In Experiment 2; part II, diagram 1 shows the original yeast culture below 10x magnifications. In diagram 2, yeast is mounted with iodine solution and observed under 40x magnifications. The iodine stains the presence of glycogen in the yeast. The intensity of colour is proportional to the amount of glycogen present in the yeast. In diagram 3, yeast is mounted with lactophenol and observed under 40x magnifications. Organisms suspended in the stain are killed due to the presence of phenol. The high concentration of the phenol deactivates lytic cellular enzymes thus the cells do not lyse. Cotton blue is an acid dye that stains the chitin present in the cell walls of yeast. We managed to find yeast cells budding in all the 3 diagrams. In that way yeast cell do resemble a plant cell.
In Experiment 3; part II, diagram 1 shows the small leaf of moss mounted with saline under 10x magnifications. Due to insufficient time, we did not manage to take pictures from larger magnifications. Diagram 1.1 shows the chloroplast of moss under 100x magnifications (image source: There are numerous layer of cells in the moss leaf and filled with chloroplast all over the view. The green colour of chloroplast is caused by the pigment chlorophyll. In part III, diagram 1.a shows the potato mounted in saline under 40x magnifications. The presence of colourless plastids, known as leucoplast is clearly seen. In diagram 2.a the leucoplasts are stained blue in iodine solution. Iodine is often used as a starch indicator. When iodine solution is introduced to any substances that contain starch, it will turn to dark blue.
When observe the Elodea leaf under the compound microscope, it can be found that the Elodea leaf contain cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm and chloroplast. Every organelle in the plant cell has its own function to help the plant cell to survive (Campbell et al., 2014). Before entering the cytoplasm, there have a membrane below the cell wall which is plasma membrane. The plasma membrane function that probably is of greatest significance to the cells is the transportation of materials. This semi-permeable membrane of the cells helps in the transferring of the nutrients and chemicals that are required f or the cell functioning. The other foreign materials are obstructed on their path thereby preventing the invasion of the plasma membrane (Scribd,2017).
Under the magnification power of 10x.40x two layers of cells were found. Besides that, spherical or oval gray granular nucleus, cytoplasm and chloroplast was also able to be observed.
When the carrot cell was observed under the magnification power of 10x.40x, chromoplasts, nucleus and cell wall were able to be observed. Chromoplasts and pigment bodies: Chromoplasts are plastids that contain carotenoid pigments. These bring color to parts of plants. Chromoplasts, in the traditional sense, are found in coloured organs of plants such as fruit and floral petals, to which they give their distinctive colors. This is always associated with a massive increase in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. The conversion of chloroplasts to chromoplasts in ripening tomato fruit is a classic example.
Eosin is a fluorescent red dye resulting from the action of bromine on fluorescein. Its purpose is to stain cytoplasm, collagen and muscle fibres for examination under the microscope. Structures that stain readily with eosin are termed eosinophilic. Eosin is anionic and acts as an acidic dye and shows up in the basic parts of the cell, binds to basic components of a cell, mainly proteins located in the cytoplasm. It is negatively charged and can react with positively charged, acidophilic components in the tissue, such as amino groups in proteins in the cytoplasm. This gives a bright pink colour stain as a result ( Parry, n.d ).
Rheo discolour leaf upper layer. Portion of the upper epidermis in a paradermal section has pentagonal epidermal cells that had straight anticlinal walls. There are green plastids due to the presence of anthocyanin in the cells ( Bercu, 2013 ).
Rheo discolour leaf lower layer. The lower part contains many stomata, an eye-shaped epidermal opening with dumbbell-shaped cells flanking the stoma. Most of the lower portion is pink in colour due to presence of anthocyanin in cells ( Buiser, 2014 ).