I declare that this written submission represents my original ideas or words have been included, I have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and have not misrepresent or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact/source in my submission. I understand that any violation of the above can cause disciplinary action against me by the University and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have thus not been properly cited or from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed.

At the outset, it gives me immense pleasure to pass on my sincere and heartfelt gratitude to the board of directors of bread industry for permitting me to do project of bread plant. I express my indebtedness to Mr. Atul Aggarwal, production officer and Mr. VK Singh- Production officers, Britannia Industries Ltd. for giving me the opportunity to accomplish my Industrial training at their esteemed organization.

I also extend my gratitude to Mr. Arun Kushwaha CEO- Shakun Industries (CP96), Mr. Lalit Sharma operation manager (CP-96), Mr. Rajit Yadav chief Chemist (CP-96), and Ms. Khushbu Sharma- Quality Manager (CP-96) and Mr. Shubham Kushwaha – MR, Quality Manager (CP-96) for guiding me and raising my knowledge level, confidence level and clearing the doubts I had.

I am very thankful to all for the suggestions, technical knowledge and skills, which were embodied in me by the valuable support of the employees of BIL.

I would like to thank all those who helped me in any way by sharing their experience, working tips and practical knowledge.

Last but not least, I am highly thankful to my God and my parents for their support. They have always been a constant and great source of inspiration to me and helped me at every step during my internship.

Industry Profile-Britannia Industries Limited (BIL.)
History of bread
Product Profile
Bread Manufacturing Process
Equipment for Processing
Role of Ingredients
Mash Size for Sieving
The Process
Bread Defects
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP’s)
Critical Control Points (CCP’s)
Abbreviations and Sampling plan
Types of Testing
Lab testing
Wrapper testing
Metal Detector Testing
DQI – Daily Quality Index
Pest Control of India (PCI)
Industry Profile
BRITANNIA INDUSTRIES LIMITED. is a premier food processing industry having a 100-year legacy and being one of the leading food industry in India. It has annual revenues in excess of Rs. 9000 crores. It is most trusted food brand manufacturing food products of brands like- GOOD DAY, TIGER, NUTRICHOICE, MILK BIKIS and MARIE GOLD. Britannia manufactures products including Biscuits, Breads, Cakes, Rusk, and Dairy Products including Cheese, Beverages, Milk and yoghurt.

Britannia started 100 years ago, in a small house in Calcutta (now Kolkata) an intrepid baker made a batch of delicious, golden brown biscuits. These were meant for officers of the British Raj and their families. From that first batch of aromatic, flavour-some biscuits was born a long tradition of delectable baking- and its Indian custodian, Britannia.

Britannia Bread is one of the largest brand in the markets of organized bread manufacturing industries having an annual turnover of over 1 lakh tons in volume and Rs.450 crores in value. There are 13 factories and 4 franchisees selling breads in more than 100 cities and towns of India.

BRITANNIA products are available in more than 60 countries across the globe. It has its credo- “EAT HEALTHY, THINK BETTER”. Britannia is India’s first Zero Trans Fat Company.
The company has set up a “Britannia Nutrition Foundation” in 2009 and works on public private partnership addressing children and women who are malnutrition individuals.

Britannia Industries have won prestigious accolades including the Golden Peacock National Quality Award and the Ramakrishna Bajaj National Quality Award.

Bread, in one form or another, has been one of the principal forms of food for man from earliest time.

The trade of the baker, then, is one of the oldest craft in the world. Loves and rolls have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs. In the British museum 5,000 years ago. Also, on display are grains of wheat which ripened in those ancient summers under the pharaohs. Wheat has been found in pits where human settlement flourished 8000 years ago. Bread, both leavened and unleavened, is mentioned in the bible many times. The ancient Greeks and roman’s knew bread for a staple food even in those day s people argued whether white or brown bread was best.

The bread industry, consist of organized and unorganized sectors, contributing around 45 per cent and 55 per cent of the total bread production respectively. The organized sector consists of around 1800 small scale bread manufactures around the country, besides 25 medium scale manufacturers and 2 large scale industries which were permitted to continue on the basis of their installed capacity in 1976 when the Government of India reserved bread industry for the small sector.

