Robot:-
“A Robot is a manipulator programmed by a computer capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.” Robot can be guided by an outward control device or the control may be sinking within.

The branch of technology that deal with the design a construction, operation and application of robots as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing is robotics .

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These technologies deal with the automated machines that take the place of mortal is faithless environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble mortal outlook, behavior, or awareness. Today’s robots are inspired by creation contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. This robotics has also created a current branch of robotics called soft Robotics.
31527753981450.The term comes from a Czech word Robot meaning ‘forced labor’ .The word firstly used in a function of humanoid in 1920 of play R.U.R. by the Czech writer Keral Capek. But It was Karle’s brother josephcapek who was the true word’s invertors. The first mercantile and programmable robot was built by Gerrge Devol in 1954. The name of this robot is unmated. Gernal Motrs was bought it in 1961 that was used to lift pieses of hot metal from die crashing machines at the inland Fisher Guide Plant in the west Trenton section of Ewing Township.

Robot have replaced human in conducting tedious and dangerous tasks which humans favor not to do, or are unable to do. Because of size restriction, which take place in supreme environments such as outer space or the bottom of the sea. Robots are blamed for rising unemployment as they replace works in increasing numbers of function. The use of robots in military warfare raises moral concerns. The possibilities of robot freedom and potential results have been labeled in narration and realistic concern in the future might be true.

Summary:-
Reboots come in different shapes and size depends upon the activities. The word robot refers to both physical and virtual robotics software agent. But the later are commonly referred to as bots. There is no consensus on which machines on which machine qualify as robots however there is no general agreement among experts, and the public, that robots tend to processes some or all the following abilities and function accept electronic programming ,process data ,operate autonomously to some degree move around operate physical parts of itself and manipulate there environment ,and exhibit intelligent behavior especially behavior which copy human’s or other animals closely related to the concept of robot is the field of synthetic Biology which studies organization whose nature is more comparable to existence than the machines.

History:-
The year 1936 brought a major revolution in mathematics. This was the year when the concept of a theoretical computer called the Turing machine. The first real robots began to take shape with the arrival of programmable computer in 1940s.The earliest Robots were created by George Devol in the 1950s. He invented and patented a reprogrammable manipulator basically a robot called animate.In 1950s engineers were developing machines to handle complex, difficult and dangerous tasks for defense and consumer manufacturing, particularly the automobile industry. Because of Robots were mean to duplicate the pattern of movement that a humane would make during lifting, pressing, pulling, designs were based upon the movements of a humane arm. “Planetbot” one of the first commercial services Robot that is used in hydraulically powered. During the mid-1950s the Rebotic arm firstly used in General Motors in the production of radiators. However this model becomes unsuccessful because it was controlled by a mechanical computer and it behaved erratically when the hydraulic fluid was cool.”Unimate” is designed by George Devol and presented by Devol and Joe that was used to automate the production of TV picture tubes.Taking advantages of advances in other technologies, develpoers integrated more high performance computer control. The addition of fingre point in some models has drastic changing in the world of robotics. Many researchers point out that a humanoid robot is best for adopting the human environment. Vanderbilt University school of Engineering has been working on a humanoid robot called “ISAC”.These topics are nothing new to Japanese robot designers. Japan has almost twice as many robots as the US is developing. In 1960s the Stanford Research Institute created shaky. The general purpose 0f mobile Robot to concerning its own actions. While other Robots would have to be instructed on each individual step. It was also used in on and off, opening and closing doors, climbing up and down foraged objects and pushing movable objects around.After 3 years Victor Scheinman, a Mechanical Engineering student working in SAIL created the Standford Arm. The arm’s desogn became a standard for the designof future robot Arm that was still being used today.In 1974 he produced the silver arm in his own company that was used in assembling small parts together using touch sensors. In 1985, the first robot called Puma350 is made that was used in madical field for surgery.Later on in 1992, a new concept of cyberknife, a robot that images a patient with X-rays to look for tumers in the body.In 1997 was one of the most important year for robotics. This year is named as Mars pathfinder mission. The Rebotic Mars was released onto Mars surface and its job was to transmit data back to earth from the Martian soil.

Early beginnings:-
Many ancient mythologies, and most modern religions including artificial human, such as the mechanical servants built but the Greek god Haphaestus, the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend and Galatea, the mythical the status of the Pygmalion that came to life. Since circa 400 B.C myths of center include Tatos, a man of bronze who guarded the island from pirates.

