MUHIMBILI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED SCIENCES
SCHOOL OF NURSING

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
NAME OF THE AUTHOR: ORESTHA MALYATABU THOMAS
REG NO: 2015-04-09080
DEGREE PROGRAMME: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING BSCN
COORDINATOR: DR LILIAN MSELLE
SUPERVISOR: JOEL AMBIKILE
Title; KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF POSTINAL WOMEN ON EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AT TEMEKEB POSTNATAL WARD IN DAR-ES-SALAAM.

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Table of contents TOC o “1-3” h z u Title; PAGEREF _Toc517649903 h 1Table of contents PAGEREF _Toc517649904 h 21.0. Introduction and back ground, PAGEREF _Toc517649905 h 31.1. Problem statement. PAGEREF _Toc517649906 h 51.2. Broad objective. PAGEREF _Toc517649907 h 61.3. Specific objectives PAGEREF _Toc517649908 h 61.4. Research question. PAGEREF _Toc517649909 h 61.5. Hypothesis. PAGEREF _Toc517649910 h 61.6. Conceptual framework. PAGEREF _Toc517649911 h 72.0. Literature review. PAGEREF _Toc517649912 h 8
1.0. Introduction and back ground,Exclusive breastfeeding is feeding infants only with breast milk without giving any liquid or solid with exception of drops or syrup consisting of vitamin, mineral supplementation or acids as prescribed ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga, Msuya, & Damian, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga, Msuya, & Damian, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga, Msuya, & Damian, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga, Msuya, & Damian, 2016). -Several studies have shown that exclusive breastfeeding for six months play a great role in preventing mortality and morbidity by preventing infection like acute respiratory infection and diarrhea ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016). Also a child will have better performance in school and have better development of gastrointestinal system ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5455/ijmsph.2015.10022015201″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Abhay Kumar”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bankwar”,”given”:”Vishal”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Asha”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Medical Science and Public health.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”7″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”973-976″,”title”:”Knowledge regarding breastfeeding and factors associated with its practice among postnatal mothers in central India”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73d32c4e-d13f-4c56-b3dd-4151bbd06d75″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Choudhary, Bankwar, & Choudhary, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary, Bankwar, & Choudhary, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary, Bankwar, & Choudhary, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Choudhary, Bankwar, & Choudhary, 2015).

World health organization emphases maximum breastfeeding practices to promote healthy growth and development of the child ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13006-017-0135-8″,”ISBN”:”1300601701″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jama”,”given”:”Ngcwalisa Amanda”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wilford”,”given”:”Aurene”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Masango”,”given”:”Zandile”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Haskins”,”given”:”Lyn”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Coutsoudis”,”given”:”Anna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Spies”,”given”:”Lenore”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Horwood”,”given”:”Christiane”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Internrtional Breastfeeding Journal.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-13″,”publisher”:”International Breastfeeding Journal”,”title”:”Enablers and barriers to success among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed for six months : a qualitative prospective cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85d7acdb-5559-4e15-abb7-e44a6bda512c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Jama et al., 2017).The practices includes starting of breastfeeding one hour after birth, exclusive breastfeeding up to six months of the infants life and after six months complementary feeding with adequate nutritious food and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two year after birth ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mgongo et al., 2015).

The study done in Muheza Tanga shows that early initiation of breastfeeding is reported to prevent infections and 11.6% of neonatal death especially exclusive breastfeeding ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016). Also have health benefits for child and mother. The benefits of exclusive breast feeding for the child are well documented including prevention of acute respiratory infection and gastrointestinal infections like diarrhea which is major causes of under five deaths ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1038/ejcn.2016.135″,”ISSN”:”0954-3007″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Quigley”,”given”:”M A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Carson”,”given”:”C”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sacker”,”given”:”A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kelly”,”given”:”Y”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Original article”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”12″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”1420-1427″,”publisher”:”Nature Publishing Group”,”title”:”Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”70″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e7d91a80-538e-451d-863d-0e8cabf7e91d”},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},{“id”:”ITEM-3″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-3″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015; Quigley, Carson, Sacker, & Kelly, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015; Quigley, Carson, Sacker, & Kelly, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015; Quigley, Carson, Sacker, & Kelly, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015; Quigley, Carson, Sacker, & Kelly, 2016). Also delay return of fertility, reducing risk of ovarian and breast cancer and postpartum hemorrhage and mother to child transmission of HIV ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mgongo et al., 2015).