The unorganized sector of bread units/neighborhood bakeries etc. consist of an estimated 75,000 bread bakers mostly located in residential areas of cities and towns. 35 percent of the total production comes from the small-scale sector with about 1500-1800 units in operation. As bread industry is a low margin business, cost control is crucial in sustaining profitability in the long run
Bread industry is 4.00 million tones industry growing at the rate of 6 percent and is expected to grow at the same rate in the medium term. However, the organized sector is growing at the rate of 8 percent. In 2006-07, the total production of the organized sector has been estimated at 18lakh.
Bread is a hygienically manufactured and packed snack food product available at comparatively cheap prices. Major consumers of bread are people from the lower middle class and economically weaker segments consuming more than 90 per cent of the bread industry’s total production. Bread is low margin-high volume based processed food and bread making is a labor-intensive process.

Bread is the cheapest and basic instant food available for consumption. Though bread is not a staple food in the country, its consumption has increased over the years. In India it is still a secondary staple food when compared to chapatti, puri or rice.
The two major player s i.e. Britannia Industries Limited and Modern Food Industries Limited is having a market share of 10-12 percent and 7-8 percent respectively. Apart from these two, there are few large regional players such as Spencer’s in South India, Vibe in Maharashtra, Kitty and Bonn in Punjab, 365days in Delhi NCR, Haryana, etc. and Harvest Gold and Perfect in Delhi & NCR Northern States: 27%Southern States: 32%Western States: 23%Eastern States: 18 %
Logistics plays a key role in the bread industry, as the proper logistic support enables the producer to transport his products in the market at the right time. A producer has to see that all the packs are stacked in solid containers – steel or plastic crates – in order to avoid compression of bread (reduction of volume) during transportation. In case of bulk transport, producers can make use of trucks and tempos, and in case of smaller deliveries to the retail shops, the producer can use smaller tempos and bicycles. A producer also has to make sure that all vehicles are thermal proof, so that the bread is maintained at a lower temperature. All the products should be transported preferably in the night in order to avoid the heat and humidity and also the traffic delays.

S No. Product Name (SKU) Weight in grams (g) Price in rupees (Rs) No. of slices/ No. of Pieces Slices Thickness in milli meters (mm)
1 Vitarich 225 10 13 10
2 Vitarich 350 18 13 10
3 Vitarich 400 20 16 10
4 Vitarich 450 25 26 10
5 Vitarich 600 30 24/25 10
6 Vitarich 700 35 26 10
7 Popular 175 10 12/13 10
8 Popular 200 13 26 10
9 Popular 350 20 24 10
10 Atta 450 28 16 12
11 Atta 500 30 16 12
12 Healthy Slice 500 25 16 12
13 Multigrain 450 50 16 12
14 Whole Wheat 450 30 16 12
15 Brown healthy slice bread 400 25 13 12
16 Fruit bread 200 15 13 10
17 Fruit Bun 150 15 2 pieces –
18 Pav 270 25 1 piece –
19 Burger Bun Corn 50 5 1 piece –
20 Burger Bun Corn 200 25 4 pieces –
21 Burger Bun Ring 200 25 6 pieces –
22 Atta Kulcha 250 25 5 pieces –
23 Maida Kulcha 230 25 5 pieces –
24 Cinnamon and raisin 200 40 8 12
25 Missi 250 40 8 12
26 V+ 250 40 8 12
Equipments for Processing
Blender – It makes a blend of some of the sieved Ingredients including improvers and emulsifiers for some of the varieties of bread such as Vit-700grams
Shifter- It functions to sieve majorly Wheat flour and all-purpose flour for bread making.

Yeast Suspension- It works to make a dilution of activated high rising yeast with warm water to rise the dough of bread.

Water Flow Meter and WMT Machine- It provides water of required temperature (below 7 degrees Celsius) in the mixing bowls having all the ingredients in their required forms and required capacities.

Mixer- Blade Mixers and ribbon mixers makes the dough of bread with water from WMT machine or Water Flow Meter. These are operated for a minimum of 180 seconds to kneed a good dough.
Dividing Machine- It sucks the dough and divide it with the help of its blades into small dough balls.

Conveyor Belts- These belts carry these dough balls from dividing machine to moulding machine and packed loafs from packing area to metal detector.