The 11yh century Lokapannatti tells of how the Buddha relics were protected by mechanical robots from the kingdom of Roma Visaya until they were disarmed by king Asoka
In ancient China the third century text of Lie Zi describe of an account of humanoid automata involve a much early encounter between china emperor Ruler Mu of Zhou and a mechanical engineer named of this Yan shi artificer this man proudly presented the king with life size human shape figure of this mechanical handwork made by wood leather and artificial organs there are also a flying automata in the Han Fei Zi and other text which attributes the fifth century BC Mohist philosopher Maze with the invention of handmade artificial wooden bird which could successful fly .

In 1066 the chinies inventor Sue song made a water clock in the form of tower which featured mechanically figurines which chimed the hours.

The beginning of automata is associated with the invention of early Su song astronomical clock tower featured mechanically figurines that chimed the hours his mechanism is programmable drum machine with pigs that bumped with little levers that operated percussion instruments .The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drums pattern by moving the pigs of different location.

In France between 1738 and 1739 jecques be vaucanson exhibited several life size automata a flute player a pipe player and a duck. Mechanical duck could flap its wings crane its neck and swallow food from the exhibitors hand and it give the illusion of digesting its food by creating matter stored in a hidden compartment.

Remote Control System:-
The remotely operated vehicles demonstrated in the late 19th century in the form of several types of remotely controlled torpedoes. The early 1870s remotely controlled torpedoes by John Ericsson. John Louis Lay and victor von.The Brennan torpedo, invented by Louis in 1877 was powered by two contra rotating propellers that were spun by rapidly out wires from drums would inside the torpedo.
Differential speed on the wires connected to the station allowed the torpedo to be guided to its target making it the world first practical missile in 1897 the British inverter Earnest Wilson was granted a patent for a torpedo remotely controlled by “Hertz an” waves and in 1898.Archibaid low known as the father of radio guidance system for his pioneering work of guided rockets and planes during the first world war in 1917 he demonstrator a remote controlled sell to the Royal flying corpse and in the same year built the first wires guided rocket .

Early robots:-
In 1928 one of the first human robots was presented in the annual exhibited of the model engineer’s society in London where it delivered a speech. Invented by W.H.Richards the robot frame consisted of an illumination body of amour with eleven electromagnetic and one motor powered by a twelve volt power of source. The robot could move its hands and head could be the controlled through remote control both Eric and his brother George toured the world.

In 1939 the human robot as electro was debuted at the 1939 New York World fair seven feet ball and 265 pounds. It could walk by voic command speak about 700 words smoke sigrates bellow up balloons and move its head and arms. The body consists of a steel gear and motor skeleton covered by an alumni numb skin in 1928 Japan first robot was designed and the constructor by biological makoto Nishimura.

Future Development and Trends:-
As robot become more progressive so there may be a standard computer operating system mainly designed for robot. Robot operating system is an open source set of program being developed at Standford University (the Massachucsetts institute of technology) and the technical university of Munich Germany. Among other ROS provides ways to program are robots navigation and branch regardless of the specific hardware muddled.

It also implement high level commands for elements like image recognition and even opening doors when ROS robots computer. It would obtain data on attributes such as the length and movement of robots limbs. It would carry this data to higher level algorithm. Microsoft is also developing a window for robot system with its Robotics Developer studio which has been on hand since 2007.
In the begging of 1982 the people were sure that someday robot would clean parts by removing, moding, flash spray, paint automobiles with absolutely. No human presence pack things in boxes and shoes, shear sheep pegleg, cook fast food and work in other service industrial 10 housefold robot.

New Functionalities and Prototypes:-
Boxter is new robot introduce in 2012,which learns by gudience.A worker could teach boxter how to perform a task by moving its hands in the desired motion and boxter memorize them. On boxter arm extra bottom control and ideas are present for more person and features. Any efficient worker can programmed a boxter and it only takes a matter of minutes until use a industrial robots that can take large program and coding in order to be used. This mean boxter needs no programming in order to operate. No software engineers are needed. This also means boxter can be educated to perform multiple and more complicated tasks. Saywer was added in 2016 for smaller and more authentic ambitions.

Etymology:-
The word Robot was launch to the public by the writer Karel capek in his play ‘Rossum Universal Robots’ that was Published in 1920.The play held in factory that uses a chemical relief for protoplasm to manufacturing living the simplified people called Robots. But we does not focus in detail on the technology beyond the creation of these living but their appearance they indicate modern ideas of androids creature who can be mistaken for humans. These mass produced workers are illustrate as efficient but unemotional incapable of original thinking and difference to self preservation.

The word robots used to describe this field of study was cast by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov. He defines the three basic rules for the robotics which are the reappear then in this book. These books define laws to explain friction. These three laws are based upon pure friction and no technology used. Yet created has the ability to understand or follow them and in fact most robots serve military purposes which run quite contrary to the first law and usually the third law.

