PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ALGERIA
MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
UNIVERSITY OF M’SILA
Faculty of letters and languages
Department of letters and English language
Investigating EFL Learns Difficulties in Developing Oral Fluency; The Case of Second year Students of English Language at Mohamed Boudiaf University
Submitted by: Supervised by:
BENNOUIOUA Nourelhouda Mrs. HAREZI
Academic year: 2017/2018
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1-General Introduction PAGEREF _Toc508184471 h 32-Operational Definition of Terms PAGEREF _Toc508184472 h 33-Background of the Study PAGEREF _Toc508184473 h 34-Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc508184474 h 45-Researh Questions………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
6-Research Objectives67-Significance of the Study78- Research Methodology89-Structure of the dissertation910-REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc508184479 h 8
1-General Introduction:Oral fluency is a major characteristic of speaking proficiency, and it is defined as the smoothness and spontaneity of spoken language without hesitation or unnecessary pauses. Possessing an automatic fluent speech is very important as it is the key for getting results with English especially with a wide demand for a good English speaking skills, it is important because it make it easy for English language users to connect with native speakers, make friends, participants in business meetings, understand movies and get better employment opportunities. But, it seems that a lot of EFL learners failed to be a native like speakers.
On the light of the significant of oral fluency, this paper will tackle the problems and the factors that stand as barriers for enhancing their speaking performance.
3-Background of the StudyLiterature Review
In this part of the study, some previous studies relating to this study will be reviewed. These studies were carried out to identify the factors affecting students’ speaking performance and students’ speaking problems.
the study investigated “Factors Negatively Affect Speaking Skills at Saudi Colleges for Girls in the South” giving the full focus to the external factors ( Instructor, curriculum and textbook, English language teaching methods and exercises , teaching and learning environment). Nivja de Jong, Her research is basically related to the assessment and measurement of fluency under the title” Judging speaking fluency: What do raters do, and what should they do?”. She tackled Segalowitz’ proposal. “The Impact of Fluency and Hesitation Phenomena on the Perception of Non-native Speakers by Native Listeners of German ” is another study by Sandra Reitbrecht addresses the impact of L2 fluency and hesitation phenomena in the context of speech on the intercultural communication.
“Developing EFL Learners’ Speaking Ability, Accuracy ,and Fluency”, this article is concerned with how teachers can improve speaking skills and explores some factors(linguistic, cognitive, affective) which influence learners speaking competence. It shows the function of listening and reading in enhancing the speaking skill accuracy and fluency.
“The Impact of Oral Presentation on Fluency and Accuracy of Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking” by Mahdie Yahay and Shila Kheirzadeh. This study was an investigation into the efficacy of students’ oral presentations in improving their speaking ability in terms of accuracy and fluency.
Most of the previous studies pertain to the present review emphasized on the problems and factors influencing speaking performance taking into account the internal and external factors. The current paper shad the light on external factors affecting EFL learners and more specific sociocultural factors since speaking English or any other foreign language needs knowing the culture of the target language which socially linguistically accepted by native speakers otherwise, EFL learner cannot find out or distinguish linguistic and paralinguistic features of language specially in particular social context, thus, it is worthy for EFL learners to be familiar with the culture of natives so that they can develop of a native like English speaking among EFL learners and they can speak fluent English. 4-Statement of the Problem Recently, it has been noticed that most EFL Learners find it difficult to express themselves fluently and no one and deny the role of fluency in expressing ideas and attracting audience attention. In that respect, it is worth to investigate the difficulties and problems affecting EFL learners oral fluency’ performance and suggest some solutions. Consequently, three major research questions can be raised:
1. What are the difficulties which EFL learners face while speaking?
2. What are the factors affecting oral fluency development from learners and teachers perspective?
3. What hinders EFL learners from speaking fluently?
5-Research Objectives This study aims at first to explore the hindrances which hamper EFL learners from talking fluently. In addition to three secondary aims, to investigate the problems as well as the difficulties that they face speaking English, to determine the key affective factors affecting students’ low performance in oral sessions. And finally, to make learners be conscious of these problems and its negative impact on their employment opportunities.
