1 Introduction 2 Operating System Evolution 3 Multiprocessor Systems / Dual Core / Multicore Processor 4 Open Source vs. Proprietary Operating System INTRODUCTION
An operating system is a software that gives services for users application programs. It is connecting the user space applications with the hidden hardware. It is one of the main software programs that runs on the hardware and very functional for the user to interact with the hardware so that they can forward the input and receive output. It also produces an accurate environment for other software to execute commands. In other words, Operating System acts at the middle through which the system hardware, other software, and the user to exchange information. Some of the major tasks of operating systems are Memory Management, Disk Management, Process Scheduling, File Management, Security, Administration, Resource Allocation and others.

Operating System Evolution
LATE 1950s

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During late 1950s, FORTRAN was developed. Operating systems were well upgraded and started to support many usages such as able to perform single stream batch processing and error recovery to polish up after a job added aborted abnormally.
Besides that, it has a program transition potential to decrease the overhead of starting a new job was added and job control languages that authorized users to specify the job definition and resource requirements were made possible.
It is the first computer that use batch operating systems without stop. For example, programs were thrusted into cards that were usually copied to tape for processing. Once the computer finished one job, it would directly start the next one on the tape. Professional operators which is not the users, interacted with the machine. Users returned to pick up the results after their jobs had run after they dropped jobs off. This will bother the users, but no choice as the expensive computer was kept busy with a steady stream of jobs.

LATE 1960s

During late 1960s, MOUSE was invented, and mini computers got cheaper, more powerful, and functional. Besides that, time-shared operating systems began replacing batch systems. Users interacted straight to the computer via a printing terminal like the Western Electric Teletype shown above.

Several users shared the computer at the same time which spent a fraction of a second on each one’s job before moving on to the next. A fast computer could perform many user’s jobs at the same time while creating the illusion that they were accepting its full attention.

Printing terminals demand that programs had character or command-line user interfaces (CLI), in which the user typed feedback to typed commands. The interaction scrolled down a roll of paper.


LATE 1970s

During this late 1970s, Multi User and Multi-tasking was introduced. Personal, interactive systems and modular architectures start to exist during this year. Dynamic address translation hardware and virtual machines also start to be recognized. Then, video terminals could only display fixed size characters after terminating the printing terminals. Some could be used to create forms on the screen, but mostly simply scrolled like a “glass Teletype.”
In the mid-1970s, personal computers reduce price which is affordable for users. The Altair 8800, shown above, was the first commercially feasible personal computer that was marketed to individuals. Beginning in January 1975, the Altair was sold in kit form to hobbyists. The Altair did not have an operating system, since it had only toggle switches and light-emitting diodes for input and output. People soon connected terminals and floppy disk drives to Altair’s.
In 1976, Digital Research introduced the CP/M operating system for the Altair and computers like it. CP/M and later DOS had CLIs that were like those of the time-shared operating systems, but the computer was devoted to a single user.

LATE 1980s

As hardware prices started to drop, personal computers with bit-mapped displays that could control individual pixels started to function. These made personal computer allowed to have the graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

The first commercial that success which was established in 1984 was the Apple Macintosh. The initial Macintosh pushed the state of the hardware art, and was limited to a small, monochrome display. The Macintosh operating system was based on decades of research on graphically-oriented personal computer operating systems and applications.

Above photo of shows Ivan Sutherland’s pioneering program Sketchpad in the early 1960s. Sketchpad was suggested in many of the characteristics of a modern GUI, but the hardware cost a lot of money and filled a room. After decades of research projects on large computers and improvement in hardware, the Macintosh became economically viable.

Research prototypes like Sketchpad are still being produced at universities and in research labs to be tested. They will construct the basis of future products. As hardware continued to produce gradually, larger, color Macs were developed, and Microsoft started to introduce Windows which is their graphical user interface (GUI) operating system.

LATE 1990s
On 1990, Microsoft Windows 3.0 were developed. Followed by GNU/Linux on 1991.

And then, on 1992, the first Windows virus were introduced. Finally, on 1993 Windows NT were produced.

On 2007, iOS was founded. And finally, on 2008, Android OS was produced. And as the research and development work continues, the world will keep seeing new operating systems being developed and existing ones getting improved and modified to enhance the overall user experience which is making operating systems more efficient like before.

Also, with the onset of new devices like wearables, which includes, Smart Watches, Smart Glasses, VR gears and others, the demand for unconventional operating systems is also rising.

Multiprocessor Systems / Dual Core / Multicore Processor
Multiprocessor Systems

Multiprocessor System is a computer which has two processors at least. Within a single computer system, two or more central processing units (CPUs) is used. This is called multiprocessing. The term also refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor or the ability to allocate tasks between them.

Dual Core

A dual-core processor is a CPU with two processors or “execution cores” in the same integrated circuit. Each processor has its own cache and controller, which allows it to function as efficiently as a single processor.

Multicore processor

A multi-core processor is a circuit which two or more processors have been attached for enhanced performance, decrease the power consumption, and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks in an integrated circuit. In simple words, Multicore processor is a system with a single processor but multiple cores for the same processor which is often integrated on the same die.
Ideally, a dual core processor is nearly twice as powerful as a single core processor. In practice, a dual core processor is likely to be about one-and-a-half times as powerful as a single core processor.
Multi-core processing also is a growing industry trend as single-core processors that reach the physical limits of possible complexity and speed rapidly. Most current systems are multi-core.
Open Source vs. Proprietary Operating System
In general, open source refers to any program whose source code is made available for use produced as a freely made available and public collaboration. In other words, Open source means the source code of the program is free to modify but, in the end, money is still made on software via support for it or using community input to sell a better product. 
On the other hand, proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software’s publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights which contains copyrights.

Other differences between Open Source and Proprietary Operating System are in the table below.

Open source projects, even COSS, are complex packages of software that is hard for unskilled user for the first time. Commercial, proprietary products are typically designed with a smaller scope of features and abilities can is conveniently use by unskilled user or first timer user.

Open source is free to try before buy A company building upon proprietary software may pay a bigger fee for acquisition which includes full rights to the ownership of their own software product.



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