Despites of those efforts, only 50% of infant ere exclusively breastfed up to six months in Tanzania ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016). Basing on the percentage of infants exclusively breastfed this show that the remaining 50%, the complementary feeding is introduced to infants before reaching the age of six months. Worldwide the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is 35% and Sub-Saharan Africa the prevalence is only 33% which is very low ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016).

In order to reduce child death by 11.6% the exclusive breastfeeding have to increase by 90% I developing countries ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016). Tanzania have goal of increasing exclusive breastfeeding by 80% by 2015 but the prevalence is still low 43% by 2004 and slightly increased by 50% in 2010 ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016).

The study conducted in Canada exclusive breastfeeding is suboptimal; it aimed to show fathers altitude toward exclusive breastfeeding. It shows that mother and father who has been taught about exclusive breastfeeding the prevalence is high by 16.4% compared to single mother by 11.1%. Through this study shows that father have positive effect on exclusive ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1542/peds.2014-1416″,”ISBN”:”0031-4005″,”ISSN”:”0031-4005″,”PMID”:”25452653″,”abstract”:”OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of a coparenting intervention on exclusive breastfeeding among primiparous mothers and fathers. METHODS A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a large teaching hospital in Toronto, Canada. Couples were randomized to receive either usual care (n = 107) or a coparenting breastfeeding support intervention (n = 107). Follow-up of exclusive breastfeeding and diverse secondary outcomes was conducted at 6 and 12 weeks postpartum. RESULTS Significantly more mothers in the intervention group than in the control group continued to breastfeed at 12 weeks postpartum (96.2% vs 87.6%, P = .02). Although proportionately more mothers in the intervention group were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 and 12 weeks, these differences were not significant. Fathers in the intervention group had a significantly greater increase in breastfeeding self-efficacy scores from baseline to 6 weeks postpartum compared with fathers in the control group (P = .03). In addition, significantly more mothers in the intervention group than in the control group reported that their partners provided them with breastfeeding help in the first 6 weeks (71% vs 52%, P = .02) and that they were satisfied with their partners’ involvement with breastfeeding (89% vs 78.1%, P = .04). Mothers in the intervention group were also more satisfied with the breastfeeding information they received (81% vs 62.5%, P ; .001). CONCLUSIONS The significant improvements in breastfeeding duration, paternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, and maternal perceptions of paternal involvement and assistance with breastfeeding suggest that a coparenting intervention involving fathers warrants additional investigation.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Abbass-Dick”,”given”:”J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stern”,”given”:”S. B.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Nelson”,”given”:”L. E.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Watson”,”given”:”W.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Dennis”,”given”:”C.-L.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Pediatrics”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”102-110″,”title”:”Coparenting Breastfeeding Support and Exclusive Breastfeeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”135″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=700078d2-6768-4674-b5a0-0fe64307fee3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Abbass-Dick, Stern, Nelson, Watson, ; Dennis, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Abbass-Dick, Stern, Nelson, Watson, ; Dennis, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Abbass-Dick, Stern, Nelson, Watson, ; Dennis, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Abbass-Dick, Stern, Nelson, Watson, & Dennis, 2015).

But in united kingdom, show that the prevalence of breastfeeding is very low, 12% for infants with four months of life and 1% for infant with six months of life ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1038/ejcn.2016.135″,”ISSN”:”0954-3007″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Quigley”,”given”:”M A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Carson”,”given”:”C”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sacker”,”given”:”A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kelly”,”given”:”Y”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Original article”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”12″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”1420-1427″,”publisher”:”Nature Publishing Group”,”title”:”Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”70″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e7d91a80-538e-451d-863d-0e8cabf7e91d”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Quigley et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Quigley et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Quigley et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Quigley et al., 2016). But WHO policy emphasizes exclusive breastfeeding for six months. In developed countries the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is 39% which is very low ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1038/ejcn.2016.135″,”ISSN”:”0954-3007″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Quigley”,”given”:”M A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Carson”,”given”:”C”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sacker”,”given”:”A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kelly”,”given”:”Y”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Original article”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”12″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”1420-1427″,”publisher”:”Nature Publishing Group”,”title”:”Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”70″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e7d91a80-538e-451d-863d-0e8cabf7e91d”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Quigley et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Quigley et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Quigley et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Quigley et al., 2016).