6-Significance of the Study:
With the broad demand for good English speaking skills in various domains, EFL learns find themselves in need to possess or get fluent speech. And since it has been observed the total ignorance to the issue in a pedagogical setting and by the teacher, the researcher will highlight some important points that should be taken into amount concerning oral fluency. Most previews studies focus on the problems and factor that hinder non-native speakers’ oral proficiency which come up with results like the impact of psychological factors on speaking performance.
This paper will discuss both internal and external factors affecting EFL learners’ speaking fluency which are linguistic, cognitive, affective, and sociocaltural factors. Linguistic factor is when the EFL learners do not have an adequate knowledge of English language components like vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation. Cognitive factors on the other hand, is concerned with the complex process of language production starting from conceptualizing or conception (thought existed in the mind) Then, formulation (transforming the idea to well structured sentence mastering grammatical syntactic features and choosing the appropriate vocabulary) and finally articulation (refers to the correct pronunciation of words). So, these three steps may confuse EFL learners while they speak, since it is not of that ease to produce the target language spontaneously especially when there is a lack of exposure and a good model of English language native speakers and less opportunity to use the language particularly, in non-native speaking environment.
7- Research Methodology: The method used in this study is the analytical descriptive method since we are going to investigate the difficulties that encounter EFL learners from talking fluently from teachers and learners perspectives and to examine their participatory role as well as their responses to the questionnaire.
Data collection tools
this study applied three methods of data collection namely questionnaire, and classroom observation, the questionnaire and interview with oral expression teachers. Questionnaire was directed to second year LMD students of English language. Moreover classroom observation was employed to one class selected randomly.
the representative population of this research was second year LMD English students of M’sila’ University .Students were selected from this population randomly to answer the questionnaire. In addition to oral expression teachers to profit from their previous experiences in teaching oral expression.
2-Operational Definition of Terms:
The operational definitions of six terms are explained in this section: Language proficiency, communicative competence, accuracy, fluency, hesitation, pauses.
Language proficiency: or linguistic proficiency is the ability of an individual to produce language accurately and fluently with high consistency.
Communicative competence: is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user’s grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately.
Accuracy: In this study accuracy refers to language production and linguistic competence in terms of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation
Fluency: It refers to the ability to speak, read or write grammatically and semantically coherent and smooth sentences.
Hesitation: It is the use of specific markers to slow down output and it fills in the pauses, however, too much hesitation indicates that the speaker is not fluent or uncertain.
Pause: It refers to the silent periods of time while speaking. Pauses which are longer than three seconds are considered as unnatural hesitations.
8-Structure of the dissertationCHAPTER ONE:
1.1 The Statement of the Problem and Research Questions.
1.2 Objectives of the Study.
1.3 Significance of the Study.
1.4 Methodology of the Study.
PART ONE: THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Section One: General Overview of Speaking Proficiency in Relation to EFL Learners.
2.1.1 Communicative Competence
2.1.2 Accuracy in Spoken English.
2.1.3 Fluency in Spoken English.
2.1.4 The Role of Oral Fluency in EFL Classes
2.1.5 The Assessment of EFL learners’ Oral Fluency’
2.2 Section Two: Problems and Difficulties that EFL Learners Face While
2.2.2 Frequent Pauses
2.3 Section: Factors Influence EFL Learners’ Oral Fluency Development.
2.3.1 Internal Factors.
126.96.36.199 Linguistic Factors (lack of linguistic and communicative competence).
188.8.131.52 Affective Factors.
2.3.2 External Factors.
184.108.40.206 Environmental and Sociocultural (lack of the target language environment) Factors.
220.127.116.11 The Interference of the Mother Tongue
2.3.23 Inappropriate Teaching Methods
18.104.22.168 Underqualified Teachers.
PART TWO: FIELD WORK
3.1 Section One: Description of the Research Methodology
3.1.1 Participants (Population and Sampling)
3.1.2 Data Collection Instruments
22.214.171.124 The Description of the Students’ Questionnaire
126.96.36.199. The Description of the Teachers’ Questionnaire
3.1.3 Data Collection Procedures
188.8.131.52 Piloting the Questionnaires
3.1.4 Data Analysis Procedures
3.2 Section Two: Research Data Analysis
3.2.1 Students data analysis
3.2.2 Teachers Data Analysis
Results and Recommendations
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