN” : “0013-161X”, “ISSN” : “15523519”, “PMID” : “803973233”, “abstract” : “School restructuring creates new expectations of those who offer leadership to schools, expectations not well captured in images of instructional leadership. This article describes a 4-year program of research about transformational forms of leadership in schools responding to a variety of restructuring initiatives. Evidence is summarized about transformational leadership practices and behaviors in schools, their effects on a variety of school and teacher variables, and thought processes that give rise to such leadership practices. On the basis of this evidence, the author argues for the promise of transformational leadership in school-restructuring contexts.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Leithwood”, “given” : “Kenneth”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Administration Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1994” }, “page” : “498-518”, “title” : “Leadership for School Restructuring”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “30” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=82182766-2f75-4a97-99c9-dc9909a7b5f2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood, 1994)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood, 1994)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood, 1994)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kenneth Leithwood, 1994). Also, by studying the transformational leadership in the educational context, it is diagnosing that changing in school and classroom environment is necessary to improve the learning of students ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/978-90-481-2660-6”, “ISBN” : “978-90-481-2659-0”, “ISSN” : “09226389”, “PMID” : “8190083”, “abstract” : “Our review of the evidence suggests that successful leadership can play a highly significant and frequently underestimated role in improving student learning. Specifically, the available evidence about the size and nature of the effects of successful leadership on student learning justifies two important claims: 1. Leadership is second only to classroom instruction among all school-related factors that contribute to what students learn at school. While evidence about leadership effects on student learning can be confusing to interpret, much of the existing research actually underestimates its effects. The total (direct and indirect) effects of leadership on student learning account for about a quarter of total school effects.iv This evidence supports the present widespread interest in improving leadership as a key to the successful implementation of large-scale reform. 2. Leadership effects are usually largest where and when they are needed most. Especially when we think of leaders in formal administrative roles, the greater the challenge the greater the impact of their actions on learning. While the evidence shows small but significant effects of leadership actions on student learning across the spectrum of schools, existing research also shows that demonstrated effects of successful leadership are considerably greater in schools that are in more difficult circumstances. Indeed, there are virtually no documented instances of troubled schools being turned around without intervention by a powerful leader. Many other factors may contribute to such turnarounds, but leadership is the catalyst. These results, therefore, point to the value of changing, or adding to, the leadership capacities of underperforming schools as part of their improvement efforts or as part of school reconstitution.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Leithwood”, “given” : “Kenneth”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Louis”, “given” : “Karen Seashore”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Anderson”, “given” : “Stephen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wahlstrom”, “given” : “Kyla”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Wallace Foundation Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement and Ontario Institute for Studies in Education New York NY”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October 20”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “1-90”, “title” : “Second International Handbook of Educational Change”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2007” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d19d7e32-cbe8-4998-82bd-47e6e6c1ceaf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, ; Wahlstrom, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, ; Wahlstrom, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kenneth Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, ; Wahlstrom, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kenneth Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2009). Transformational leaders of the school, whether it comes to teachers or school principals, focus on the reform of schools/classrooms and improving surroundings in the school.