Robot in society:-
Approximately half of the entire world is interested in making the robots. In Asia 32% in Europe, 16% in North Americas, 1% in the Australasia and 1% in Africa and 40% in the Japan making Japan the country with the highest number of robot of all over the worlds.

Autonomy and Ethical Question:-
Now a day’s Robots become more advanced and sophisticated. Experts and academics have increasing the question of what criteria might govern to robots behavior and whether robots might be able to allegation and take part in any kinds of the cultural, social , ethical or legal authority. One of the scientific team has said that it is possible that robot brain will exist in 2019. Other predicts that robot intelligence will be over come in 2050.

Vernon vine suggested that at one age may be come when computers and robot are smarter than human. He calls this the oddness. He suggests that it may be a little or possible very dangerous for humans. This is known as singular Italianism.

They noted that of the some robot have they are attained in various forms of semi freedom are able to independently choose targets to attacks with the weapons. They also find that the some computer viruses can be hide phase out and they are having the achieved cockroach intelligence. They noted that the self awareness as paint in the science of friction is apparently rare but there were other potential hazards and danger.

Variant media sources and scientific group have noted the trends in the differing areas which might results in the greater robotic functions and freedom which act some inheritance in 2015. The No aldermen robots were presented for capability of self and the degree in awareness.

A recent example of human replacement involves Taiwanese company Falcon who in July 3011 announced a three year plan to replace workers with more robots. At present in the company uses ten thousand robots but will increase them to a million robots over a three year period.

Lawyers have speculated that an increases prevalence of robot in the workplace could lead to the need to the improve redundancy laws. Kevin J. Delaney said Robots are taking human jobs. But Bill Gates suggested that the governments should tax companies that manufacture the robots. Due to this reason at least temporary surcease the spread of automation and other types of employment will be available. The robot tax will occur useful in pay a guaranteed living to the deranged workers.

Basic part of robots: For moving the robot, it should have some basic system getting straight to the point as mentioned below.

Locomotion system – This system are used in robots for moving where it moving with translatory motion, rotatoty motion etc. You can make your robot move forward, backward, right, left, climb up and down etc by using this system. For this purpose we need a special kind of device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Such device is known as actuators and most useful actuators is DC motor.

Power supply system – For a robot to work we need power supply which act as food to the robot. It cannot work unless you feed your robot thus we need power supply for this purpose. We need DC supply like 5V, 9V, 12V for robotic applications. Some time we need 18V, 24V, 36V, for our requirement. The best way for this purpose we use battery or use SMPS/Eliminator which converts AC to DC. Note that your power source should able to provide sufficient current to drive all the loads connected to it, directly or in directly.
Actuator system – Actuator are the device with brings about the locomotion of the robot. There are many actuator used like Servo Motor, DC Motor, Stepper Motor etc. They are connected together in a way like their circuit diagram, their location, orientation, position etc. Every things comes under Actuator system.

Sensor system – For the robotics to interact with the physical world, we need to introduce sensors. This can measure physical parameter like temperature, pressure, heat, radio waves, IR waves, etc. These sensors provide a feedback from the real world to the digital world. This processed and the robot takes decision accordingly.
Signal processing unit – The data from the sensor and other electrical and digital signals need to be processed so that the robot analyzes the situation and makes it moves. For this reasons we introduce the electronic components to process the signals. The components may be in the form of any analog/digital device or microcontroller.
Control system – control system is the major part of the robotic system. Every system that is present inside the control the robot and function can be represented in form of a control system. Robot’s control system uses feedback just as the human brain dose. However instead of a collection of neurons, a robot’s brain consists of a silicon chip called a central processing unit that similar to the computer chip.
Laws of Robotics:Asimov proposed three laws of robotics and after sometimes include “zeroth law”
Zeroth Law: A robot may not injure humanity or through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.

First Law: He suggests that a robot may not injure a human being. Unless this would violate a higher order law, it allows a human being to come to harm.

Second Law: In this law he proposed that a robot must accept orders given to it by human beings.

Third Law: A robot must protect its own presence as long as such protection dose not battle with higher order law.

Types of Robots:There are many types of robots which are stated as following.

