Starting from the west only around 12-15% of arable land is found in Afghanistan and only half of it is being used, most of its land is covered by mountains with no vegetation or hostile environments such as desserts. Afghanistan is an example of a classic arid country receiving very less rain and dry climate. Therefore, vegetation plays a critical part here. Main cash crops grown would be wheat, barley, corn, rice, and cotton, besides opium where Afghanistan stands as the largest producer of raw opium.
Then going on to East in countries such as Bangladesh or Bhutan experience monsoon rains with excess rain that allows the growth of vegetation easily. In these countries usually more than half of its land is arable with rich soil that produces many fertile crops for the populations. Further mostly for these countries Agriculture would be the largest employment sector as well. Especially for Bhutan, the climate is colder than Bangladesh and therefore it is most perfect for certain crops such as vegetables to grow. Maize and rice account more than 40 % of its domestic cereal cultivation. Bangladesh grows crops such as rice, wheat, mango, and jute.
Nepal’s economy is also dominated by agriculture as the population is depended on the crops grown in the country. However, as a country surrounded mostly by mountains only around 20% of the land is arable. Nepal’s precipitation varies with its elevation. In the lower tropical zones mangoes, banana and papaya are grown and in the upper tropical zone fruits such as jackfruit and citrus are grown. Nepal might be having the coldest climate and weather in South Asia being closest to the Himalayas and during winter periods crops such as vegetables and grains are mostly being grown.
Towards South, in countries such as India or Sri Lanka, the landscapes and climates would be little different. The primary forms of agriculture are rice in these countries. Sri Lanka’s climate is tropical and has warm weather year-round. Rainfall patterns vary with the monsoon winds and when excess rain is received It would be perfect for rice farmers to grow rice in their paddy fields and similarly during droughts bringing famine and lack of water that put an end to crops. The primary cash crops in Sri Lanka would be tea, rubber, coconut, and rice. India being very similar however has slight variations in climate and weather throughout the country with arid regions in the west, alpine tundra by north and humid tropical regions in south-west and east and all these influences in different crops being grown in different regions. India is a top producer of certain vegetables, dry fruits, sugarcane and includes certain cash crops such as cotton and coffee.
Agricultural landscapes vary from country to country and climate and weather mainly affects the types of crops grown and due to this soil type is also influenced from fertile to non-fertile. Elevation would also be another factor linked with climate and weather for variation in the types of crops as higher elevation has colder climate and lower closer to the coastal regions has warmer climates.