Transformational leadership style in the school context became the subject of research interests and empirical examinations from the last 20 years. After 1999, studies have been based on the investigation of relationship between transformational leadership and many other variables that showed this style has positive impact on satisfaction ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/09578230410534667”, “ISBN” : “09578234”, “ISSN” : “0957-8234”, “PMID” : “42012058”, “abstract” : “Relation of principal transformational leadership to school staff job satisfaction, staff turnover, and school performance”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Griffith”, “given” : “James”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Educational Administration”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “page” : “333-356”, “title” : “Relation of principal transformational leadership to school staff job satisfaction, staff turnover, and school performance”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “42” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0fa3afef-d7e4-4dd8-8876-a4dd78ad11b0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Griffith, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Griffith, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Griffith, 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Griffith, 2004), commitment ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.124”, “ISSN” : “18770428”, “abstract” : “Click This study aimed to determine the level of transformational leadership practices by school principals in the national primary schools in the district of Kinta Selatan, Perak, Malaysia. The four dimensions of transformational leadership studied were individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation and idealized influence. The study also looks at the level of teachersu2019 job satisfaction as well as the relationship with the practice of transformational leadership by the national primary school principalsu2019. The respondents consisted of 275 teachers employed in 12 national primary schools in the district of Kinta Selatan, Perak. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive analysis and Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used to analyze the strength of the relationship. The results showed that the practice of transformational leadership by school principalsu2019 in the district of Kinta Selatan, Perak was moderate and the job satisfaction of primary school teachersu2019 was below satisfactory with a significant relationship between the level of transformational leadership and job satisfaction. The implication of this study is that the school principals should ensure that their leadership performance is always kept high to have a significant relationship with the job satisfaction of primary school teachersu2019.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arokiasamy”, “given” : “Anantha Raj A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Abdullah”, “given” : “Abdul Ghani Kanesan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “@ Shaari”, “given” : “Mohammad Zohir Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ismail”, “given” : “Aziah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “151-157”, “publisher” : “The Author(s)”, “title” : “Transformational Leadership of School Principals and Organizational Health of Primary School Teachers in Malaysia”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “229” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9fde88ae-5093-4871-b95d-7ad858fa5331” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Arokiasamy, Abdullah, @ Shaari, ; Ismail, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Arokiasamy, Abdullah, @ Shaari, ; Ismail, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Arokiasamy, Abdullah, @ Shaari, ; Ismail, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Arokiasamy, Abdullah, @ Shaari, & Ismail, 2016), professional growth ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1590/S0085-56262011005000041”, “ISBN” : “0085-5626”, “ISSN” : “1806-9665”, “abstract” : “The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae). Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kru00fcger”, “given” : “Rodrigo Ferreira”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wendt”, “given” : “Lisiane Dilli”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ribeiro”, “given” : “Paulo Bretanha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Revista Brasileira de Entomologia”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “401-405”, “title” : “The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae)”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “55” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6ff8c9ed-7296-4f9e-9bb4-2333b9a61ef8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(R. F. Kru00fcger, Wendt, ; Ribeiro, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(R. F. Kru00fcger, Wendt, ; Ribeiro, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(R. F. Kru00fcger, Wendt, ; Ribeiro, 2011)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(R. F. Krüger, Wendt, &Ribeiro, 2011), organizational conditions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/09578230010320064”, “ISBN” : “09578234 (ISSN)”, “ISSN” : “0957-8234”, “PMID” : “42012058”, “abstract” : “Most school restucturing initiatives assume significant capacity development on the part of individuals, as well as whole organizations; they also depend on high levels of motivation and commitment to solving the substantial problems associated with the implementation of restructuring initiatives. Transformational approaches to leadership have long been advocated as productive under these conditions, and evidence suggests that transformational practices do contribute to the development of capacity and commitment. Much less evidence is available, however, about whether these socio-psychological effects actually result in organizational change and enhanced organizational outcomes. Survey data from an achieved sample of 1,762 teachers and 9,941 students in one large school district were used to explore the relative effects of transformational leadership practices on selected organizational conditions and student engagement with school. Results demonstrated strong significant effects of such leadership on organizational conditions, and moderate but still significant total effects on student engagement. u00a9 MCB University Press.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Leithwood”, “given” : “K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jantzi”, “given” : “D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Educational Administration”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2000” }, “page” : “112-129”, “title” : “The effects of transformational leadership on organizational conditions and student engagement with school”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “38” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2b0080b9-2022-4961-8b3d-cd60c86d379a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(K Leithwood ; Jantzi, 2000)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(K Leithwood ; Jantzi, 2000)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(K Leithwood ; Jantzi, 2000)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(K Leithwood & Jantzi, 2000), school learning culture ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.15405/epsbs.2016.09.64”, “abstract” : “Following expansive changes in the management of schools and the methods of organizing the teaching as well as the changes in the styles of leadership as the function of management, contemporary approaches to leadership: transactional, charismatic, transformational and interactive become more often the focus of research interest. Each of these theoretical approaches has far-reaching impacts and values not only in time but also in a certain context. However, in this paper we give priority to transformational leadership taking into consideration the claim that transformational leadership style is the most suitable for guiding the students within the school conditions. This type of claim has its stronghold in these three points: 1) the ethical dimension of transformational leadership, that is, the moral basis; 2) the validity of previous researches supported by evidence, and 3) evidences of the leaders’ practice in the field of education. (C) 2016 Published by Future Academy www.FutureAcademy.org.uk”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jovanovic”, “given” : “Dragana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ciric”, “given” : “Marina”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April 2016”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “496-503”, “title” : “Benefits of Transformational Leadership in the Context of Education”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=62d8f503-d3a9-4442-aaf6-7cffdeb68cc6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jovanovic & Ciric, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jovanovic & Ciric, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jovanovic & Ciric, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jovanovic & Ciric, 2016) school cultureADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/0013161X03261742”, “ISSN” : “0013161X”, “abstract” : “Transformational approaches to leadership have increasingly been advocated for schools. Research evidence suggests that the effect of leadership on student learning outcomes is mediated by school conditions such as goals, structure, people, and school culture. Using the combined approach of multilevel analysis and structural modeling, this study investigated the relationships of leadership with school learning culture.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Barnett”, “given” : “Kerry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “McCormick”, “given” : “John”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Administration Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “page” : “406-434”, “title” : “Leadership and individual principal-teacher relationships in schools”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “40” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=615405e3-d226-4ba4-899b-a0a9badcd19c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Barnett & McCormick, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Barnett & McCormick, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Barnett & McCormick, 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Barnett & McCormick, 2004)and school climate ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0419-4217”, “ISSN” : “04194217”, “PMID” : “520443707”, “abstract” : “The headlines of any major newspaper give evidence that American culture is fascinated with the results of its leaders, whether they are political or sports leaders. The scholarly work on leaders is also vast. While recent history may show an increasing level of study, human interest in leadership is not a recent phenomenon. Discussion of the study of leadership can be found in the classical works of the Greeks, Romans and Chinese. Leadership has an impact on all areas of society. The empirical literature has shown that good leadership promotes good organizational performance while bad leadership degrades the quality of life for those associated with it. Additional research has shown that transformational leadership is akin to good leadership. For this reason, researchers are drawn to better understand transformational leadership and how it is developed. Leadership development is a vast area of literature, but there is little research that promotes an understanding of how development experiences influence the types of leadership behaviors displayed by leaders. This dissertation sought to address this gap in two ways. First, a new instrument was developed, the Lifetime Leadership Inventory (LLI), that enables researchers to understand the development experiences of the respondent. Second, the LLI was utilized to examine the development experiences of leaders of entrepreneurial companies and correlate those experiences with the behaviors measured by the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) using correlation analysis and Structured Equation Modeling (SEM). The study found significant (u03b1 = 0.05) correlation between many of the antecedent areas explored and the components of transformational leadership measured by the MLQ. These included positive correlations between transformational leadership components and experiences with mentors, professional leadership experiences, and formal leadership development programs. A negative correlation was found between transformational leadership components and leadership experiences in high school and college. The practical results of the study include implications for hiring decisions and the design of leadership training programs. 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The transformational style is broad because it provides a normative approach to school leadership which focuses mainly on the process by which leaders seek to influence school outcomes rather than on the nature or direction of those outcomes. It may also be criticized as being a vehicle for control over teachers and more likely to be accepted by the leader than the directed (Chirichello 1999).