In South Africa 31.6% are exclusive breastfed for six months of life. In 2016 the study done in South Africa shows that 0-5 aged infants were not breastfed at all, 11.4% breastfed and fed with other milk and 17.6% were being given complementary feeds instead of exclusive breastfeeding ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13006-017-0135-8″,”ISBN”:”1300601701″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jama”,”given”:”Ngcwalisa Amanda”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wilford”,”given”:”Aurene”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Masango”,”given”:”Zandile”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Haskins”,”given”:”Lyn”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Coutsoudis”,”given”:”Anna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Spies”,”given”:”Lenore”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Horwood”,”given”:”Christiane”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Internrtional Breastfeeding Journal.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-13″,”publisher”:”International Breastfeeding Journal”,”title”:”Enablers and barriers to success among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed for six months : a qualitative prospective cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85d7acdb-5559-4e15-abb7-e44a6bda512c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Jama et al., 2017).

The prevalence of HIV among women attending antenatal visits is high. In South Africa the prevalence of HIV is 29.7% among women attending antenatal clinic in South Africa and these increases chance of mother to child transmission since only 31.6% of women exclusively breastfed their infant ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13006-017-0135-8″,”ISBN”:”1300601701″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jama”,”given”:”Ngcwalisa Amanda”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wilford”,”given”:”Aurene”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Masango”,”given”:”Zandile”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Haskins”,”given”:”Lyn”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Coutsoudis”,”given”:”Anna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Spies”,”given”:”Lenore”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Horwood”,”given”:”Christiane”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Internrtional Breastfeeding Journal.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-13″,”publisher”:”International Breastfeeding Journal”,”title”:”Enablers and barriers to success among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed for six months : a qualitative prospective cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85d7acdb-5559-4e15-abb7-e44a6bda512c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Jama et al., 2017). exclusive breastfeeding have role of preventing mother to child transmission of HIV ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13006-017-0135-8″,”ISBN”:”1300601701″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jama”,”given”:”Ngcwalisa Amanda”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wilford”,”given”:”Aurene”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Masango”,”given”:”Zandile”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Haskins”,”given”:”Lyn”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Coutsoudis”,”given”:”Anna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Spies”,”given”:”Lenore”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Horwood”,”given”:”Christiane”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Internrtional Breastfeeding Journal.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-13″,”publisher”:”International Breastfeeding Journal”,”title”:”Enablers and barriers to success among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed for six months : a qualitative prospective cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85d7acdb-5559-4e15-abb7-e44a6bda512c”},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016).Exclusive breastfeeding shows that reduce infants and neonatal death associated with acute respiratory infection and diarrhea, which are the major causes of child death.

