In “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal” he refers to the declaration of Independence, this is the check that he was talking about which was never cashed, that affected millions of americans who were taken to the United States against their will.
The paragraph starting with “I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia…” has a very powerful meaning behind it, saying that one day no matter what race you are or where you come from, everybody will be equal.
“Sweltering with the heat of injustice…” is a metaphor in which he compares injustice and oppression to sweltering heat and freedom and justice to an oasis, specially as he’s talking about Mississippi, a state where some of the worst offenses against blacks had been carried out.
One of the most quoted lines is the fragment “I have a dream that my four little children will…”; and by “…not be judged by the colour…” he’s not saying that race doesn’t matter, because race is tied up with heritage and culture. He compares the negative things happening at that moment with how it should be in the future.
This fragment of the speech has a parallel construction (I have a dream…, I have a dream…).
He mentions more words to exaggerate the negative perspective, for example, vicious racists and lips dripping.
When saying “I go back to the South with” he means to take back philosophy of liberation and inspiration to his hometown. He uses “to hew out of the mountain of despair” and “a stone of hope” to contrast the hard work (hew) with the hope of equality and freedom he believes we’ll achieve. King compares racial inequality to the “jangling discords of our nation” and the achievement of equality as a “beautiful symphony of brotherhood”.


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