2.2.2. Participative leadership:
Participative leadership is a leadership style which involves the sharing of problem solving by administrator through meetingwith their subordinates before making a decision. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.03.004”, “ISBN” : “1048-9843”, “ISSN” : “10489843”, “abstract” : “This experimental study examined transformational leadership in the context of traditional teams using face-to-face communication and virtual teams using computer-mediated communication. Thirty-nine leaders led both face-to-face and virtual teams. Repeated-measures analyses revealed similar mean levels of transformational leadership in both team types; however, leader rank order varied across team type. Post hoc analyses revealed that the most effective leaders where those who increased their transformational leadership in virtual teams. Furthermore, analyses at the team level revealed that the effect of transformational leadership on team performance was stronger in virtual than in face-to-face teams. Team-member ratings of transformational leadership were equally linked to project satisfaction in face-to-face and virtual teams. Considered as a whole, our results suggest that transformational leadership has a stronger effect in teams that use only computer-mediated communication, and that leaders who increase their transformational leadership behaviors in such teams achieve higher levels of team performance. u00a9 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Purvanova”, “given” : “Radostina K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bono”, “given” : “Joyce E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Leadership Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “343-357”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “20” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=87a8024d-1160-448a-978b-023c7e745a88” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Purvanova & Bono, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Purvanova & Bono, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Purvanova & Bono, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Purvanova & Bono, 2009). In participative leadership the decision-making processes of the group shouldbe the dominant focus of the group” (Leithwood et al 1999, p.12). This is a normative model which is based on three criteria: participation will increase school effectiveness, participation is acceptable by democratic principles and leadership is potentially available to any genuine participant (Leithwood et al 1999, p.12). The head or principal is expected to adopt strategies which allow that issues arise from different parts of the organization can be resolved in a complex cooperating manner. The head of school is the organizer of a fundamentally participative process (Bush 1995, pp.64–65)
Participative leadership may also be conceptualized as ‘distributed’. Neuman and Simmons (2000) argue that it is better to keep away from ‘single person’ leadership because it creates stresses cooperative decision-making: Distributed leadership involve everyone connected with schools…to take responsibility for student achievement and suppose leadership roles in areas in which they are competent and skilled. (p.10) Sergiovanni (1984, p.13) also highlight the importance of a participative approach to connectstaff together to reduce pressures on school principals. “The problems of leadership will be less if leadership functions and roles are shared and if the concept of leadership concentration were to emerge as a practical replacement for principal leadership” (original author’s emphasis).

Beside this supervisor to allow his/her subordinates to take a certain degree of responsibility in the workplace ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/09585192.2014.934890”, “ISBN” : “0958-5192”, “ISSN” : “14664399”, “abstract” : “This study examines the mediating effects of cognitive trust and affective trust on the relationship between supervisorsu2019 participative leadership behavior and subordinate work outcomes, using data obtained from 247 dyads in a manufacturing organization located in mainland China. Structural equation modeling revealed that while affective trust fully mediated the relationships between participative leadership of supervisor and subordinate job performance and organizational citizenship behavior, cognitive trust had non-significant effects. These findings underscore the importance of interpersonal interactions between the supervisor and subordinate for engendering subordinate work outcomes. They also lend support to the exchange (relationship)-based explanation as to how trust enhances the response of subordinates to the participative leadership behavior of their immediate supervisor, given that affective trust involves a process of social exchange between both parties over an extended period of time.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Miao”, “given” : “Qing”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Newman”, “given” : “Alexander”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Huang”, “given” : “Xu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Human Resource Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “20”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “2796-2810”, “title” : “The impact of participative leadership on job performance and organizational citizenship behavior: Distinguishing between the mediating effects of affective and cognitive trust”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “25” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f6af6982-c437-446f-bcfa-47f78fbd08e0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Miao et al., 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Miao et al., 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Miao et al., 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Miao et al., 2014). There is a signi?cant body of empirical work that demonstrates the positive impact of participative leadership on work outcomes in a variety of cultural and industrial contexts ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/09585192.2014.934890”, “ISBN” : “0958-5192”, “ISSN” : “14664399”, “abstract” : “This study examines the mediating effects of cognitive trust and affective trust on the relationship between supervisorsu2019 participative leadership behavior and subordinate work outcomes, using data obtained from 247 dyads in a manufacturing organization located in mainland China. Structural equation modeling revealed that while affective trust fully mediated the relationships between participative leadership of supervisor and subordinate job performance and organizational citizenship behavior, cognitive trust had non-significant effects. These findings underscore the importance of interpersonal interactions between the supervisor and subordinate for engendering subordinate work outcomes. 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Previous Studies suggest that subordinates often prefer participative decision making, regardless of their levels of supposed in?uences on the organization ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/09585192.2010.516588”, “ISBN” : “09585192”, “ISSN” : “09585192”, “PMID” : “54594950”, “abstract” : “Increased subordinate participation in management decisions has been a recognized trend in developed Western organizations in recent decades. This study examines a manageru2019s propensity for engaging in participative decision making (PPDM)in two emerging Latin American nations, Mexico and Peru. Although these two nations possess some degree of cultural similarity, two key differences were identified. First, Mexican managers who believed thatPDMreduces a manageru2019s power base were also likely than others to see a positive link betweenPDMand organizational effectiveness. In contrast, Peruvian managers who believed that PDM reduces a manageru2019s power base were less likely than others to see a positive link between PDM and organizational effectiveness. Second, Mexican managers operating in participative organizational cultures were less committed than other managers to participation as a management philosophy and to their organizations. In contrast, Peruvian managers operating in participative organizational cultures were more committed than other managers to participation and to their organizations. Conclusions and directions for future research are also presented.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Parnell”, “given” : “John A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Human Resource Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “13”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “2323-2338”, “title” : “Propensity for participative decision making in Latin America: Mexico and Peru”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “21” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=74d5a64e-7d25-4b93-b5e2-33546c094110” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Parnell, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Parnell, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Parnell, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Parnell, 2010).