Several literatures show that the knowledge about breastfeeding is low both developed, middle-economic and developing countries and hence lead to suboptimal exclusive breastfeeding example the study in Tanga shows that women do mixed feeding since the breast feeding is not enough for child growth, thirsty and need to introduce herbal medicine to infant ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016). And the following several factors have been found to be affect with exclusive breast feeding, in developing, middle-economic and developed countries social classes, level of education, age of mothers, lack of parental or family support, poor involvement of men in breastfeeding matter and employment status, parity, and place of delivery ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13690-015-0098-4″,”ISSN”:”2049-3258″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sonko”,”given”:”Asrat”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Worku”,”given”:”Amare”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Archives of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”1-11″,”publisher”:”Archives of Public Health”,”title”:”Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life among women in Halaba special woreda , Southern Nations , Nationalities and Peoples ‘ Region / SNNPR /, Ethiopia : a community based cross-sectional study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”73″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2cdd52e9-682f-4afe-9cd8-091fd1da254b”},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},{“id”:”ITEM-3″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13006-017-0135-8″,”ISBN”:”1300601701″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jama”,”given”:”Ngcwalisa Amanda”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wilford”,”given”:”Aurene”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Masango”,”given”:”Zandile”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Haskins”,”given”:”Lyn”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Coutsoudis”,”given”:”Anna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Spies”,”given”:”Lenore”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Horwood”,”given”:”Christiane”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Internrtional Breastfeeding Journal.”,”id”:”ITEM-3″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-13″,”publisher”:”International Breastfeeding Journal”,”title”:”Enablers and barriers to success among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed for six months : a qualitative prospective cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85d7acdb-5559-4e15-abb7-e44a6bda512c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017; Mgongo et al., 2015; Sonko & Worku, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017; Mgongo et al., 2015; Sonko & Worku, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017; Mgongo et al., 2015; Sonko & Worku, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Jama et al., 2017; Mgongo et al., 2015; Sonko & Worku, 2015).

1.1. Problem statement.The studies show that only 35% of infants are exclusively breastfed up to six months of life ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016). And in sub-Saharan countries only 33% of infants are breastfed up to six months of life ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016). The studies show that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) prevent about 11.5% of under-five mortality and save 1.2 million of children each year ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015). Suboptimal breast feeding causes acute respiratory infection, malnutrition, diarrhea and allergies ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5455/ijmsph.2015.10022015201″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Abhay Kumar”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bankwar”,”given”:”Vishal”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Asha”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Medical Science and Public health.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”7″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”973-976″,”title”:”Knowledge regarding breastfeeding and factors associated with its practice among postnatal mothers in central India”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73d32c4e-d13f-4c56-b3dd-4151bbd06d75″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},{“id”:”ITEM-3″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Emmanuel”,”given”:”Andy”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Nursing and Health Science.”,”id”:”ITEM-3″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”28-36″,”title”:”A Literature Review of the Factors That Influence Breastfeeding : An Application of the Health Belief Model”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=57564b4f-d334-469c-974f-90bdb9f37285″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Emmanuel, 2015; Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Emmanuel, 2015; Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Emmanuel, 2015; Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Choudhary et al., 2015; Emmanuel, 2015; Maonga et al., 2016).
The exclusive breastfeeding is suboptimal practiced. A study shows that in ancient exclusive breastfeeding was only a way feeding an infant. But currently due to industrialization, urbanization, modernization, level of education, parity, social classes and employment influences suboptimal exclusive breast feeding (EBF) ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016).

Increased risk of neonatal and child death associated with diarrhea and acute respiratory infection. Two of leading causes of child deaths. 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While optimal breastfeeding could prevent such diseasesADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”manualFormatting”:” (Maonga et al. 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Maonga et al. 2016).

Social demographic characteristics like level of education seems to be challenge whereby among mothers who follow schedules on breastfeeding and early initiation of food supplements ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5455/ijmsph.2015.10022015201″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Abhay Kumar”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bankwar”,”given”:”Vishal”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Asha”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Medical Science and Public health.”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”7″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”973-976″,”title”:”Knowledge regarding breastfeeding and factors associated with its practice among postnatal mothers in central India”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73d32c4e-d13f-4c56-b3dd-4151bbd06d75″},{“id”:”ITEM-3″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-3″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Choudhary et al., 2015; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015). Also illiterate women delay on initiation of breastfeeding and believe that breast milk was not enough to support infant growth and need to introduce herbal medicine. Studies have been conducted base on the optimal breastfeeding in areas. 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The study aims at assessing knowledge and practices of exclusive breastfeeding among postnatal women. And the results help to increase knowledge and practices of postnatal women on exclusive breastfeeding and hence increases both maternal and infant benefit including prevent mortality rate associated with acute respiratory infection and diarrhea, food allergy and provide immunity to infants and also prevent mother to child transmission of HIV. Adherence to exclusive breastfeeding helps in delay of fertility to women and prevent ovarian, and breast cancer as well as postpartum hemorrhage ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015).
1.2. Broad objective.Assess knowledge and practices of postnatal women on exclusive breastfeeding practice at Temeke postnatal ward in Dar-es-salaam.

