Significant Characteristics of Informal Organisations:

(a) Group Norms:
Norms are simply standards of behaviour that are accepted by all group members. Such norms serve as guidelines and instruct members what they can or cannot do under certain circumstances. Such standards of behaviour are-set by the group through consensus of ideas and activities or through the influence of the leader of the group.
(b) Cohesion:
Cohesion is a important characteristic of informal group it is measured and assed by the degree of how much the control group have and it is has small group and physical isolation
The second important characteristic of informal groups is cohesion, which is simply measured by the degree to which members share the group’s goals, and cooperate with one another. The degree of cohesiveness indicates how much control the group has over its members: the greater the degree of cohesiveness, the more the control.
Negative Impact:
Although not part of the formally established organisation, these informal groups can cause managers a number of problems. They often create conflict, especially with organisational goals, generate and spread rumours, encourage resistance to change and lead to conformity among members, including restricting performance.
1. Resistance to change:
The informal organisation is always in a position to resist change. In an effort to protect its values and beliefs, the informal groups can set a number of constraints in the path to any modifications in the work environment. A five-day compressed work week or the hiring of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe candidates could impinge (infringe) on the values of the informal groups, resulting in resistance to the change.
2. Conflict:
The informal group gives birth to multiple bossing systems. To be more specific, it can create two ‘masters’ for an employee. In his attempt to satisfy the informal group, an employee can come in conflict with the formal organisation. For instance, group members may spend 60 minutes every day while taking lunch.
They may go together as a group, eat slowly, while gossiping, and analyse the business affairs of the company. But the manage¬ment has authorised only a 30-minute lunch break. Thus employees’ social satisfaction is in direct conflict with the employer’s need for higher productivity.
3. Rumour:
The informal communication system, known as the grapevine, can create and process wrong information and spread false rumours. The spread of rumours may distort the entire work environment and can upset the balance of the environ¬ment.
4. Pressure to conform:
The norms that the informal groups develop often act as a strong inducement towards conformity. The more cohesive the group, the more accepted are the standards of behaviour. Non-conforming in person’s reference group is likely to result in gentle verbal reminders from the group but can cause harassment — ostracism or rearrang¬ing the work area. It can even lead to physical abuse.

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Strategies and Suggestion to check dysfunction of informal group for Working with the Informal Organisation:

1. Firstly, every manager must seek the support and co-operation of the informal leader.
2. Secondly, the manager should provide open and complete communications by using both formal and informal channels.
3. Thirdly, the manager should control rumour by:
(a) Removing its causes,
(b) Applying efforts to counter false rumours that can cause trouble, while letting the others die out automatically.
(c) Providing facts as quickly as possible.
(d) Using a credible source to supply the fact, and
(e) Using face-to-face communication.
4. Finally, the manager should keep the activities of the formal organisation from unnecessarily threatening the informal organisation; in general, he should be sensitive to its existence.
Ans 3A)
PERCEPTION:
• A perception is a cognitive process through which a person make sense by the stimuli (sources are people, events, physical objects, ideas )received from environment .All senses gets effected like sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing. Perception helps understand and adapt to changing environment
• Perceptual defense is a protection from negativity valued stimuli which person gets in organization. Like for example stop or block the negative feedbacks which person gets from supervisor or coworker
• Perceptual errors: There are perpetual process mistakes also perpetual set is belief about a target which is based on information and previous experiences.
• Self-perception: people develop view about themselves from social interaction within different groups, including groups encountered on the Internet.it is of three types and parts i.e self-esteem, self-concept and self-presentation.
• Self-concept: Set of beliefs people have about themselves related to behaviors social surrounding and recalling of past significant events
• Self-esteem: Emotional dimension of positive and negative judgments people have about themselves whereas who have low self-esteem are bound to be unsuccessful and do not adapt well
• Self-awareness it is again of two types firstly self-consciousness and public consciousness.
• Self-presentation is all about how they think about themselves and highly conscious of public image
• Social perception: as we say first impression is the last impression i.e first impression form a quick impression by making a judgment about that
• Elements of social perception
• Three sets of clues help form the impression of another person
• Person
• Situation surrounding the person
• Observed behavior of the person