Some studies indicate that participation is certainly related to school environment for improvement of planning policies and for the adoption of innovations ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/0013161X99355003”, “ISBN” : “0013161X”, “ISSN” : “0013-161X”, “abstract” : “A study examined the intersection of teacher empowerment and the capacity for organizational learning. Data from 24 site-managed public schools, including survey reports from 910 teachers, school demographic profiles, and coding reports from 24 teams of field researchers on key areas of the schools’ restructuring, were collected. A consistent relationship between the capacity for organizational learning and teacher empowerment, measured as an organizational characteristic as well as an experience of individual teachers, emerged. The relationship was especially strong for empowerment in the domains of teachers’ work lives and students’ school experiences, the areas constituting the core technologies of schoolsu2014teaching and learning. Empowerment in each of the domains, for teachers within schools, contributed to the capacity for organizational learning. The results and their implications are discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Marks”, “given” : “Helen M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Louis”, “given” : “Karen Seashore”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Administration Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “page” : “707-750”, “title” : “Teacher Empowerment and the Capacity for Organizational Learning”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “35” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=723045d8-6ae8-4cb9-a131-60d19ea5e700” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Marks & Louis, 1999)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Marks & Louis, 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Marks & Louis, 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Marks ; Louis, 1999). Other studies specify that teacher participation is related to implementation of programmatic decisions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “E2155-9635, E2155-9635”, “abstract” : “This paper reports upon a study on the effectiveness of participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) as perceived by 282 stakeholders in one school division in the Philippines. The study also examined the correlation between the indicators of PSALM effectiveness and the trust levels of the stakeholders. Questionnaires were used to gather data and responses were tabulated and analyzed using the SPSS. Findings show that the following indicators of PSALM effectiveness were significantly related to the stakeholders’ levels of trust: usefulness of committee structure, satisfactory composition of the advisory school council (ASC), adequacy of information for ASC decision-making, adequacy of time for doing ASC business, ASC influence on teaching and learning, and overall ASC functioning. It is suggested that school leaders wishing to enhance the levels of trust among the stakeholders in their schools should consider these indicators of PSALM effectiveness in carrying out their leadership duties and responsibilities.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gamage”, “given” : “David”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “San Antonio”, “given” : “Diosdado”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “20”, “title” : “Effective Participatory School Administration, Leadership, and Management: Does It Affect the Trust Levels of Stakeholders?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=09020e98-80de-4d62-b5cf-2d50062c73bc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gamage & San Antonio, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gamage & San Antonio, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gamage & San Antonio, 2006)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gamage ; San Antonio, 2006) while others suggest that participation creates opportunities for educational improvement, it may not lead to any expressive changes at the classroom level ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lennon”, “given” : “Sean M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ed”, “given” : “D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “14”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “32-40”, “title” : “The Triadic Trait Model for Teachers : Teacher Leadership as a Classroom Paradigm”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=68133651-e3ad-4dc6-8d53-05def14b69f1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lennon & Ed, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lennon & Ed, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lennon & Ed, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lennon ; Ed, 2013). The comparatively small number of studies that examines relations between participative leadership and student learning also presents mixed findings While some studies show’ a positive relationship between participation and student achievement ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2307/1164259”, “ISSN” : “0162-3737, 0162-3737”, “abstract” : “The study examines relationships among variations in the implementation of participative decision making, instructional improvement, and student learning in 1 school district of about 3,300 students over 5 years. Findings support the conclusion that teacher participation in decision making is related to instructional improvement and better student outcomes.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Smylie”, “given” : “Mark A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lazarus”, “given” : “Virginia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brownlee-Conyers”, “given” : “Jean”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1996” }, “page” : “181-198”, “title” : “Instructional Outcomes of School-Based Participative Decision Making”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b2205a72-7bf4-4280-b065-228428ac0b22” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Smylie, Lazarus, & Brownlee-Conyers, 1996)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Smylie, Lazarus, & Brownlee-Conyers, 1996)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Smylie, Lazarus, & Brownlee-Conyers, 1996)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Smylie, Lazarus, & Brownlee-Conyers, 1996), others find no evidence of this relationship ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3102/01623737016003302”, “ISSN” : “0162-3737”, “abstract” : “This article presents findings from a study of teachers’ participation in decision making. Data gathered from a large metropolitan district involved in restructuring are analyzed to isolate dimensions of participation and to explore linkages between these dimensions and several outcome variables. Results indicate that participation did not improve outcomes for teachers or students and that teachers did not feel sufficiently involved in decision making was sufficient despite working in a reform district. These findings suggest that restructuring models must be reexamined to identify and remedy obstacles that inhibit the success of reform efforts.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Taylor”, “given” : “Dianne L”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bogotch”, “given” : “Ira E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1994” }, “page” : “302-319”, “title” : “School-Level Effects of Teachers’ Participation in Decision Making”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “16” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=86091e71-e5be-4627-a20e-d71ed3ccd24f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Taylor & Bogotch, 1994)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Taylor & Bogotch, 1994)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Taylor & Bogotch, 1994)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Taylor & Bogotch, 1994).

