Patient Simulators are used for teaching purpose for doctors and healthcare professionals. A patient simulator can be programmed to act like human being in disease or any physical condition. Simulator are used for learning purpose of medical staff such as doctors, paramedical staff and medical students. By the help of these simulator a person can learn how to deal with the patient in any emergency cases without putting in danger a real human being. A person can do mistakes and learn from these mistakes as patient simulator is not a real human being. These simulators can build confidence in user which would be helpful when the person work with real patient.
1.2 Zentrum für Angewandte Simulation
This institute is situated in Hochschule Furtwangen campus Villingen-Schwenningen. Working is being done in this institute to develop different simulators for medical cases such as Extracorporeal life support, cardiac assistive system, intra-aortic balloon pumping and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In last year’s work is being to develop a patient simulator which must be small and battery powered so that it can be put in patient mannequin and can be controlled wirelessly by a user through a PC. This simulator is to be designed to work with extracorporeal life support. In this thesis, work is being done to improve wireless communication between PC and hardware controller and other improved functionalities have been introduce.
1.3 Extracorporeal life support
Extracorporeal life support is a process which is occurring outside patient body. In case of disease or trauma when patient heart or lung is not working properly extracorporeal devices are attached to a patient for life support. This can be a heart lung machine which is used during heart or lung surgery or a lung assisted device which is used in oxygenation or deoxygenation of blood. These devices can be used in operation room or during patient transport from one hospital to another.
1.4 Outline of Thesis
A wireless patient simulator should be developed which can be used with other medical devices to train medical staff. A simulator which can output biological signals such as ECG or vital signs just like a real human body. The communication between simulator and user should be wireless and the user can also control different sensors and hardware within patient mannequin. The simulator should be powered by battery for easy transportation.
The individual tasks of thesis are as follow
1. Improving wireless communication between Patient simulator hardware and PC.
2. Programming Hardware for generating Digital input/output and Analog input/output signals for controlling of actuators, taking data from sensors and simulation of ECG signal.
3. Conversion of ECG database to work with Patient simulator.
4. Design of GUI in LabVIEW for real time data display and controlling of different function of simulator.
5. Designing of Battery and Main Operated Power supply for powering all hardware.
6. Housing of hardware and designing of PCB to be installed in Patient simulator.
2. Theoretical Background
2.1 History of Simulation
Simulation technique in field of medical science date back to middle ages. When human sculptures are made of clay and stone to determine the biological functionalities of human body 1. In modern era a son and father from Paris developed an obstetrical mannequin which is made of a dead baby and human pelvis 2. The idea of current patient simulation comes from aviation industry when a toy making company made a device for mouth to mouth ventilation. In our case it is used as a Cardiopulmonary resuscitation simulator.
2.2 Need for Patient Simulator
In Science a person can learn more, with good concept when he sees a thing done it front of him as a science experiment. The same rule applies in Medical and Health Sciences. A medical student can learn how to treat or do a surgery on a patient when he sees another senior doctor doing it, for fast learning a student must do more practice and hands on real patient but this approach can have led to errors and mistakes which can be serious for patient life. In modern world due to social expectation, accountability of error had increased. Doctors were found to make medical error even having good knowledge 3. It is estimated worldwide about 142,000 people died due to medical errors in 2013 4. For overcoming this problem Patient simulator are used. These are machines which act like real patient or human body. They can be help full when teaching new medical students how to interact and respond when some real patient comes in front of them. By working on these simulator, a person can learn about many diseases and medical condition without dangering the life of real human being. It can help also in building self-confidence. Learning from mistakes can allow medical students to increase their skill levels to optimize clinical outcomes. These simulators can be programmed to mimic any condition of human body. These simulators can vary from simple artery or veins simulator to a typical human body simulation unit such as SimMan 3G. Now a day’s simulation session take place at medical institute in which medical staff can participate to learn.