Moulding Machine- These mould the dough balls in required length and press the dough in such a manner that air bubbles are released from the dough through rollers placed at a gap of 8,6, and 4 mm and then through conveyor and pressure board.

Proving Chamber- After panning has been done and stocked into a trolley, these trollies are sent in proving chamber where there is maintained temperature and humidity for dough rising for 55-60 minutes.

Oven- Rested doughs are then baked in the oven at the set temperature for 28-30 minutes.

Depanning Machine- These automatically suck out the bread from the mould or it is done manually in all the plants except plant-2.

Cooling Chamber- The hot breads are cooled here for a minimum of 3 hours.

Slicing Machine- These machines have frames having a set of blades adjusted in it in such a way which slice the bread into required thickness and number of slices.

Packing Machine- There is a hot metallic plate which is used to seal the plastic bags having bread slices stocked in it.

Coding Machine- These codes the MRP, Lot no and Use by date on the packed breads.

Metal Detector- These detect and discard the breads having diameter of metal pieces of a minimum of 1.5mm Fe, 2mm of non-Fe, and 2.5 mm of SS (Stainless Steel).

Role of Ingredients
Wheat flour/ All Purpose flour-
Wheat Flour is the endosperm of Wheat. It is 70% extraction from wheat. Wheat flour is the single most important ingredient in the manufacture of all Bakery products as it has the unique ability to form Gluten on mixing with water. Only, Rye among the other cereals forms Gluten albeit not with the same characteristics of the wheat gluten.

Water is the second major ingredient in Bread & Biscuit manufacture as Gluten formation can happen only with water. The main function of Water in the manufacture of various Bakery products is the Hydration of Wheat proteins to form Gluten. Water also acts as a dispersion medium for the other dry ingredients like Milk, Salt & Aerating agents. Among other properties, water is an excellent Leavening agent.

Water for Bread manufacture should be of medium hardness with total soluble solids of 100 – 110 ppm.

Gives necessary taste to the bread.

Have mellowing effect on gluten.

Required for speeding up yeast action.

Yeast breaks down sugar which gives CO2 that rises bread.

Stabilizes gluten by tightening its structure and thus adding strength to dough.

Gives pale colour to the bread.

Acts as a flavour enhancer.

Holds CO2 gas and gives it structure.

Slows down fermentation and enzyme activity in dough.

Reacts with acids to form CO2 as a part of leavening agent.

Yeast nutrient.

PH regulator.

Most important protein
Gives strength and elasticity to bread.

Holds CO2 within protein structure of its framework made after mixing.

Denaturation of the network of gluten and the gelatinised starch surrounding this network gives crumb structure.

Soya Flour-
Bread Improver
Bleaching agent and thus increases whiteness of the bread.

Assists the machinability of the dough, volume and softness of bread, enabling more water to be added to dough.

Ammonium Chloride-
Yeast Nutrient- Provides nitrogen which is used to activate yeast in presence of water and sugar.

Mildly acidic and hence regulates PH.

Food Additive
Ascorbic Acid-
Flour Improver or dough conditioner.

In presence of O2 it becomes an oxidising agent.

Strengthens gluten
Greater Loaf volume.

Acetic Acid-
Major PH regulator.

Prevents rope formation caused due to presence of bacteria Bacillus mesenteries.


Increases shelf life.

Finamul –
Long term softness of bread.

DATEM (Diacetyl Tartaric acid, esters of mono and diglycerides) –
Emulsifier- stable mixture of oil and water.

Dough conditioner.

Gives smooth texture and softness of bread.

Palmolien Oil-
Eases dough handling as well as dough expansion.

Better slicing of final product.

Fats & Oils
Fats & Oils help tenderize the product apart from its role in controlling the Gluten development by forming a protective layer between Flour & Water.

Fats & Oils have a major role in the bite of the product apart from providing the texture & imparting the flavour.

Since two immiscible phases like Water & Oil are used in Bakery manufacture, Emulsifiers may be used to keep these two phases together. Since emulsifiers are largely used in Bakery products for their ability to complex with starches & proteins, the word “Surfactant” is more suitable to be employed rather than “Emulsifier”. Surfactants help in achieving the desired dough consistency and help in machineability of the dough.

Leavening Agents
Leavening agents are used in Bakery products to achieve the necessary product characteristics like Texture & Bite without increasing the product weight. Leavening agents and Acidulants are the tools to control the dough/batter/product pH.

