Major branches of applied linguistics include bilingualism and multilingualism,
conversation analysis, contrastive linguistics, sign linguistics, language assessment,discourse analysis, language pedagogy (the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning), second language acquisition, language planning and policy planning,stylistics, pragmaticsand translation(Wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_linguistics).
3.7 Computational Linguistics5. Assign Classroom Jobs
With students, create a list of jobs for the week. Using the criteria of your choosing let students earn the opportunity to pick their classroom jobs for the next week. These jobs can cater to their interests and skills.
6. Hand Over Some Control
If students take ownership of what you do in class, then they have less room to complain (though we all know, it’ll never stop completely). Take an audit of your class, asking what they enjoy doing, what helps them learn, what they’re excited about after class. Multiple choice might be the best way to start if you predict a lot of “nothing” or “watch movies” answers. After reviewing the answers, integrate their ideas into your lessons or guide a brainstorm session on how these ideas could translate into class. On a systematic level, let students choose from elective classes in a collegiate format. Again, they can tap into their passion and relate to their subject matter if they have a choice.
7. Open-format Fridays
You can also translate this student empowerment into an incentive program. Students who attended class all week, completed all assignments and obeyed all classroom rules can vote on Friday’s activities (lecture, discussion, watching a video, class jeopardy, acting out a scene from a play or history).
8. Relating Lessons to Students’ Lives
Whether it is budgeting for family Christmas gifts, choosing short stories about your town, tying in the war of 1812 with Iraq, rapping about ions, or using Pop Culture Printables, students will care more if they identify themselves or their everyday lives in what they’re learning.
Sample 3. Susan Verner’s Motivating Students to Learn English with 5 Smart Tactics (2018)
1. Make Class Communicative
One way to encourage your students’ intrinsic motivation is to make class communicative. Part of the joy of language is using it to communicate. Language learners get a rush when they can successfully translate their thoughts into words and get their points across.
2. Make English Practical
One way to keep things practical in class is to use realia (objects and material from everyday life used as teaching aids) whenever possible. Bringing realia into your classroom will make your students more prepared for what they’ll find outside your classroom walls.
3. Make Class Fun
Making class fun is a surefire way to up intrinsic motivation levels. When students are having a good time, they’ll be more engaged in learning. Their motivation will come from them rather than from you. You just have to find the best ways to help your students have a good time while they learn. Here are some strategies you can try: use social media in class, invite pop culture into class, gamify your lessons!
4. Forge Relationships
Generally speaking, people don’t care what you know until they know that you care. That is why forging relationships with your students are so important.
5. Give Feedback
Always consider feedback carefully. The right quantity and quality of feedback is important for forging the right relationships with your students.
Sample 4. A teacher from Cihan University/ Erbil
1. Building trust between teachers and students is very important to motivate the students to believe in whatever you say.
2. Creating a friendly atmosphere in the class helps delivering lectures.
3. Using funny and realistic examples from the students’ life is very necessary to enforce language learning.
4. Changing the setting of lectures (time and place) where possible creates good motive to learn.
5. Using the principle of ‘Reward and Punishment’ when assigning students homework is very motivating.
6. Emphasizing group discussion and teamwork.
Sample 5. A teacher from Ishik University/ Erbil
1. A communicative approach is very successful in teaching English language.
2. Visual materials like interesting movies and funny videos motivate students to follow up and learn.
3. Building the self-confidence for students is a key motivation.
4. Group learning is necessary where students have more freedom to talk to their colleagues.
5. Continuous written and oral assignments help to develop students’ capacity.
6. Encouraging and praising students from time to time could raise the level of motivation.
Sample 6. A professor from Lebanese- French University/ Erbil
1. Using modern and updated language programs motivates students.
2. Language lab may bring about some new learning climate.
3. Creating learning fun games in the class is useful.
4. Group discussion and debates are very motivating.
5. Keeping in touch with students through social media is also interesting and motivating.
6. Reward and punishment principle is useful in many cases.
Discussion and Conclusions:
Throughout the suggestions of the six teachers, all of them have agreed on creating pleasant atmosphere through making fun, funny materials, and games. Also, most of them have emphasized the role of the teamwork as a good strategy to motivate students. The third effective strategy the sample teachers agreed on is encouraging students through praising and addressing nice words. The fourth important strategy is relating the learning material to students’ life and daily experience. The fifth strategy which concerns rewarding, most of them agreed on it, but not all agreed on punishment. Finally, using the social media to keep in touch with students is a good strategy to strengthen the relations, build mutual trust, and giving feedback.
