Psychodynamic counselling is mainly attributed to the work of Sigmund Freud and the aim of psychodynamic therapy is to bring the unconscious mind into consciousness – helping individuals to unravel, experience and understand their true, deep-rooted feelings in order to resolve them. It takes the view that our unconscious holds onto painful feelings and memories, which are too difficult for the conscious mind to process. In order to ensure these memories and experiences do not surface, many people will develop defences, such as denial and projections. Which could lead to the client to become angry or withdrawn. According to psychodynamic therapy, these defences will often do more harm than good. Freud believed that personality was made up of three parts of id, ego and superego. The id which he believed is present from birth and is called the pleasure principle and works on impulses. The ego or reality principle is the socially acceptable part and keeps the id in check. The superego is the conscience part and keeps us on the straight and narrow. If someone had a difficult childhood, the superego can be very harsh and self- critical, denying the person pleasure and acceptance. The ego could be seen to negotiate between the id and superego, aiming to find a middle ground between being super critical and disinhibited


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