Mobile Robots
Industrial Robots
Service Robot
Educational Robots
Modular Robot
Mobile Robots- Mobile robots are the robots which can move around in a physical environment. They are usually controlled by software and use sensors.In artificial intelligence with physical robotics, mobile robots combine the progress which allows them to navigate their surroundings. Mobile Robot is a fast evolving, solution oriented, industry in which robotics engineer is a significant and growing work role. Mobile robotics is the major part of industry, with including manufacturing, agriculture, and medicine, mining and aerospace. Robotics engineers works in offices and manufacturing laboratories or plants. They design, maintain, develop new applications and conducts research to expand the potential for robots.There are two types of robots autonomous and non autonomous. An autonomous robot is a robot that can explore their environment without external guidance. On the other hand guided robots use some types of guidance robots system to use.

Industrial Robots:
An industrial robot commonly named to a robot arm. This is mostly used in factory environment for manufacturing number of type of application. Normally industrial robots are classified according to different criteria. Typical application of industrial robots include welding, painting, pick and place, assembly for printed circuit boards, labeling and packing.
Industrial robots with different types of movements:
Cartesian Robots- Cartesian robots are robots that can do three translations. These are also called rectilinear robots. They have three linear joints (x, y and z) that use the Cartesian coordinate sytem.The prismatic joints deliver a linear motion along the axis.

Cylindrical Robots- At least robot has one rotary joint at the base and one prismatic joint to connect the links these rotary joints uses a rotational motion along the joint axis cylindrical robots operate within a cylindrical-shaped work envelope.

Polar Robots- polar robots are also called spherical robots in this the arm is connected to the base with a twisting joint and a combination of two rotary joints and one linear joint the axis make a polar coordinate system and form a spherical shape work envelope.

SCARA Robots- These types of robots usually used in assembly applications. In this the arm is primarily cylindrical design. The feature of two parallel joint is that provide compliance in one selected plan.

Six Axis Robots- The six axis robots are fully position their tool in a given position and orientation
Industrial robots brands:
There are many industrial robots brands that have a complete range of robots for different application and at different sizes. The example of industrial robots brands are”Fanuc, Motoman, ABB, Kuka, Denso, Adept, Comau, Kawasaki, OTC Daihen”
The latest generation: Collaborative industrial robots
A collaborative robot is made in such a way that they have some safety standard so that they cannot hurt a human. Collaborative robots are used in same environment as humans. They can also be taught instead of programmed by an operator.A Collaborative robot is also known as cobot.it is a robot which is capable of learning of multiple tasks so it can assist humans beings.A Cobot can quickly learn tasks when working side by side of a human.Although industrial robots have played an important role in the automotive industry.Another barrier to adoption is the fair of robots that occurs in work places and replacing .

Service Robots:
Service robots are robots which perform semi are fully autonomously performing services which are useful for humans and equipment. They include manufacturing operation, making decision and acting autonomously in real and artificial environment fulfill given tasks. The example of personal service robots are vacuum , tele and remote presence , medical companions , entertainment and leisure robots , toys robots , home education and training robots. They are usually operated by a lay person.
A Service robot has following types.

Industrial- Industrial service robots commonly used for simple tasks. They perform examining welding, harsh-environment tasks.

Domestic- Domestic robots are used to perform tasks in non-industrial environment like cleaning floors lauun and pool maintains they are much useful for older and disable person they can also be used as a assistants in offices.
Scientific- In many functions like repetitive tasks perform in research is performed by robotics system these repetitive tasks are made by gene samplers and sequencers. Autonomous scientific robots perform tasks which humans feel difficulty or impossibility to do these tasks like the deep sea to outer space these robots move in space including Mars, Rovers which may carry out photography and samples of the environment of atmosphere on Mars

Unemployment and Education:
Unemployment is one of the main arguments when we discuss social impact of robotics. Yet the connection between unemployment and robots is not well understood from the usage of robotics in the production can effect the labor in many ways it depends on many factors like effect of new technology ,the trend of change prices and production when new technology is used, and the supply of qualified workers. Unemployment can be defined in many ways which complicates the discussion even more the increase usage of robots in the production may need to unemployment for the single worker. However the robots can brings new technologies and develops the industries. The robots requires workers to have a technical workers how have technical understanding. In 1983 shortage of workers in many fields of engineering and science have been seen special in the branch of computer programming and software designing. It is a good way for the workers if the workers can trust in themselves oversee are repair the robots for this purpose they need basic understanding of mechanical and electrical system besides that and educated and experienced workers is easier to go to get another job in the plant. Was other important effect is that technologically educated workers shoes less opposition for production of robots and other techniques of automation. The last factor is a key reason to why Japan seems progressives in making the industries of robots i in their plants. That is why employers in japan are highly technical educated. So this discussion shows robotics knowledge is essential so that there are not still advanced enough. So we conclude that robots are considered as in any mate and irresponsible but human running machine with full responsibilities.

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