Miscellaneous ingredients / Nutrients
Milk & Milk products, Vitamins, Minerals, etc. may be added to the dough for their contribution to taste, flavour & nutritive values.

Milk products contribute to the colour & flavour by their participation in Maillard reaction.

Colours and Flavours-
Colours are added to the food product for the aesthetic appeal, to attract the consumer and to provide resemblance to the original food.
Flavours are added to impart the desired taste & odour to the product and to compensate for the processing losses and to excite the consumer.

Other Food Additives-
Permitted Food Additives are added in the Bakery products for the following reasons.

Bakery products are manufactured by the skillful & judicious use of the above ingredients in quantities required for catering the needs of various consumers.
Material Mesh Size
Whole Wheat flour Top-30 and Bottom-36 mesh
Wheat flour (All purpose) Top-30 and Bottom-36 mesh
Toasted Ragi Flour 25 mesh
Oat fibre 12 mesh
Deflated Soya Flour 24-25 mesh
Dry Gluten 16 mesh
Wheat Bran 8 and 18 mesh
Others, Starches 30 mesh
Yeast Suspension 16 mesh
Liquid Palm Oil 36 mesh
RBD Palmolien 36 mesh
Malt Extract 36 mesh
Sugar 6 mesh
Datem Solid 16 mesh
Datem Liquid 25 mesh
Improver 16 mesh
Vitamin premix 25 mesh
Water 100 mesh
The bread is made by the process in which first all ingredients are sieved through their respective mesh sizes and for some of the varieties of bread a blend of ingredients is made by weighing and adding them in their described amounts. Wheat flour (Maida) and Whole Wheat flour are sieved in shifters in described amounts and then other sieved ingredients and added in required amounts. Yeast suspension is made in 1:2 with water by adding specified yeast, 100g mix of yeast nutrients and required amounts of water at a temperature of 30-35 degree Celsius) this is added to the bowl of ingredients. Ice and chilled RO water filtered through 100 mesh is used which should have a temp below 7 deg. Celsius. Mixing is further done in mixers in which dough is kneaded for a minimum of 3 min after which it is send to dividing machine where small balls of dough are made and lubricated with oil and passed to moulding machine through conveyor belts. Moulding machine gives dough balls required shape and texture and removes air from the dough. It is then panned in greased moulds of temperature 45 or 50 degree Celsius and stocked in a trolley which is sent in proving chamber for 55-60 min. After this the moulds are stacked in oven trays and left for about 30 minutes where the bread is baked. It is further passed through conveyor to depanning table where they are depanned and stacked in trolleys having trays at a distance of 8-10mm. These trolleys are then sent to cooling chamber for around 3 hours for cooling of bread. This bread is then sliced at slicing machine and further packed, coded and passed through metal detector. After this the final product is stacked in carates and dispatched.
Process for Vitarich 700grams
21307258627Wheat flour is sieved in required amount in shifter through 36 mesh.
00Wheat flour is sieved in required amount in shifter through 36 mesh.
right6658922Breads are manually filled in pouches and twist and tie sealing is done. Coding of pouches is further done and passed through metal detector.

00Breads are manually filled in pouches and twist and tie sealing is done. Coding of pouches is further done and passed through metal detector.

1043795528868700right5951555Bread to be sliced should have a temp not above than 28 deg. C and slice thickness should be uniform of 10mm.

00Bread to be sliced should have a temp not above than 28 deg. C and slice thickness should be uniform of 10mm.

17339095228301Cooling time should be 3-4 hrs. at a temp not above than 28 deg. C and RH 70+/- 5%
00Cooling time should be 3-4 hrs. at a temp not above than 28 deg. C and RH 70+/- 5%
10437967418046001000664672793310179176046446right7349035Breads are stacked in carates and dispatched.

00Breads are stacked in carates and dispatched.

20617133881216Baking is done at 225+/- 10deg. C for 32 minutes.

00Baking is done at 225+/- 10deg. C for 32 minutes.

1017917388984200right4545450Depanning is done manually and bread should be at temp above 90 deg. C
00Depanning is done manually and bread should be at temp above 90 deg. C
983411455407700102654331652230015872603027201Dough is proved at temp of 32-36 deg. C and RH of min 70% for 55-60 min.