Based on the above discussion, we can conclude that the following set of strategies is very important to motivate students to learn English in the classroom:
1. Creating comfortable climate in the class by using interesting and funny attractive materials.
2. Relating feasible materials used in teaching to the students’ everyday life.
3. Using teamwork and group discussion in teaching.
4. Encouraging and praising students using pleasant words and phrases.
5. Rewarding distinguished students with marks or other methods like putting their photos in the class.
6. Using the social media to build trust between teachers and students and to get feedback about teaching process.
7. Finally, applying other strategies like changing the class setting, new programs, continuous assignment, language labs, and giving space for students’ leadership in the class.
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.It refers to the use of computers to simulate languageand its working. The study of language and speech by using computers (inautomatic/electronic translation, data analysis, corpus data) (Mansoor, 2014: 25).
Computational linguistics has theoretical and applied components. Theoretical computational linguistics focuses on issues in theoretical linguistics and cognitive science, and applied computational linguistics focuses on the practical outcome of modeling human language use (Uszkoreit, 2000).
3.8 Anthropological Linguistics
Anthropological linguisticsis the subfield of linguistics and anthropology, which deals with the place of language in its wider social and cultural context, and its role in making and maintaining cultural practices and societal structures(Foley, 2012).It is the study of language in cross-cultural settings (the relationship between language and culture; traditions, beliefs, and family structure).Anthropological linguistics is one of many disciplines which studies the role of languages in the social lives of individuals and within communities. Conventional linguistic anthropology also has implications for sociology and self-organization of peoples. (Duranti, 2009).
3.9 Comparative Linguistics
Comparative linguistics, originally known as comparative philology, is a branchofhistorical linguistics that is concerned with comparinglanguages to establish their historical relatedness.It is the study of two or more languages in order to compare their structures, and to show whether they are similar or different (Mansoor, 2014: 25).
Comparative linguists compare and contrast languages as regards their phonological and morphological systems, syntax, and vocabularies. It is used in the study of language types known as linguistic typology which classifies languages according totheir structural features. It deals with the classification of languages into different types (tone languages, intonation languages, SVO (English), SOV (Turkish/Kurdish), VSO (Arabic), and so on (Mansoor, 2014: 24). It is also used by some applied linguists for establishing differences between the learner’s native language (L1) and the target language (L2) in the areas of syntax, vocabulary and sound systems (Richards, 1993:68).
3.10 Discourse Analysis
Discourse analysis, or text linguistics is the study of the relationship between language and the contexts in which language is used. It is “the study of how sentences in spoken and written language form larger meaningful units such as paragraphs, conversations, interviews, etc.”(ibid, 111). Some major concerns of discourse analysis are the relationships between utterances in a discourse, the grammatical structure of discourse and the moves made by speakers to introduce a new topic or change a topic (ibid).
4. Domain of Microlinguistics
As is the case with macrolinguistics, although linguists and researchers are not in much agreement about all the branches or fields that fall within the domain of microlinguistics, thefollowing are the main branches that the majority have agreed upon.
4.1 Phonetics and Phonology
Phonetics is the study of the characteristics of human speech sounds (their articulation:description and production). It includes a detailed study of phonemes (the smallest segment (part) of sound which can distinguish the meaning of two words) and their different forms or variants (allophones). There are three branches of phonetics:
a)Articulatory Phonetics:It deals with the production and description ofspeech sounds.
b)Acoustic Phonetics: It deals with the transmission of speech sounds in the air (in waves). It deals with the physical properties of sounds.
c) Auditory Phonetics: It deals with the perception of speech sounds; howthey are received or heard via the ear (Yule, 2010: 26).
Phonology is the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds.It is the study of sound patterning in language.It deals with the description of distinctive sound units of language (distinctive features). It also deals with word-to-word relations in sentences; how sound patterns are affected by the combination of words as in stress, consonant clusters, intonation patterns, assimilation and elision (Richards, 1993:275).
Morphology is best defined as the make-up (composition) of words: their formation andderivation by using affixes (prefixes, infixes, suffixes). It is the study of morphemes (the smallest meaningful units in language), their different forms (allomorphs)and the way they combine in different word formation processes such as (coinage, borrowing, compounding, blending, clipping, conversion, abbreviation and acronymy), and also the study of word classes (parts of speech).Briefly stated, it is the study of word formation (Mansoor, 2014). It deals with all types of morphemes; free/bound, lexical/functional, derivational/inflectional (Yule, 2010: 68-69).