1.3. Specific objectives.
Assess knowledge of postnatal women on exclusive breastfeeding at Temeke postnatal ward from November 2018 – March 2019.

Assess practices of postnatal women on exclusive breastfeeding at Temeke postnatal ward from November 2018-March 2019.

1.4. Research question.Do postnatal women at TEMEKE hospital have knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding?
Variable
Independent variable: Knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding.

Dependent variable: Exclusive breastfeeding.

Population: Postnatal women.

1.5. Hypothesis.Postnatal multiparous women have more knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding than primeparous postnatal women at Temeke postnatal ward in Dar-es -salaam.

1.6. Conceptual framework.Below is the conceptual framework of the study. It has been constructed with reference to various literatures that describe the status of knowledge and practice regarding exclusive breastfeeding among women around the world. From these literatures knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among postnatal women to be associated with many factors such as parity, age, educational level, economic status, marital status and accessibility and affordable to health care, hence influencing the uptake of exclusive breast feeding positively or negatively.

Economic status
Age
Parity

Practice of exclusive breast feeding
Knowledge on exclusive breast feeding
Level of education

Accessibility and affordable to health care

Marital status

Figure1: Conceptual framework of the study showing different factors that influence the knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding and hence its practice ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5455/ijmsph.2015.10022015201″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Abhay Kumar”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bankwar”,”given”:”Vishal”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Asha”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Medical Science and Public health.”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”7″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”973-976″,”title”:”Knowledge regarding breastfeeding and factors associated with its practice among postnatal mothers in central India”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73d32c4e-d13f-4c56-b3dd-4151bbd06d75″},{“id”:”ITEM-3″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-3″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},{“id”:”ITEM-4″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13006-017-0135-8″,”ISBN”:”1300601701″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jama”,”given”:”Ngcwalisa Amanda”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wilford”,”given”:”Aurene”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Masango”,”given”:”Zandile”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Haskins”,”given”:”Lyn”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Coutsoudis”,”given”:”Anna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Spies”,”given”:”Lenore”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Horwood”,”given”:”Christiane”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Internrtional Breastfeeding Journal.”,”id”:”ITEM-4″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-13″,”publisher”:”International Breastfeeding Journal”,”title”:”Enablers and barriers to success among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed for six months : a qualitative prospective cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85d7acdb-5559-4e15-abb7-e44a6bda512c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Choudhary et al., 2015; Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015).

2.0. Literature review.Exclusive breastfeeding is very important for both mother and infant. By definition mean that feeding an infant with only breast milk up to six months of age, without giving others liquid or solids, not even water, with exception of oral rehydration solution, or drop/syrup of vitamins, minerals or medicinesADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Emmanuel”,”given”:”Andy”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Nursing and Health Science.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”28-36″,”title”:”A Literature Review of the Factors That Influence Breastfeeding : An Application of the Health Belief Model”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=57564b4f-d334-469c-974f-90bdb9f37285″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015; Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015; Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015; Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Emmanuel, 2015; Maonga et al., 2016). Exclusive breastfeeding shows is evidence based interventions for child survival by 11.5 % ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016).

Estimate shows that, good breastfeeding practices especially EBF could prevent about 11.6% of the 6.9 million of under five deaths in developing countries ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016). The study was done in Muheza Tanga among 316 women and the result shows that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is only 24.1%. the main reason of suboptimal breast feeding being the perception of mother breast milk is not enough for child growth, child being thirsty and need to introduce traditional medicine, these were reason of mixed feeding in Tanga ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016) .

Exclusive breast feeding promote optimal neonate and infant growth as it contributes to100% of daily nutrition requirements of children up to six month of age, 50% of children 6-12 months and 35% of nutritional requirement for children aged 12-24 months ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016).

The study conducted in Northern Tanzania at Kilimanjaro region shows that reduce neonatal and child deaths associated with acute respiratory infection by and diarrhea by 22%, the leading cause of child deaths ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mgongo et al., 2015).Also shows that exclusive breast feeding have many important for both mother and child and these includes delay of fertility to mother, prevent ovarian and breast cancer and postpartum hemorrhage.