0Dough is proved at temp of 32-36 deg. C and RH of min 70% for 55-60 min.

1009291244923115613812354340Dough is placed in greased moulds of 32 deg. C temp and lidding is done.

Dough is placed in greased moulds of 32 deg. C temp and lidding is done.

1742536896476Temp of dough should not be more than 80 deg. F. Dividing weight should be 815-820grams.

00Temp of dough should not be more than 80 deg. F. Dividing weight should be 815-820grams.

10524231655601107830295686117856681508952Dough is passed through moulding machine and pressure blades.

Dough is passed through moulding machine and pressure blades.

101791625812200right102235All ingredients are mixed in required amounts, sieved of respective mesh sizes along with activated yeast suspension in 1:2 with water for 185 seconds.

00All ingredients are mixed in required amounts, sieved of respective mesh sizes along with activated yeast suspension in 1:2 with water for 185 seconds.

Bread Defects
Insect, fungus infestation. Foreign material.

Black Spots in bread.

Dark/Burnt Bread
Breaking of slices of bread.

Dragging of Slices.

Excess Softness of bread.

Crumb Texture having holes.

Off taste or smell of bread.

Uneven slicing of bread.

Crumb colour (Pale/Dirty)
Flying Top of breads.

Loaves Over proved or Under Proved.

D/M shape of loaves.

Average weight less than declared weight.

Poor Sealing.

Pressed breads.

Sealing without Britannia sticker
Without Code/ Wrong Code
Coding outside white panel.

Polybag Bursting. (side/bottom)
Defective Registration (License no. not printed)
Loose Packing.

Tight Packing.

Colour fade.

Leaching of ink.

(Hazard analysis and Critical Control Point)
Food safety and hygiene is very important area in any food industries. Food factories has to keep basic good housekeeping and hygiene standards as any lack in this area would result in very poor performance of the business. This is also important as the Consumers are very sensitive to foreign body complaints or anything which might affects individual health. Some governments has imposed very strict quality parameter for ingredients and their storage practices. Food safety in bakery industry has certain features which are different from other food factories.As consumers have become educated on food safety standards and health safety. Governments have responded with more laws on food safety. It would be highly recommended that bakery manufacturers invest good amount of funds to the food safety equipments and measures.To handle these issue International standards are being followed. Companies have opted for HACCP certification.

HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product.

The Five Preliminary Steps of HACCP
Step-1. Assemble the HACCP Team
The first step is assembling a team of individuals who have specific knowledge and expertise about the product and process. The multidisciplinary team should include individuals from departments such as:
Quality assurance
Food microbiology.
Don’t forget to include local personnel who are involved in the operation. The team may benefit from outside experts to weigh in on potential biological, chemical and/or physical hazards, bit these experts should serve as consultants not as a replacement for your HACCP team.

Step-2. Describe the Product
First, the HACCP team provides a general description of the food, ingredients and processing methods. Then the method of distribution should be described along with information on whether the food is to be distributed frozen, refrigerated or at ambient temperature.

Step-3. Identify the Intended Use and Consumers
Describe the normal expected use of the food. The intended consumers may be the general public or a particular segment of the population (e.g., infants, immunocompromised individuals, the elderly, etc.)
Step-4. Construct Flow Diagram to Describe the Process
The flow diagram should provide a clear, simple outline of all the steps involved in the process that are directly under the control of the establishment. (The flow diagram can also include steps in the food chain which come before and after the processing that occurs in the establishment.)
The diagram can be a block-type design — it should does not need to be as complex as engineering drawings. Also, including a simple schematic of the facility can be useful for understanding product and process flow.

Step-5. On-Site Confirmation of Flow Diagram
The HACCP team should perform an on-site review of the operation to verify the accuracy and completeness of the flow diagram, and modifications should be made to the diagram as needed. After these first five preliminary tasks have been completed, the following seven principles of HACCP are applied.

The Seven Principles of HACCP
Principle 1 – Conduct a Hazard Analysis
The application of this principle involves listing the steps in the process and identifying where significant hazards are likely to Occur. The HACCP team will focus on hazards that can be prevented, eliminated or controlled by the HACCP plan. A justification for including or excluding the hazard is reported and possible control measures are identified.

