Name: OlwethuSurname: LuziphoStudent number: 64057313
Course code: HBEDMEF
Unique number: 854929 (ASSIGNMENT 03)
Table of contents
Declaration form 3
Title 4
An introduction 4
Description and statement of the problem 4
Hypothesis 4
Research question 4
Aims and objectives 5
Research methodology 5
Report, recommendations and conclusion 5
References list 6
Declaration
I Olwethu Luzipho 64057313 declare that the work on “Social and environmental influences on littering in the rural schools” is my own work both in the beginning and completing and that all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references.

Title
Social and environmental influences on littering in the rural schools.

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Introduction
Littering has become a cause for concern in many countries. Littering is known as a method of incorrectly disposing of waste (Garg & Mashilwane, 2015:91). Research has found that 70% of all litter can be attributed to people, while the rest is attributed to “unsecured vehicle loads” which includes parts of vehicles such as tyres (Schultz et al, 2011:2). Literature attempting to characterize the “litter-bug” is by far inconclusive as it varies from context to context depending health and environmental risks in society.

According my own observations, littering has become a serious issue in the rural schools in the Eastern Cape, the litter that consist of waste products that have been disposed improperly, without consent an inappropriate location which may result to student sickness or injuries caused by slippery objects. This essay seeks to study about the social and environmental influences that may lead to littering in the township schools.

Description and problem statement
Pollution is one of the threats to the environment. Since human beings are largely responsible for littering, it is important to understand why people litter as well as how to encourage people not to litter. Such information would form the basis for strategies aimed at tackling the problem. This paper will present the literature around littering behavior as well as explore the ways in which innovate initiatives can motivate people.

Hypothesis
How does littering affect the school community?
How does littering affect the planet Earth?
Research question
The following sub research questions are addressed in order to answer the core question of the study:
What are the influences on littering?
Who is to blame for littering?
What can be done to change the littering behavior?
Aims and objectives
The objectives of the study were to:
Establish the causes of littering in the school environment.

Methodology
This study examines factors contributing to the littering behavior at the township schools. The researcher used the qualitative case study method as a research design. The participants in this study were ten young people between the ages of 10-13 whom I believe are at the township schools. The reason why I used these learners is because qualitative is primarily exploratory research and the people who might have a huge impact on littering is the students. The emphasis, however, lies with economic factors and school factors that include the actions of teachers. Strategies in identifying and intervening with at-risk learners are recommended. It became apparent with this research that the actions of teachers as well as inadequacies within schools need to be addressed as a priority if the issue of littering is to be dealt with effectively.

How the research will be disseminated
These studies suggest a variety of approaches to understanding litter behavior. Dodge, Heberlein, and KAB consider littering behavior as a reflection of an inactive social norm. They suggest that littering will be reduced if individuals become more aware of the consequences of littering and accept personal responsibility for their behavior. According to McCool and Merriam, the chance of being caught in the act determines whether or not an individual will litter. When individuals perceive their judgments and/or actions to be observed or discovered, conformity to litter regulations will follow.

People often feel a need to evaluate their behavior (reactions, opinions, and abilities) against those of other persons when no objective standards are available. The need for social comparison is at least one motivating force behind a wide range of behavior, including affiliating with others, participating in discussions, playing competitive games, taking examinations in school, and answering popular quizzes.
Heberlein (1971) has suggested that “unawareness” of littering accounts for a large portion of the behavior observed. Behavioral awareness might be directly stimulated by a variety of subtle environmental manipulations, one of which is decreasing subject anonymity. Finally, the observation that many litterers report that they did not fear informal sanctioning from their friends might suggest that anonymity effects are weak (Heberlein, 1971).
References
Garg, A, K. &Mashilwane, C. 2015 “Waste disposal pattern of Mamelodi township in Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Environmental Economics, 6(2), 91-98.

Heberlein, T. A. Moral norms, threatened sanctions, and littering behavior. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1971, No. 72-2039.

McCool, S. & Merriam, L. Factors associated with littering behavior in the boundary waters canoe area. Science Journal Serial Paper No. 7357, University of Minnesota, Agriculture Experiment Station, 1970.

Schultz, W. Bator, R, J. Large, L. Bruni & Tabanico, J. 2011. Littering in context: Personal and Environmental Predictors of Littering Behavour. Environment and Behaviour 20 (10),1-25.

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