Syntax isthe arrangement and combination of words to form sentences. Itis sentence formation. It is the study of how words combine to form sentences and the rules which govern the formation of sentences (Richards, et al, 1993:370). According to Yule (2010, 97, 102) an important goal of syntactic analysis “is to have a small and finite (limited) set of rules that will be capableof producing a large and potentially infinite (unlimited) number of well-formed structures”. This kind of rules is described as generative grammar since it is capable of generating (producing) sentence structures and not just describing them. It is a grammar that enables us to produce a very large number of sentences by using very small number of rules (phrase structure rules). It is also capable of revealing two important phenomena: deep and surface structure (ibid).
Semantics is the study of the meaning (of words, phrases and sentences) in language. It describes the meaningful relationships between words, and explains the processes that lead to new words and senses. It is the meaning of words or linguistic expressions in a given language without reference to the speaker and the situation. Asemanticistis a linguist who is concerned with the study of meaning or a specialist in semantics (Mansoor, 2017: 4-5).
When dealing with semantics, we are actually interested in word or sentence meaning. It is what a word or a sentence means literally. This is often referred to as denotative meaning, conceptual meaning or literal meaning; meaning that is conveyed by the literal use of words as found in dictionaries (dictionary definition of words).It is the meaning of words or linguistic expressions in a given language without reference to the speaker and the situation. It is the literal or denotative meaning of words and sentences, which is predicted from linguistic knowledge (dictionary definition or meaning) (ibid, 98).
Basic concern of semantic interest is the study of semantic features, e.g., (+/-animate, +/-human, +/-female), etc.; semantic roles (agent, patient, instrument,experiencer, location, goal, etc.) and lexical relations (synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, polysemy, metonymy, collocation, etc.) (Yule, 2010:113-121).
The most common definition of pragmatics is; meaning in use or meaning in context (Thomas, 1995, 1) as interpreted by different speakers in different contexts or situations.Pragmatics deals with how speakers use language in ways which cannot be predicted from linguistic knowledge alone. It is the type of meaning that depends more on the context or situation and the communicative intentions of the speaker and the associations made between linguistic forms and situations or contexts (connotative meaning) rather than on theconceptual (denotative) meaning(Mansoor, 2017:98).Briefly stated, pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning or meaning in context.
Pragmatics is closely related to the connotations or associations language users make with words of language to convey additional meanings which are far from the denotative or dictionary meanings. Connotations are the emotions, thoughts, images, and associations attached to a word. Connotation is what a term or a word implies. Itis the emotional and imaginative association surrounding a word (ibid, 100).
Basic terms within the scope of pragmatics include; reference and inference, anaphoraand anaphor, context, deixis, presupposition, entailment, implicature, speech acts, politeness (positive/negative), face theory, felicity conditions, performatives and constatives, etc.
Stylistics is the study of style in language and literature. It is mainly concerned with the study of written language including literary texts (ibid, 24) although it sometimes includes investigations of spoken language. It is the study of language variation (style) which depends on the context or situation in which the language is used, and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to create on the reader or hearer (Richards, 1993: 360).
Stylistics is a branch of applied linguistics which studies and interprets texts in regard to their linguistic and tonal style. As a discipline, it links literary criticism to linguistics. It does not function as an autonomous domain on its own, and it can be applied to an understanding of literature and journalism as well as linguistics(Widdowson, 1975; Simpson, 2004 cited in Wikipedia). The scope of stylistics may extend to include a variety of areas such as works of writing of popular texts, and from advertisingcopy to news, non-fiction, and popular culture, as well as to political and religiousdiscourse (Davies, 2007; Simpson, 2004).
The paper has been an attempt to make a clear-cut distinction between the two terms macrolinguistics and microlinguistics which are often overlapping, and which are not clearly distinguished by the majority of advanced students, researchers and those interested in linguistic research. Macrolinguistics, which refers to the wider or broader areas of linguistics covers a variety of topics such as general linguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, applied linguistics, comparative linguistics, etc. Microlinguistics, which deals with the narrower areas of linguistic research, is focused on phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. Making such a distinctionhelps researchers to approach linguistic science with more clarity, accuracy and specification