2.3. School leadership style and students’ academic achievements:
School leadership affects the school environment, creating different standards for the behaviors that staff members follow ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1126/science.1170769”, “ISBN” : “0036-8075”, “ISSN” : “00368075”, “PMID” : “19372432”, “abstract” : “A 2-year follow-up of a randomized field experiment previously reported in Science is presented. A subtle intervention to lessen minority students’ psychological threat related to being negatively stereotyped in school was tested in an experiment conducted three times with three independent cohorts (N = 133, 149, and 134). The intervention, a series of brief but structured writing assignments focusing students on a self-affirming value, reduced the racial achievement gap. Over 2 years, the grade point average (GPA) of African Americans was, on average, raised by 0.24 grade points. Low-achieving African Americans were particularly benefited. Their GPA improved, on average, 0.41 points, and their rate of remediation or grade repetition was less (5% versus 18%). Additionally, treated students’ self-perceptions showed long-term benefits. Findings suggest that because initial psychological states and performance determine later outcomes by providing a baseline and initial trajectory for a recursive process, apparently small but early alterations in trajectory can have long-term effects. Implications for psychological theory and educational practice are discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cohen”, “given” : “Geoffrey L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Garcia”, “given” : “Julio”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Purdie-Vaughns”, “given” : “Valerie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Apfel”, “given” : “Nancy”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brzustoski”, “given” : “Patricia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5925”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “400-403”, “title” : “Recursive processes in self-affirmation: Intervening to close the minority achievement gap”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “324” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cc196efd-42cf-4b0b-b00e-03c472bb2cf5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Cohen, Garcia, Purdie-Vaughns, Apfel, & Brzustoski, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Cohen, Garcia, Purdie-Vaughns, Apfel, & Brzustoski, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Cohen, Garcia, Purdie-Vaughns, Apfel, & Brzustoski, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Cohen, Garcia, Purdie-Vaughns, Apfel, ; Brzustoski, 2009). School heads leadership behaviors, style, and skills influence the school environment, staff characteristics, and academic performance ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4337/9781849809184.00018”, “ISBN” : “9781849809184”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Osland”, “given” : “J.S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bird”, “given” : “A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mendenhall”, “given” : “M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Handbook of Research in International Human Resource Management, Second Edition”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “August 2016”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “Developing global mindset and global leadership capabilities”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84812d7b-f1ec-4dce-9566-d34039162c00” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Osland, Bird, & Mendenhall, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Osland, Bird, & Mendenhall, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Osland, Bird, & Mendenhall, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Osland, Bird, ; Mendenhall, 2012). Numerous studies identified that school leadership behavior, and style, can have a positive effect on student achievement ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/IJEM-05-2016-0113”, “ISSN” : “0951-354X”, “abstract” : “Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model on studentsu2019 academic achievement that is well grounded in the academic research in the domain. The paper aims to weave together the divergent research findings into a comprehensive model for use by all the stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach It is a literature review-based paper wherein research papers on the factors that influence the academic achievement of the students were studied. The empirical evidence from literature that fits the context of this study was analyzed and used to propose a workable model. Findings A framework to understand the role of factors affecting studentsu2019 academic achievement was proposed. It was found that school leadership and climate together affect the academic achievement of the students, but mediated by the involvement of the parents of the students. Research limitations/implications As this paper is a literature review, a framework on the determinants of academic achievements of the students has be…”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Singh”, “given” : “Sanjay Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Moza Tahnoon Al Nahyan”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Educational Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “843-851”, “title” : “Role of School Leadership and Climate in Student Achievement: The Mediating Role of Parental Involvement”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “31” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=07b48e35-928f-4eae-af02-c1c066f057e7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Abdulraheem Ali Alhosni et al., 2017). Previous studies describe a positive linear significant relationship between the heads of school and teachers leadership style on student achievement ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/S2212-5671(16)30321-5”, “ISBN” : “6096684238”, “ISSN” : “22125671”, “abstract” : “Homestay operators in Malaysia have long been pursuing their homestay program assisted by the government and their respective communities. However, the homestay operators are still confronted with issues such as the declining number of tourist arrivals which could not generate additional income as expected. This has created other problems such as low commitment level among themselves. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify the determinants that affect the commitment among homestay operators in Malaysia such as quality of life attributes, attitudes, community roles and the role of government. This study used a survey method using a questionnaire involving 394 homestay operators throughout Malaysia. The study population comprised of 3,211 homestay operators who were registered with the Ministry of Tourism Malaysia as at December 2011. The sample was selected using probability sampling method through multistage cluster sampling procedure. A total of 396 questionnaires were distributed using face to face method but only 337 questionnaires were used for purposes of data analysis. The finding showed that the level of commitment among homestay operators was moderate. The four determinants of the study namely quality of life attributes, attitudes, role of community and the role of government have had positive relationships and become significant predictors to the commitment of the homestay operators in Malaysia.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yusof”, “given” : “Yusnita”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Muda”, “given” : “Mohd Shaladdin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Salleh”, “given” : “Ahmad Munir”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ibrahim”, “given” : “Yahaya”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Amin”, “given” : “Wan Abdul Aziz Wan Mohd”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Procedia Economics and Finance”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “November 2015”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “256-261”, “publisher” : “The Author(s)”, “title” : “The Determinants of Commitment among Homestay Operators in Malaysia”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “39” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=34910264-5e7b-4bda-ac4d-cf5660cb7d3d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yusof, Muda, Salleh, Ibrahim, & Amin, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yusof, Muda, Salleh, Ibrahim, & Amin, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yusof, Muda, Salleh, Ibrahim, & Amin, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Yusof, Muda, Salleh, Ibrahim, ; Amin, 2016).When the school head works in parallel with the school teachers, he/she developed a disciplined atmosphere which enhances student outcomes. Moreover, school heads should focus on improving the school’s climate to obtain better relationships with teachers, and students in order to enhance the students’ academic achievements ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/13603120701576241”, “ISBN” : “1464-5092, 1360-3124”, “ISSN” : “13603124”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Exemplary, Recognized and Acceptable schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory. Significant differences were found on all 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory, with Exemplary schools outu2010performing Acceptable schools. No statistical significance was found between Exemplary and Recognized schools. Statistical significance was found, with Recognized schools outu2010performing Acceptable schools on the Organizational Health dimensions of Goal focus and Adaptation. The findings of this study suggest that students achieve higher scores on standardized tests in schools with healthy learning environments.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “MacNeil”, “given” : “Angus J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Prater”, “given” : “Doris L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Busch”, “given” : “Steve”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Leadership in Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “73-84”, “title” : “The effects of school culture and climate on student achievement”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “12” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=11acbf09-f5cb-4f0f-8b54-7b5da829325f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(MacNeil, Prater, & Busch, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(MacNeil, Prater, & Busch, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(MacNeil, Prater, & Busch, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(MacNeil, Prater, ; Busch, 2009). The teaching environment and materials’ importance to increase the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process. The management made by a teacher has is momentous in the process of conveying the knowledge to the learner better, easier and also being permanent. The active participation of students in the learning and teaching process, how the demonstration of information is demand and achieving success will also be high in the same proportions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “13079298”, “abstract” : “The aim was to determine elementary mathematics teacher candidates’ problem solving skills and analyze problem solving skills according to various variables. The data were obtained from total 306 different grade teacher candidates receiving education in Department of Elementary Mathematics Education, Buca Faculty of Education, Dokuz Eylul University in the fall term of 2012-2013. As a result of analyses, there was not a significant difference between male and female candidates’ perceptions of their problem solving skills. There was a significant difference on their problem solving skills and impulsive approach to problem solving according to grades. Additionally, there was not a significant difference between their problem solving skills and their level of family income, settlement and region where they were lived before coming to the university and leisure activities. It was suggested to give weight to achievement that will leave a positive lasting impact on students’ attitudes like metacognitive skills, for the reason that students’ impulsive approach to the problems. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kaya”, “given” : “Deniz”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Izgiol”, “given” : “Dilek”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kesan”, “given” : “Cenk”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “295-313”, “title” : “The investigation of elementary mathematics teacher candidates’ problem solving skills according to various variables”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ecd30881-500e-4903-bfaf-cbfe0bb00e2d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kaya, Izgiol, ; Kesan, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kaya, Izgiol, ; Kesan, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kaya, Izgiol, ; Kesan, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kaya, Izgiol, & Kesan, 2014).