Despites of importance of exclusive breast feeding shown in study conducted in Kilimanjaro only 29% mother of infant aged 0-5 months reported to exclusive breast fed their child. Therefore they emphases those women who exclusively breastfed their child to teach the ones who do not so as to increase the exclusive breastfeeding ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mgongo et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mgongo et al., 2015).
Exclusive breastfeeding reduce the risk of mother to child transmission of HIV and prevent risk of gastrointestinal and respiratory infection and help in losing weight among postnatal women by 4.4 kg within a year ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Emmanuel”,”given”:”Andy”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Nursing and Health Science.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”28-36″,”title”:”A Literature Review of the Factors That Influence Breastfeeding : An Application of the Health Belief Model”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=57564b4f-d334-469c-974f-90bdb9f37285″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1038/ejcn.2016.135″,”ISSN”:”0954-3007″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Quigley”,”given”:”M A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Carson”,”given”:”C”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sacker”,”given”:”A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kelly”,”given”:”Y”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Original article”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”12″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”1420-1427″,”publisher”:”Nature Publishing Group”,”title”:”Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”70″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e7d91a80-538e-451d-863d-0e8cabf7e91d”},{“id”:”ITEM-3″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13006-017-0135-8″,”ISBN”:”1300601701″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jama”,”given”:”Ngcwalisa Amanda”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wilford”,”given”:”Aurene”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Masango”,”given”:”Zandile”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Haskins”,”given”:”Lyn”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Coutsoudis”,”given”:”Anna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Spies”,”given”:”Lenore”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Horwood”,”given”:”Christiane”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Internrtional Breastfeeding Journal.”,”id”:”ITEM-3″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-13″,”publisher”:”International Breastfeeding Journal”,”title”:”Enablers and barriers to success among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed for six months : a qualitative prospective cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85d7acdb-5559-4e15-abb7-e44a6bda512c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015; Jama et al., 2017; Quigley et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015; Jama et al., 2017; Quigley et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015; Jama et al., 2017; Quigley et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Emmanuel, 2015; Jama et al., 2017; Quigley et al., 2016).

The study conducted in Nigeria shows that breastfeeding is costless compared to infant formulae feeding. Breastfeeding gives women a sense of bonding with their babies. Infant exclusively breastfed for six months have high IQ, lower risk of childhood obesity, diabetes and lower risk of mental health problem as they enter their adolescence and increases chance of early childhood survivalADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Emmanuel”,”given”:”Andy”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Nursing and Health Science.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”28-36″,”title”:”A Literature Review of the Factors That Influence Breastfeeding : An Application of the Health Belief Model”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=57564b4f-d334-469c-974f-90bdb9f37285″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Emmanuel, 2015).
This vital advantage in Africa where the prevalence of HIV is high and replacement feeding that is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe (AFFASS) is unavailable for many HIV positive women ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13006-017-0135-8″,”ISBN”:”1300601701″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jama”,”given”:”Ngcwalisa Amanda”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wilford”,”given”:”Aurene”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Masango”,”given”:”Zandile”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Haskins”,”given”:”Lyn”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Coutsoudis”,”given”:”Anna”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Spies”,”given”:”Lenore”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Horwood”,”given”:”Christiane”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Internrtional Breastfeeding Journal.”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”1-13″,”publisher”:”International Breastfeeding Journal”,”title”:”Enablers and barriers to success among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed for six months : a qualitative prospective cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”12″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85d7acdb-5559-4e15-abb7-e44a6bda512c”},{“id”:”ITEM-3″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-3″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Jama et al., 2017; Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015).