ATTITUDE:
• An attitude is physical objects, issues, ideas, events, people, places
It may be of cognitive, affective and behavioral intentions
Parts of attitude are basically perception and beliefs which is also a feeling about attitude object.
Also work attitude includes organization commitment, satisfaction of work and job involvement.
Attitude of person beliefs about an object and the information person have
• Perceives positive attributes : develops positive attitude
• Perceives negative attributes : develops negative attitude
• Family upbringing
• Peer groups
• Work groups
• General social experiences

Attitude change
• Something persuades the person to shift his or her attitudes (persuasive communication)
• Norms of a social group can affect a person’s attitude (social norms)
Person becomes uncomfortable with some aspects of her or his beliefs (cognitive dissonance
• Cognitive dissonance
– Motivated to reduce the tension
– Hold multiple beliefs or cognitions about an attitude object
– Feel tension when discrepancies develop

• Social influence on attitudes
– People are embedded in social groups
– Feel pressures to conform to norms
– If person values membership in group, likely will align attitudes with the group norms
• Persuasive communication
– Advertising
– Attitude change process
• Win target’s attention
• Understand message
• Accept the influence
• Remember the message

Ans 3B)
Introductions:
Personality is the unique thought patterns, behaviours and feelings that make an individual different from the other. The personality of an individual is because of genetic heritage and also immediate surroundings. There are wide varieties of experiences in life and hence different personalities are found in the organisation and affect the organisational culture. There are various theories explaining the growth of individual personalities, such as – the Psychodynamic theory, Type theory, Behavioural theory, Biological theory, Trait theory , and the theory of the ‘Big five'( Mike Battista,2008). However, though it is assumed that the personality of an individual is more or less constant, it does not happen so. It has been observed that though individual differences occur as a result of various styles of parenting and the amount of attention that one received in childhood grooming, individual successes and failures experienced in life, changes in individual personality do occur in the long run.
People are not a means to an end, but are as important to an organization as the wheel is to a chariot. Every organization requires a definite workforce comprising a unique employee personality, so as to avoid too much collision of ideas. Again, individual differences give rise to dynamism in the team, which is very healthy and essential for the successful growth of a team, as it unleashes new ideas, provided it is managed efficiently. Thus it is important that every team leader has a proper knowledge about the Big Five Theory of personality development.
The Big Five:
The discovery of the Big Five was the result of an empirical research, and psychologists observed that of the long list of traits prepared by them, many of them occurred together. These are – Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Putting the initials of the character traits together, the acronym OCEAN is derived.
Openness: People who are high on openness, are imaginative as well as conservative, and possess a down-to-earth kind of nature. They like emotions, adventure, art, unusual ideas, possess curiosity and imagination, and like variety.
Conscientiousness: This personality trait refers to how much organized, achievement-driven, dependable, punctual, and systematic a person is.
Extraversion: This refers to a person’s outgoing, sociable and talkative nature, and ability to build up quick and strong interactions. They are found to be successful at jobs involving sales, as well as jobs involving managerial responsibilities.
Agreeableness: This refers to the personality traits of compassion, cooperation in a person on one hand while suspicion and antagonism on the other. They are friendly, helpful, optimistic, and possess the willingness to sacrifice for the benefit of others.
Neuroticism or Emotional Stability: This personality trait refers to a person’s emotionality, temperaments, irritability, anxiousness, moodiness. It points towards the individual’s ability to remain calm and stable, and ability to handle stress. They generally get angry quickly, and succumb to anxiety and depression, resulting in their inability to think clearly and handle a complicated situation.
Conclusion:
The child hood personality of an individual affects the future career and job satisfaction of individuals. It has been found out that, behaviours of individuals in the organizational climate are the result of their individual personalities. There are certain traits of personality that are essential for employee behaviour, which may be desirable for an organization to run its operations successfully.

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