There is limited number of research on the leadership relationship of teachers who act in classroom as an educational group but there is a adequately research on school leadership but mostly focused on prescribed positions of leaders, specifically the effects of school heads and teachers leadership on school environment ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1942775112455265”, “ISSN” : “1942-7751”, “abstract” : “This article addresses the leadership preparation line of inquiry developed in the past decade by the University Council for Educational Administration/Learning and Teaching in Educational Leadership Special Interest Group Taskforce on Evaluating Leadership Preparation Programs, and it particularly addresses the series of survey instruments developed to pursue this line of inquiry. The article describes these collective instruments, titled u201cSchool Leadership Preparation and Practice Survey,u201d and identifies key constructs measured in each instrument as well as uses for each instrument. The article concludes with an explanation of the potential benefits of utilizing a common set of measures to promote research on leadership preparation.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pounder”, “given” : “Diana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Research on Leadership Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “254-274”, “title” : “School Leadership Preparation and Practice Survey Instruments and Their Uses”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “7” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=52c3b3a0-55ab-428a-b54a-2ec072568941” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pounder, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pounder, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pounder, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pounder, 2012). In a world of growing complication, the progress of schools must include the experience of teachers who are leaders in their classrooms but also the experience of the students structure of transformational leadership are matched with the organizational values and structure of school that effect on the importance to connect people with their job and their preference and willingness to take risks of change. Teachers who exercise transformational leadership style prove, motivate and inspire students towards the achievement of excellent results. learning process is name of continuous adjustment, therefore learning is transformations ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Reflective teaching has become a dominant paradigm in second language teacher education in recent years. This paper reviews the conceptions and practice of reflective teaching in second language teacher education. The first part of the paper identifies five orientations to reflective teaching in the training and development of second language teachers: reflective teaching as thoughtful practice, as a model of teacher preparation, as organized pro-fessional development, as classroom inquiry, and as a means to social justice. The second part of the paper outlines the methods and strategies that have been proposed for implementing reflective teaching in preservice teacher education programmes and in professional development activities for serv-ing language teachers. The paper finishes with a critique of reflective teach-ing as it is conceived and practised in second language teacher education. This review will show that in the field of second language teacher education, more effort is needed in defining reflective teaching and reflection, and in researching the process of language teachers’ reflection and its effect on classroom teaching.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sze”, “given” : “Paul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Research Journal”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “141”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “title” : “Reflective Teaching in Second Language Teacher Education: An Overview”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6380e47c-4d38-4417-971a-29cc5b83b7ad” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sze, 1999)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sze, 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sze, 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sze, 1999). Finally statement that transformational leadership in schools works “because it fits better the way in which schools are organized and work because of its ability to tap higher levels of human potential.”ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brandt”, “given” : “Ron”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Leadership”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1992” }, “page” : “46-49”, “title” : “On Rethinking Leadership : A Conversation with Sergiovanni”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “49” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7f29e89d-3aa9-494d-b55d-e646c939b02c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Brandt, 1992)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Brandt, 1992)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Brandt, 1992)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Brandt, 1992).

Situational leadership theory explain that the appropriate leadership style is based on the followers and the task ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/j.1365-2934.2005.00573.x”, “ISBN” : “09660429”, “ISSN” : “09660429”, “PMID” : “16238689”, “abstract” : “Situational leadership: a model for leading telecommuters Aim To describe a leadership model aimed at assisting health care leaders to incorporate situational leadership into their practice when leading telecommuters. Background Technological developments have grown in two areas, including medicine and communication, which have facilitated an enhanced information exchange in health care. These technological enhancements have allowed the health care arena to expand and improve its capabilities, including the delivery of health care and the information exchange among patients, providers and workers. Key issues Traditional leadership styles must be modified to respond to the needs of telecommuters. Situational leadership gives structured guidance to the nursing lea- der when managing telecommuters. Conclusions Situational leadership has been used in the traditional work setting and can be used in the virtual workplace. The strategies and techniques used have to be modified for the telecommuter and must focus on increasing communication.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Farmer”, “given” : “Leigh Ann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Nursing Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “page” : “483-489”, “title” : “Situational leadership: A model for leading telecommuters”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “13” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c5fb1d3-2135-4419-bd37-cd86b43b2952” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Farmer, 2005)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Farmer, 2005)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Farmer, 2005)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Farmer, 2005) and for any specific situation; a specific leadership style is effective. On the situational leadership theory, the leader’s effectiveness depends on the willingness and enthusiasm of followers to perform their tasks ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The purpose of this paper was to extend of my previously published paper in domestic journal at Banking and Management Review by School of Economics Ekuitas Bandung, Indonesia. Such paper concluded that Hersey Blanchard’s situational leadership concept is not entirely appropriate when applied to Bank Nagari – Branch Bandung as analysis unit. Therefore this paper try to propose national culture as one of the factors that may be the cause of the discrepancy. This study was theoritical review, especially about the effect national culture on leadership effectiveness of Bank Nagari Branch Bandung. The result illustrated that national culture have a significant effect on leadership effectiveness of Bank Nagari Branch Bandung.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vandayani”, “given” : “Prima”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “7”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “78-82”, “title” : “The impact of national culture on effectiveness of situational leadership Hersey-Blanchard”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8457b281-9046-4977-9672-f234c29a4976” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vandayani, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vandayani, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vandayani, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vandayani, 2015). The hypothesis proposed, based on the above-mentioned literature, is:
H1: Transformational leadership style has a significant relationship with students’ academic achievements
H2: Participative leadership style has a significant relationship with students’ academic achievements.

2.4. Theoretical frame work:
School Leadership style and students academic achievements:
School leadership style
Transformational style
Participative style

Students’ academic achievement
H1

independent variable dependent variable
Chapter 3
Research Methodology
3.0. Chapter Objectives:
The main objective of this chapter is to provide details about the research methodology usedin this research study i.e. nature of sample, research techniques, measurementscales. This chapter gives outline of a country (Pakistan) from where the research data usedin this study have been collected. It also provides insight to the basic characteristics ofresearch sample and data collection procedure; it provides information about themeasurement scales used to measure different constructs of research model.

