Operationalised measures for the use of the shop floor management tools
This segment of questionnaire constitutes 4 scales (16 questions) to measure the degree of adoption and utilisation of the four building block shop floor management tools, complying CINET (2002), Soriano-Meier (2002), Rahman (2001) Terziovski and Sohal (2000). The four shop floor management tools were selected based on Bateman (2001), and Bateman and Rich (2003). The respondents were asked to evaluate the frequency of their use of these tools using seven-point Likert-scales, ranging from 1 (Never) to 7 (Always), and the sum of the answers was used as an indicator to uncover the utilisation of each building block tools (a higher score indicates greater utilisation of the tool) (Table 6.3).

Scales Questions and measuring method 1(Never) – 7(Always)
Implementation of 5S practice • I5S1 Seiri (Organisation)
• I5S2 Seiton (Neatness)
• I5S3 Seiso (Cleaning)
• I5S4 Seiketsu (Standardisation)
• I5S5 Shitsuke (Self-discipline)
Use of the standard operations • SDO1 Quality control sheet
• SDO2 Production standard sheet
• SDO3 Work standard sheet
• SDO4 Work procedure sheet
Implementation of waste removal • WSR1 Waste identification
• WSR2 Waste elimination
• WSR3 Waste prevention
Use of visual management • VSI1 Visual indicator
• VSI2 Visual signal
• VSI3 Visual control
• VSI4 Guarantee
Table 6.3 The questions developed to measure shop floor management tools

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Operationalised measures for improvement outcomes
The third section is structured of 4 scales (17 questions) to collect data on improvement outcomes. The respondents were asked to evaluate the change in their improvement outcomes from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 7 (Strongly agree) (Table 6.4). These questions should include high face and content validity to generate adequate and true measure of concept. These were developed by Doolen et al. (2003), applying the KSA (knowledge, skills and attitude) framework from the industrial/organisational (I/O) psychology literature (Muchinsky, 2000) to measure social system outcomes. These were intended to measure ‘people building’ improvement outcomes (e.g., development of knowledge, skills and attitude) rather than the ‘financial related outcomes’ (e.g., monetary and technical output or the number of end-products) which may not be suitable for measuring continuous improvement (Schonberger, 1982b; Meyer and Ferdows, 1990; Bond, 1999; Lillrank et al., 2001; Jung and Wang, 2006; Polito and Watson, 2006; Singh and Davis, 2007; Arumugam et al., 2009). The questions were empirically validated by subsequent studies byFarris( 2006), Doolen et al.( 2008), Farris et al. (2008) and Farris et al.(2009) and subsequently adopted by related research to measure continuous improvement outcomes (e.g., Kosandal and Farris, 2004; Glover, 2010).

Scales Questions and measuring method 1(Strongly disagree) -7(Strongly agree)
Continuous improvement knowledge and shop floor skills • Ksk1 Overall, the improvement activities increased my knowledge of what CI is
• Ksk2 In general, the improvement activities increased my knowledge of how CI should be applied
• Ksk3 Overall, the improvement activities increased my knowledge of the need for CI
• Ksk4 In general, the improvement activities increased my knowledge of my role in CI
• Ksk5 I can communicate new ideas as a result of participation in improvement activities
• Ksk6 I gained new production skills as a result of participation in improvement activities
• Ksk7 In general, the participation in improvement activities motivated me to perform better
• Ksk8 Overall, the improvement activities increased my work interests
• Ksk9 Overall, the improvement activities helped me and my colleagues work together to improve performance
Sense of participation (Attitude) • Sp1 I liked taking part in the current improvement activities
• Sp2 I would like to take part in the improvement activities in the future
• Sp3 In general, I am comfortable working with others to identify improvements on my shop floor area
Overall Improvement perceptions • Over1 Overall, the performance of my improvement activities was a success in my company
• Over2 Overall, my improvement activities were vital in my company
Improvement contributions(Impact on my area) • Cont1 My improvement activities have a positive effect on the shop floor area
• Cont2 This shop floor area improved measurably as a result of my improvement activities
• Cont3 My improvement activities have improved the performance of this shop floor area
Table 6.4 The questions developed to measure improvement outcomes

The translation and pilot testing
The questions were translated into Hindi using Usunier’s ‘Parallel Translation’ (Saunders et al., 2007, p385) to ensure the best match between the original English version and the Hindi version and was further reviewed by a newspaper editor to confirm the lexical and experiential meanings in the translated version (Appendix D). Furthermore, a bilingual format, containing both Hindi and English, was finalised to eliminate the possibility of any ambiguity.

The bilingual questions were then used for pilot test (Flynn et al., 1990) in the indian context to ensure the validity and the reliability of the data to be collected (Saunders et al., 2007). The questions were administered to 10 shop floor workers from Comp-1 in March 2017 to uncover the points where improvement was needed. Since the questionnaire was sourced from pre- tested constructs, the content validity and reliability had already been established by previous research. Compying Bell (2010), the pilot testing in this study was intended to elicit feedback concerning the following factors: (1) the time required to complete the questionnaire; (2) the clarity of instructions; (3) clarity or ambiguity, if any, in the questions (4) in case of any ambiguity. identifying the questions in which the respondent felt confusion int answering; (5) identifying any major omission or repetition on ant topic; and (6) clarity about the layout of the questionnaire. All 10 responses were received, and no serious problems could be traced in completing the questionnaire.


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