In nature, vanadium (23V) transition metal (Ar 3d3 4s2) with atomic mass (50.942) is found scarcely and found naturally in chemically combined forms. The solitary metal always creates a passive coat of oxide prohibit additional oxidation. It is a soft, silvery gray, flexible metal with the construction of good strength, anti-corrosion metal and stable against alkalis, acids and salt water. Slag from steel smelting, flue dust from heavy oil and mainly uranium mining – byproduct – are the sources of vanadium. Vanadium is fundamentally used in alloys, especially with steel(85% of all vanadium production) which can be used in axles, gears, and crankshafts, while 10% in titanium alloys and the rest 5% into all other uses 1. In makings of jet engines and high-speed aircraft, vanadium-aluminum-titanium alloy is utilized. Vanadium ion is considered as a toxin for some organisms if it was consumed in large amounts. Vanadium oxide and some of its salts are considered middling toxic. Some compounds of Vanadium are act as reducing agents, ex. V(II) compounds, while others act as oxidizing agents, ex. V(V) compounds. 2.
Vanadium proved to form more than 11 species of oxyanions compound in the aqueous solution, the formation of those species are related to concentration and pH value 3, at pH 12-14 the tetrahedral orthovanadate ion (VO4)3? used as an indicator for the phosphate biochemistry due to the similarity between (V) and(P) in size, charge, and crystallography 4,5. The tetrathiovanadate VS43? is analogous to the orthovanadateion 6.Findings revealed that vanadium reacts with many organic reagents to form a complex but with different limitations as an example some of the regents are not selective 7 others are not sensitive while others are not stable 8 and some complex formation takes a long time9. Toxicity of vanadium considered industrial hazard so, it is ecologically, a chemical pollutant.
Crude oil is a rich mixture consist fundamentally of; numerous components of hydrocarbons, a few of sulfur, nitrogen, halogen and oxygen compounds, and trace amounts of metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc, iron, copper, lead, magnesium, sodium, molybdenum, and others. Treibs proposed that it transformed from plant chlorophylls so, it essentially used by geochemists for greater understanding the geochemical origin of petroleum source. Many troubles were predicted in the hydrogenation catalysts used in treatment processes if the flow contains trace metals. 10.
Trace metals concentrations in crude oils can be used to define their origin, source and surrounding conditions which is useful in upstream and downstream oil processing and related safety and environmental assessment. Crude oil metal ions (naturally found or added) come into the environment through different processes such as exploration, production, refining, transportation, and storage; they are considered emulsion stabilizers 10.The vanadium content in crude oil will vary according to the source of oil, its concentration fluctuates between 40 to about 130 parts per million, i.e., 0.004% to about 0.013% by weight 11.
8- Hydroxyquinoline “oxine” can be used as a chelating reagent used in the determination of metals. 8- Hydroxyquinoline “oxine” can be used as a chelating reagent used in the determination of metals. Modern global researches proved that the metal replace the 8- Hydroxyquinoline hydrogen atom and chelated to its nitrogen atom 12. 8- Hydroxyquinoline can chelating metals and form stable complexes with several metal ions because it is bidentate property and it can coordinat effectively so, it is widely used for analytical and separation purposes 13.