3.1. Research Design:
This is quantitative study in nature. This research defines and interprets phenomena as it exists.it is concerned with conditions and relationship that exist, opinion that are held, processes that are going on, effects that are evident and trends that are developing. Researcher used questionnaire for data collection. Information was gained in numerical form and five-point rating scale was used in questionnaire.

3.3. Sample and sampling technique:
Appropriate sample size is necessary for the effectiveness and usefulness of the research. Different people have different point of view regarding selection of sample because there is no hard and fast rule for selection of true sample.

I have selected random sampling method in order to get answers relatedto the government secondary school of district Jhang in their leadership style such as transformational and participative leadership on students’ academic achievements. 150 questionnaires were distributed out of which 100 sent back/transfer filled questionnaires followed by one soft notice. After primary screening, from 100 questionnaires 90 were completed and properly filled. Thus, the useable response for the study was 60%.

. Measure:
3.2.1.Population
This study focus on administration (principal and teachers) of Government secondary level schools of district jhang. Participants are different members of school administration in district jhang. The survey is conducted along with an introductory letter, explaining the objectives and relevance of study and promise anonymity.

3.2.2.Tools for research:
Questionnaire was used as a major tool for data collection. questionnaire was developed by the researcher themselves with the consultation of supervisor and faculty members.it was further validated through expert’s opinion and refined according to their suggestion.

Measurement of variables:
In measures, a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) will be used for every variable, with higher scores reflecting higher values of the variable.

School leadership style:
To measure independent variable school leadership style 9 items are derived from existing scale that referred to two aspects. directive style will assessed with RechweinZientek,Linda (2007) and Zhang,Shu,E.Tory Higgins, and Guoquan Chen (2011) by using 5 items and participative leadership is assessed with Kayworth,TimothyR,.and Dorothy E,Leidner (2001) scale by using 4 items. A couple of sample questions are as follows:
1. My principal asked me to follow rules and regulation.

(a) Strongly disagree (b) Disagree (c) Neutral (d) Agree (e) Strongly Agree
2. School administration encourage participative decision making.

(a) Strongly disagree (b) Disagree (c) Neutral (d) Agree (e) Strongly Agree
2. Students’ academic achievements:
To measure dependent variable students’ academic achievements BRETZ (1998) and Smerdon, Becky A (2002) five -items scale is used.

1. Students attitudes reduce academic success.

(a)Strongly disagree (b) Disagree (c) Neutral (d) Agree (e) Strongly Agree
3.3. Statistical Techniques:
It usually shows about those techniques that we use to know about the relationship between dependent and independent variable and to check the significance level.Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS-21) was used to analyze the statistical examination and qualification of result. We used regression and correlation techniques in order check about the effects, relationship and significance level of independent variables on the dependent variable.

Chapter 4
Data analysis and Result
5.0. Chapter objectives:
The objective of this chapter is to explain data analysis process, statistical test (used to test various hypotheses) and finally to shows the results of each hypothesis design for current study.

5.1. Data Analysis:
In first step of data analysis, initial data screening was done e.g. missing values, descriptive statistics, analysis, normality, detection of multivariate outliers, Linearity and homo-scedasticity multi-collinearity and correlations analysis were carried out using SPSS.

5.2.Result:
Transformational leadership style and students’ academic achievements:
Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method
1 Transformational leadershipa . Enter
a. All requested variables entered.

b. Dependent Variable: students’ academic achievements.

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .521a .272 .255 .87220
a. Predictors: (Constant), Transformational leadership
Table 1 is labeled as model summary and this table shows R Square, Adjusted R Square, and R. Most important value out of this table is R Square. The value of R Square shows the amount of variance explained in dependent variable by the effect of independent variable(s). For this research, the value of R Square is 0.521. This value shows that transformational leadership (independent variable) explain 52.1% variance in students’ academic achievements (dependent variable).

Adjusted R Square is the value of R Square adjusted for degrees of freedom. The value of adjusted R Square is almost always slightly less than R Square.

The value of R is determined by taking square root of R Square. In simple regression, R is analogous to correlation coefficient which shows linear association between independent and dependent variable
ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 12.212 1 12.212 16.052 .000a
Residual 32.712 43 .761 Total 44.924 44 a. Predictors: (Constant), transformational leadership
b. Dependent Variable: students’ academic achievements
Table 2 is labeled as ANOVA table. This table gives sum of squares along with respective DF (degree of freedom). The most important value in this table is F value. F-value is calculated as follows:
F= Regression Sum of Squares/DFResidual Sum of Squares/DFAs indicated from the formula, F-value represents the ratio of explained variance and unexplained variance. A high F-value is, therefore, desirable. The significance of F-value is established by looking at associated p value. In this research, the value of F is 16.052 which is significant (p < 0.001). The F-Value indicates overall significance of the regression model. A significant value of F indicates that regression model is significant as a whole and independent variable significantly predict dependent variable.

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2.838 .629 4.508 .000
Transformational leadership .505 .126 .521 4.007 .000
Dependent Variable: students’ academic achievements
Table 3 is labeled as coefficients. This table represents constant and regression coefficients for independent variable(s). The coefficients are unstandardized as well as standardized. The coefficients are associated with their respective standard errors and t-values. The value of un standardized regression coefficient shows the amount of change in dependent variable that is brought upon by one unit change in independent variable. In this research, the value of un standardized coefficient for transformational leadership is 0.505. This values shows that one unit change in transformational leadership will bring 0.505 units change in students’ academic achievements. The t-value is 4.007 which is significant (p < 0.001). The positive sign shows that transformational leadership has a positive effect on students’ academic achievements, representing thereby, that an increase in transformational leadership style will bring an increase in students’ academic achievements.

Participative leadership style and students’ academic achievements:
Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method
1 Participative leadershipa . Enter
a. All requested variables entered.

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .594a .353 .338 .82189
Predictors: (Constant), Participative leadership
Table 1 is labeled as model summary and this table shows R Square, Adjusted R Square, and R. Most important value out of this table is R Square. The value of R Square shows the amount of variance explained in dependent variable by the effect of independent variable(s). For this research, the value of R Square is 0.594. This value shows that participative leadership (independent variable) explain 59.4% variance in students’ academic achievements (dependent variable).

Adjusted R Square is the value of R Square adjusted for degrees of freedom. The value of adjusted R Square is almost always slightly less than R Square.