A study shows that not more than35% of infants worldwide are exclusively breastfed during the first four of months. Only 33% are breastfed in developing countries ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016)
In Ethiopia 52% of children less than six months old are exclusively breastfed. This low practice of breastfeeding contributed to an estimated 70000 infant deaths per year, 24% of total death infant death annually and which can be significantly prevented by exclusive breastfeeding ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13690-015-0098-4″,”ISSN”:”2049-3258″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sonko”,”given”:”Asrat”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Worku”,”given”:”Amare”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Archives of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”1-11″,”publisher”:”Archives of Public Health”,”title”:”Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life among women in Halaba special woreda , Southern Nations , Nationalities and Peoples ‘ Region / SNNPR /, Ethiopia : a community based cross-sectional study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”73″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2cdd52e9-682f-4afe-9cd8-091fd1da254b”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Sonko & Worku, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Sonko & Worku, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Sonko & Worku, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Sonko & Worku, 2015).The Ethiopian Health Sector Development Program me (HSDP) IV planned to increase in the proportional of exclusive breastfeeding to 70% by the end of 2015 ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13690-015-0098-4″,”ISSN”:”2049-3258″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sonko”,”given”:”Asrat”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Worku”,”given”:”Amare”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Archives of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”1-11″,”publisher”:”Archives of Public Health”,”title”:”Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life among women in Halaba special woreda , Southern Nations , Nationalities and Peoples ‘ Region / SNNPR /, Ethiopia : a community based cross-sectional study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”73″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2cdd52e9-682f-4afe-9cd8-091fd1da254b”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Sonko ; Worku, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Sonko ; Worku, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Sonko ; Worku, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Sonko & Worku, 2015).

In Ethiopia, the infant and under five child mortality rate are high the main causes being pneumonia neonatal condition, diarrhea, malaria and measles. Despites the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding being high 70.5% and awareness of exclusive breastfeeding is also high 92.4% ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13690-015-0098-4″,”ISSN”:”2049-3258″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sonko”,”given”:”Asrat”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Worku”,”given”:”Amare”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Archives of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”1-11″,”publisher”:”Archives of Public Health”,”title”:”Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life among women in Halaba special woreda , Southern Nations , Nationalities and Peoples ‘ Region / SNNPR /, Ethiopia : a community based cross-sectional study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”73″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2cdd52e9-682f-4afe-9cd8-091fd1da254b”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Sonko & Worku, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Sonko & Worku, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Sonko & Worku, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Sonko & Worku, 2015).

The study conducted in European, show WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months of life of an infant. In UK the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding is lower in 2010, 12% for 4 months and 1% for 6 months and increase risk of infection. This study direct mutually exclusive groups (Exclusive breastfeeding for4.0-5.9months and Exclusive breastfeeding for 6months) ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1038/ejcn.2016.135″,”ISSN”:”0954-3007″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Quigley”,”given”:”M A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Carson”,”given”:”C”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sacker”,”given”:”A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kelly”,”given”:”Y”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Original article”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”12″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”1420-1427″,”publisher”:”Nature Publishing Group”,”title”:”Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”70″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e7d91a80-538e-451d-863d-0e8cabf7e91d”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Quigley et al., 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Quigley et al., 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Quigley et al., 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Quigley et al., 2016).

Suboptimal exclusive breastfeeding cause 1.4 million of child death and 44 million disabilities among children globally. World Health Organization and UNICEF recommend exclusive breast feeding for six months of infant life and subsequently continue with supplementary for 2 years of life of child for optimal growth and development ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Emmanuel”,”given”:”Andy”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Nursing and Health Science.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”28-36″,”title”:”A Literature Review of the Factors That Influence Breastfeeding : An Application of the Health Belief Model”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=57564b4f-d334-469c-974f-90bdb9f37285″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Emmanuel, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Emmanuel, 2015)
In India, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding 33% and mixed feeding being 53%. Breastfeeding provide immunization, affordable and capable of preventing diseases and allergies. Early and exclusive breastfeeding is most effective intervention to prevent morbidity and mortality of three condition which neonatal infection, diarrhea and pneumonia ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5455/ijmsph.2015.10022015201″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Abhay Kumar”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bankwar”,”given”:”Vishal”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Asha”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Medical Science and Public health.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”7″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”973-976″,”title”:”Knowledge regarding breastfeeding and factors associated with its practice among postnatal mothers in central India”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73d32c4e-d13f-4c56-b3dd-4151bbd06d75″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Choudhary et al., 2015) .