Principle 2 – Identify the Critical Control Points
A critical control point (CCP) is a point, step or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels. The HACCP team will use a CCP decision tree to help identify the critical control points in the process. A critical control point may control more that one food safety hazard or in some cases more than one CCP is needed to control a single hazard. The number of CCP’s needed depends on the processing steps and the control needed to assure food safety.

Principle 3 – Establish Critical Limits
A critical limit (CL) is the maximum and/or minimum value to which a biological, chemical, or physical parameter must be controlled at a CCP to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of a food safety hazard. The critical limit is usually a measure such as time, temperature, water activity (Aw), pH, weight, or some other measure that is based on scientific literature and/or regulatory standards.

Principle 4- Monitor CCP
The HACCP team will describe monitoring procedures for the measurement of the critical limit at each critical control point. Monitoring procedures should describe how the measurement will be taken, when the measurement is taken, who is responsible for the measurement and how frequently the measurement is taken during production.

Principle 5 – Establish Corrective Action
Corrective actions are the procedures that are followed when a deviation in a critical limit occurs. The HACCP team will identify the steps that will be taken to prevent potentially hazardous food from entering the food chain and the steps that are needed to correct the process. This usually includes identification of the problems and the steps taken to assure that the problem will not occur again.

Principle 6 – Verification
Those activities, other than monitoring, that determine the validity of the HACCP plan and that the system is operating according to the plan. The HACCP team may identify activities such as auditing of CCP’s, record review, prior shipment review, instrument calibration and product testing as part of the verification activities.

Principle 7 – Recordkeeping
A key component of the HACCP plan is recording information that can be used to prove that the food was produced safely. The records also need to include information about the HACCP plan. Record should include information on the HACCP Team, product description, flow diagrams, the hazard analysis, the CCP’s identified, Critical Limits, Monitoring System, Corrective Actions, Recordkeeping Procedures, and Verification Procedures.

PRP-Pre-requisite Program
GMP is short for good manufacturing practices and forms an important part of the overall HACCP food safety system in a food business. Good manufacturing practices (GMP) can be defined as the operational requirements necessary to enable a food business to produce food safely. 
Basic GMP and the food business
Good manufacturing practices (GMP) includes many basic operational conditions and procedures that are required to be met by the food business. These can include the following:
The correct construction and layout of the food premises.

The condition of the external environment of the food premises.

The adequate maintenance of equipment and utensils used within the food business.

The use of suitable chemicals within and around the food premises including cleaning chemicals, pest control chemicals and machine lubricants.

The identification and storage of waste within and by the food business.

The cleanliness of the food premises, equipment, utensils, floors, walls and ceilings.

An effective pest control program implemented within the food premises and surrounds.

The avoidance of foreign matter within the finished product. Sources of foreign matter can include wood, glass, metal, plastic, pests, paper, string, tape.

GHP- Good Hygiene Practices
GHP compliance is the first step towards establishing hygiene management and is applicable across the food processing chain which check for the conformity of hygiene, sanitary and food handling practices at each step of food processing on risk factors and areas of concern, helping you improve your food safety and quality systems.

Basic GHP and the Food Business
Food handling practices.

Employee hygiene practices.

Sanitation facilities.

Pest control.

Prevention of physical and chemical hazards.

Keep maida godown clean.

All the flour bags must be kept on pellet.

Use FIFO (First IN First Out) system for Wheat flour and Whole Wheat flour.

Shifter must be clean before sieving.

Check shifter mesh after ever 6 hrs.

Inform your incharge if there is breakage in the mesh.

Keep all threads of bag in a box.

Keep sweeped flour in different container.

Keep the mixing area clean and dry.

Mixing time must not be less than 180 sec.

Water used for mixing should have a temp less than 7 deg Celsius.

According to SOP, the dough temp must lie between 70-80 deg F
Mixing top should be cleaned after every 3 bowls.

Dough balls from divider should not have a variation of more than 4-8 grams than set weight.

The gap between rollers of moulding machine should be 4, 6 and8mm.

The setting of pressure blade should be done according to the variety of bread produced.

When Panning is done dough should be kept at the centre of the mould with both hands.

Moulds should be greased with oil from both the sides in equal quantity.

The cloth used for greasing should not have loose threads.

Temp for proving should be 32-36 deg C in Summers and 36-40 deg C in winters.