The value of R is determined by taking square root of R Square. In simple regression, R is analogous to correlation coefficient which shows linear association between independent and dependent variable.

ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 15.877 1 15.877 23.504 .000a
Residual 29.047 43 .676 Total 44.924 44 Predictors: (Constant), participative leadership
Dependent Variable: students’ academic achievements
Table 2 is labeled as ANOVA table. This table gives sum of squares along with respective DF (degree of freedom). The most important value in this table is F value. F-value is calculated as follows:
F= Regression Sum of Squares/DFResidual Sum of Squares/DFAs indicated from the formula, F-value represents the ratio of explained variance and unexplained variance. A high F-value is, therefore, desirable. The significance of F-value is established by looking at associated p value. In this research, the value of F is 23.504 which is significant (p ; 0.001). The F-Value indicates overall significance of the regression model. A significant value of F indicates that regression model is significant as a whole and independent variable significantly predict dependent variable.

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) -.418 1.187 -.353 .726
Participative leadership .970 .200 .594 4.848 .000
a. Dependent Variable: students’ academic achievements
Table 3 is labeled as coefficients. This table represents constant and regression coefficients for independent variable(s). The coefficients are unstandardized as well as standardized. The coefficients are associated with their respective standard errors and t-values. The value of un standardized regression coefficient shows the amount of change in dependent variable that is brought upon by one unit change in independent variable. In this research, the value of un standardized coefficient for participative leadership is 0.970. This values shows that one unit change in participative leadership will bring 0.970 units change in students’ academic achievements. The t-value is 4.848 which is significant (p ; 0.001). The positive sign shows that participative leadership has a positive effect on students’ academic achievements, representing thereby, that an increase in participative leadership will bring an increase in students’ academic achievements.

Chapter 5
Discussion
(Contribution, Limitations, Directions for future research, Practical Implications and conclusion)
5.0 Chapter Objectives
The main objective of this chapter is to discuss the results of each hypothesis tested in this study and to discuss how our findings best fit in the general body of literature. This chapter also highlights the contributions and limitations of this study. Directions for future research studies and practical implications of current study are also given in the end before the conclusion.

5.1 Discussion:
In the contribution of each of the research areas to the development of the model in Figure 1. This study concludes that students’ academic achievements depends upon the on the leadership style and expressed values, positive attitude, personal qualities and characteristics, and effective relationship. Leaders were key determinant in shaping school’s vision, culture, structures, expectations and processes. They effectively managed the human resource side by working with and developing staff. Hence on the basis of literature review and the conceptual model proposed above, it can be assumed that students’ academic achievements are influenced by a different individual, group, and organizational factors. Amongst in these factors leadership style such as transformational and participative leadership styles are found to play a key role. Numerous studies were used to purpose this model but this model is empirically tested in this study. Finally, it is to be concluded that the proposed model of student’s academic achievements is well grounded in the literature in the field. Both independent variables transformational and participative leadership styles have positive and significant impact on students’ academic achievements. It is also concluded that higher level of transformational leadership is the predictor to the higher the students’ academic achievements. Similarly, participative leadership is also a good and positive predictor to the higher the students’ academic achievements. Hence students’ academic achievements are enhanced by using transformational and participative leadership style. In this study an interactive and successive model of successful school leadership is proposed that shows that the school principal employs influence on a range of student outcomes mainly through a focus on teaching and learning process. The influenceon student outcomes can be direct and indirect. The influence is manifested through a combination of personal factors (personal values, philosophy, personal qualities, leadership preparation, leadership style and competencies) that interact within a specific school community context (school vision, ethos, culture, size and circumstance) to increase the students’ academic achievements.

5.2 Recommendations:
The findings of this study are important for school principals and school staff to improve students’ academic achievements, by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the school environment and recognize where is need to change the school environment. Thus, the positive changes can motivate teachers and students to improve their teaching and learning skills. However, this will not be possible without implementation of school leadership style. The outcomes of this study will also be shared with participants and the school heads so that they can modify their practices to improve school environment and increase students’ academic achievements. The findings also will be beneficial for school leaders, administrators, teachers, parents, and the school community. This study was conducted only in public sector educational institution of secondary level, Pakistan. So, further research can be made on private sector. The major findings of this research show that increases in transformational and participative leadership are connected to increase students’ academic achievements.

5.3 Practitioner implications
In the light of literature review, the relationship between school leadership and students’ achievements is directly and indirectly effected. It would be useful for experts to evaluate schooling procedures and the policies used in the school and classroom environment. It is now important, for the Pakistani educational institutes to universal educational system generally to continuously seek new ideas and practices to improve educational systems for better learning environment. Therefore, the result of this study will help educational experts to be conscious that school staff have the proper experience, skills, and the essential educational leadership style. This will ensure that candidate with the desired qualities will be chosen and positively affect the education system.

5.4 Limitations:
As the research based on primary data and all the data was collected with the help of questionnaire. While random selection from the entire secondary level educational institutes in district Jhang was made as well as questionnaire were given to those heads and teachers who agreed to respond willingly.

Sometimes respondent did not read the question carefully and not answered the question with fully concentration which creates problem in results.

This study does not include all variables that effects the students’ academic achievements.

The survey is a self-assessment of the respondents about transformational leadership, participative leadership and students’ academic achievements. on the basis of self-assessment, the researcher is not assured that all the respondents interpreted the question the same or that some respondents did not give what they believe to be politically correct.

Finally, the result of the research may not be generalize-able to other organization and countries
5.5 Conclusions:
First, all the correlation analysis indicates that correlation coefficient were positive and significant. Second, the regression test was use applied1 to check the cause and effect relationship of all independent and dependent variable individually. From the results, it was explained 52% and 59% variation in students’ academic achievements due to transformational leadership and participative leadership. So, it is concluded from all findings and discussion that all independent variables (transformational leadershipand participative leadership) have individually and collectively positive and significant impact on students’ academic achievements. It is also concluded that transformational leadership style is more powerful style to enhance students’ academic achievements. higher level of job autonomy is the predictor to higher the organizational commitment. Similarly, participative leadership is also a good and positive predictor to increase thestudents’ academic achievements. Students’ academic achievement’s commitment increases by using transformational and participative leadership style in secondary level educational institute.