In Tanzania exclusively breastfeeding coverage is 50%. The Tanzanian goal is to have EBF coverage of 80% by 2015. Several factors affect EBF, in developing countries ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.31″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mgongo”,”given”:”Melina”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hashim”,”given”:”Tamara Hussein”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uriyo”,”given”:”Jacqueline Gilbert”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian Jeremia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stray-pedersen”,”given”:”Babill”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia Emmanuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science Journal of Public Health.”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”January 2014″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”631-635″,”title”:”Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64f53324-537b-4519-815d-88576ea4f537″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Maonga et al., 2016; Mgongo et al., 2015).

Socio demographic factors like maternal age, education, employment, residency, cultural and religious practices, living arrangement, antenatal care practices, home delivery, professional assistance at birth were associated with suboptimal exclusive breastfeeding practices ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5455/ijmsph.2015.10022015201″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Abhay Kumar”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bankwar”,”given”:”Vishal”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Choudhary”,”given”:”Asha”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Medical Science and Public health.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”7″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”973-976″,”title”:”Knowledge regarding breastfeeding and factors associated with its practice among postnatal mothers in central India”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=73d32c4e-d13f-4c56-b3dd-4151bbd06d75″},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s10995-015-1805-z”,”ISSN”:”1573-6628″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Maonga”,”given”:”Aubrey R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Msuya”,”given”:”Sia E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Damian”,”given”:”Damian J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Maternal and Child Health Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-87″,”publisher”:”Springer US”,”title”:”Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania : A Mixed Method Community Based Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908fbb6e-436c-4cd1-a47b-ad04668cd4e3″},{“id”:”ITEM-3″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1186/s13690-015-0098-4″,”ISSN”:”2049-3258″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sonko”,”given”:”Asrat”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Worku”,”given”:”Amare”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Archives of Public Health”,”id”:”ITEM-3″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”1-11″,”publisher”:”Archives of Public Health”,”title”:”Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life among women in Halaba special woreda , Southern Nations , Nationalities and Peoples ‘ Region / SNNPR /, Ethiopia : a community based cross-sectional study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”73″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2cdd52e9-682f-4afe-9cd8-091fd1da254b”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Maonga et al., 2016; Sonko ; Worku, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Maonga et al., 2016; Sonko ; Worku, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Choudhary et al., 2015; Maonga et al., 2016; Sonko ; Worku, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Choudhary et al., 2015; Maonga et al., 2016; Sonko & Worku, 2015).

3.0. References.

ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbass-Dick, J., Stern, S. B., Nelson, L. E., Watson, W., & Dennis, C.-L. (2015). Coparenting Breastfeeding Support and Exclusive Breastfeeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics, 135(1), 102–110.
Choudhary, A. K., Bankwar, V., & Choudhary, A. (2015). Knowledge regarding breastfeeding and factors associated with its practice among postnatal mothers in central India. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health., 4(7), 973–976.
Emmanuel, A. (2015). A Literature Review of the Factors That Influence Breastfeeding?: An Application of the Health Belief Model. International Journal of Nursing and Health Science., 2(3), 28–36.

Jama, N. A., Wilford, A., Masango, Z., Haskins, L., Coutsoudis, A., Spies, L., & Horwood, C. (2017). Enablers and barriers to success among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed for six months?: a qualitative prospective cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal , South Africa. Internrtional Breastfeeding Journal., 12(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13006-017-0135-8.

Maonga, A. R., Msuya, S. E., & Damian, D. J. (2016). Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania?: A Mixed Method Community Based Study. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 20(1), 77–87.
Mgongo, M., Hashim, T. H., Uriyo, J. G., Damian, D. J., Stray-pedersen, B., & Msuya, S. E. (2015). Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region , Tanzania. Science Journal of Public Health., 2(January 2014), 631–635.

Quigley, M. A., Carson, C., Sacker, A., & Kelly, Y. (2016). Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection. Original Article, 70(12), 1420–1427.

Sonko, A., & Worku, A. (2015). Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life among women in Halaba special woreda , Southern Nations , Nationalities and Peoples ‘ Region / SNNPR /, Ethiopia?: a community based cross-sectional study. Archives of Public Health, 73(2), 1–11.

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