Relative Humidity RH should be minimum 70%.

Proving should be done for 55-60 minutes.

Temp of oven should be minimum 200 deg. C
Baking time should be 28-30 min.

Keep depanning area clean.

Depanning area must be sanitized by IPA after 30 minutes interval.

Keep the mould for 5 min if bread is not easily removed.

Keep the defective moulds separate.

Hold the moulds at centre while depanning.

Set the breads in trolley from upper net.

Take only 2 breads while placing in trolley.

First trolley must enter first in cooling tunnel.

Moulds must not be kept on the floor.

All the racks of the trolley must be sanitized and cleaned.

First filled trolley must be placed first in the cooling chamber.

Defective bread must be separated from the depanning table.

After cleaning the cooling tunnel, place a container filled with acetic acid and in front of fans and also spray the acetic acid.

The trolley which comes out first from the chamber must send firstly to the slicer.

Keep the net in front of fan in the chamber.

The temp of cooling tunnel should be min 28 deg C and humidity 70+/-5%
Cooling should be done for 3-4 hrs.

Bread temp to be sliced should be less than 28 deg C.

Slicing blades should be changed after every 4 hrs.

Slicer must be cleaned and free from corrosion.

All the polybags must be placed on pallets.

Apply IPA on hands and slicing table after an interval of every half hour.

Defective loaves must be dumped in a separate box.

Mixing time should be minimum 180 seconds.

Conveyor threads should not be loose and emerging out.

Oven temp for each variety should be maintained.

Metal Detector should detect appropriately and be in working conditions.

SOP-Standard Operating Procedure
R & D -Research and Development
BIL-Britannia Industries Limited
QA-Quality Assurance
PKD-Packaging Development
PM-Packaging Material
PM SPEC-Packaging Material Specification
NA -Not Applicable
RQAM-Regional Quality Assurance Manager
No. of Carates to be checked Selection of carates for sampling Bread Samples
0-50 3 6
51-100 4 8
101-150 5 10
151-300 6 12
301-500 8 16
501-1000 9 18
1000 above 10 20
For Packing Material Testing
1201-10000 25
100001-50000 50
500001 AND ABOVE 75
REAGENTS: Lactic acid, Isopropyl Alcohol, Bromophenol Indicator.

Preparation of reagents used:
Lactic acid stock solution: 125 ml of lactic acid diluted to 500 ml. This solution is termed as lactic acid stock solution.

Lactic acid- Isopropyl alcohol solution: from lactic acid stock solution 180 ml is taken and 200 ml of isopropyl alcohol diluted in a 500 ml with distilled water.

Bromophenol blue solution: 10 ml of bromophenol blue indicator is added to 1000ml of distilled water.

Take 3.5 gm sample in a 100 ml glass-stoppered graduated cylinder.

Add 50 ml of bromophenol blue solution.

Mix thoroughly the sample and the solution by moving the stopper cylinder horizontally lengthwise.

After 5 min shaking, 25 ml of lactic acid and isopropyl alcohol solution is added to the graduate cylinder and continue the procedure for further 5 min.

After 5 min remove the flask and keep on the table.

At the end of the 5 min read the volume in ml of the sediment in the cylinder.

Flour sample
Distilled water
Weighing balance
Weight accurately 25 grams of the flour sample into a bowl.

Add 15 ml of water by using pipette.

Keep the dough in a bowl and fill by water and leave for 60 min.

Remove the dough and again kneed it gently under a stream of water.

Spread the wet gluten as possible as into the thin layer on a blotting paper.

Now weigh the wet gluten and put into hot air oven at 110ºC for 4-5 hours.

Weight the dried gluten.

Formula: gluten (dry basis) = (w2-w1)×100×100
                 Gluten (wet basis) = (w1-w)×100
Stainless steel dish
Hot air oven
Weight 6 gm of flour sample in a stainless-steel dish.

Dry it in an oven for 4-5 hrs at 110 degrees Celsius.

Cool the dish in a desigator and then weight the dried sample.

Moisture % = (w2-w1)×100/w
W1= weight of sample
W2 = weight of empty dish
W3 = weight of dish with dried sample
Stainless steel dish
180-micron mesh
Weight 100 gm flour and sieve through 180-micron mesh.

Weight of amount retained in the mesh.

Standard result should be 100 % Pass for Wheat flour (Maida) from 180-micron mesh
Standard result should be 85% pass for Whole Wheat flour from 180-micron mesh.

5-10grams Sample
Weighing Balance
Muffle Furnace
Weigh 5-10 grams of sample.

Weigh the weight of crucible empty.

Keep it in muffle furnace for 5-6 hours.

Allow it to cool for 15-20 min.

Weigh the ash content in crucible.

Total Ash (on Dry basis) % by weight = (W2-W) *100*100/(W1-W) *(100-M)
W1= Weight in gm of the dish with the material taken from the rest.

W2= Weight in gm of the silica crucible with the ash.

W= Weight in gram of the empty silica crucible.

M= Moisture % of the sample
Porcelain dish
Muffle furnace
Filter paper
Stirring pod
Weighing balance
5 ml HCl
Weigh about 5-6 grams of flour sample.

Ignite the sample in the muffle furnace at 600ºC for 4-5 hrs.

Put the dish in the desiccator for 15-20min.

Add 25 ml of 25N HCl.

Heat gently for few minutes.

Cool and filter the material through what man no.43 paper.

Transfer the filter paper containing residue into same crucible.

Transfer the crucible to the muffle furnace maintained at 600ºC
Complete the ignition and cool in dessicator.

A.I.A % = (W2-W1)×1000
It is for the colour testing of Sample which tells us about the Bran particle presence.

Wooden Palate
Small Trowel
Form firm layers of two samples of same variety but different lot on the wooden palate carefully. Dip the palate in water and note the colour difference.

Sample which is more brownish in colour has more bran in it.

10 gm Sample
100 ml distilled water.

Buffer solution of 7PH
Buffer solution of 4 PH
Stirring glass rod
PH metric machine
Take 10 grams sample in 100 ml distilled water in a beaker. Mix well with glass rod.
Calibrate PH metric machine with buffer of 7 PH
Check for error with buffer of PH-4.

Test for PH of the sample solution.

Add or substract the error in the final answer according to negative or positive error.

AA TEST – Alcoholic Acidity

Testing with probes is done to check the if it is in working condition and appropriate.

FE (Ferrous) 1.5 MM
NON-FE (Non-ferrous) 2 MM
SS (Stainless Steel) 2.5 MM
DQI is done on a regular basis to check the quality of breads produced. Sampling plan for DQI is given above in ABREVIATIONS AND SAMPLING PLAN. All the bread verities are checked and their lot no. is noted with it.


It is a 7-digit no. printed on white panel of packaging polybag which tells us about the time, date, shift, Supervisor name, and Manufacturing unit. It enables us to trace our product manufactured and dispatched.

For ex-
612475309558007843932833650422693309557002932983181830025879300930004 T1N 96
Manufacturing Unit
Date is written till 5 and then Alphabets represent the the date on addition of a factor of 5 to it according to their serial no.
For ex- A-6
T-25 etc.

In DQI we mention the date of checking, variety checked along with its lot no. and whether it is okay or not and if not then type of defects found in it.

Quality check is done visually, through sensory and taste.

PCI services are for pest infestation control that can contaminate or spoil our bread.

The services for following are done as follows:

SLICE 2 1 1 0 0
FRUIT BREAD 1 2 0 0 1
BREAD 0 1 2 0 0
350 1 0 0 2 1
350 1 1 1
SLICE 2 1 0 2 0
350 1 6 0 2 1
A. KUCHA 0 0 0 0 2
SLICE 1 0 1 1 2
600 0 1 2 1 0
W.W. 0 0 2 1 0
FRUIT BUN 1 3 0 O 0
BREAD 0 1 2 1 0
KULCH 1 0 0 0 2
VITARICH 700 2 1 0 2 1
BROWN 1 1 0 0 1
POPULAR 175 1 0 0 0 0
4 7-6-18 CHOWDHERY
600 1 0 2 1 0
BREAD 2 2 0 1 0
SLICE 1 3 0 1 1
M. KULCHA 1 0 0 0 0
BREAD 0 1 2 1 1
SLICE 1 0 0 0 1
175 1 2 1 1 0
225 2 1 0 1 0
BIBLIOGRAPHY, guidance and learning on industrial exposure.