Hydrogen is one of the most important chemicals in industry and potential candidate as cleaner and sustainable energy sources. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>de Brito</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>1</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528780679″>1</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>de Brito, Juliana Ferreira</author><author>Tavella, Francesco</author><author>Genovese, Chiara</author><author>Ampelli, Claudio</author><author>Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin</author><author>Centi, Gabriele</author><author>Perathoner, Siglinda</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Role of CuO in the modification of the photocatalytic water splitting behavior of TiO 2 nanotube thin films</title><secondary-title>Applied Catalysis B: Environmental</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Applied Catalysis B: Environmental</full-title></periodical><pages>136-145</pages><volume>224</volume><dates><year>2018</year></dates><isbn>09263373</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.071</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>1 Nowadays, over 95% hydrogen production is based on decomposition of natural gas, which is not renewable and produces a hazardous CO2 as a byproduct to the environment. An attractive route in hydrogen production is the photocatalytic water splitting using naturally abundant solar energy, because, photocatalysis has a proven and promising approach that can provide solutions to environmental issues such as air and water pollution. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Laurier</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>2</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>2</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>2</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528782199″>2</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Laurier, K. G.</author><author>Vermoortele, F.</author><author>Ameloot, R.</author><author>De Vos, D. E.</author><author>Hofkens, J.</author><author>Roeffaers, M. B.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven , Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium.</auth-address><titles><title>Iron(III)-based metal-organic frameworks as visible light photocatalysts</title><secondary-title>J Am Chem Soc</secondary-title><alt-title>Journal of the American Chemical Society</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>J Am Chem Soc</full-title><abbr-1>Journal of the American Chemical Society</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>J Am Chem Soc</full-title><abbr-1>Journal of the American Chemical Society</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>14488-91</pages><volume>135</volume><number>39</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 2</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1520-5126 (Electronic) 0002-7863 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24015906</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24015906</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/ja405086e</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>2 Since the revolutionary news about photocatalytic effect of TiO2 by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><RecNum>3</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>3</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528785450″>3</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Akira Fujishima</author><author>Kenichi Honda</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>&lt;Electrochemical Photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrde.pdf&gt;</title><secondary-title>Nature</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Nature</full-title></periodical><pages>37-38</pages><volume>238</volume><section>37</section><dates><year>1972</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>3 a tremendous research has been carried out on photochemical based water splitting to generate hydrogen because this process is green and clean, producing only water as a byproduct. However, without ignoring the intriguing nature of the research, the photochemical based water splitting into hydrogen is a challenging issue with respect to finding an ideal photocatalyst that meets the basic requirements such as an appropriates band gap for sunlight absorption, suitable band positions for water reduction/oxidation, and stability under the required reaction conditions. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Moriya</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>4</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>4</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>4</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528789771″>4</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Moriya, M.</author><author>Minegishi, T.</author><author>Kumagai, H.</author><author>Katayama, M.</author><author>Kubota, J.</author><author>Domen, K.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Chemical System Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.</auth-address><titles><title>Stable hydrogen evolution from CdS-modified CuGaSe2 photoelectrode under visible-light irradiation</title><secondary-title>J Am Chem Soc</secondary-title><alt-title>Journal of the American Chemical Society</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>J Am Chem Soc</full-title><abbr-1>Journal of the American Chemical Society</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>J Am Chem Soc</full-title><abbr-1>Journal of the American Chemical Society</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>3733-5</pages><volume>135</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Mar 13</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1520-5126 (Electronic) 0002-7863 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23437875</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23437875</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/ja312653y</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>4
To date, several types of hydrogen production photocatalysts, which operate under visible-light irradiation conditions, have been developed. Among reported semiconductors Ni/GO, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Agegnehu</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>6</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>5</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>6</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528952251″>6</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Agegnehu, Abiye Kebede</author><author>Pan, Chun-Jern</author><author>Rick, John</author><author>Lee, Jyh-Fu</author><author>Su, Wei-Nien</author><author>Hwang, Bing-Joe</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Enhanced hydrogen generation by cocatalytic Ni and NiO nanoparticles loaded on graphene oxide sheets</title><secondary-title>Journal of Materials Chemistry</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Materials Chemistry</full-title></periodical><pages>13849</pages><volume>22</volume><number>27</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>0959-9428 1364-5501</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1039/c2jm30474k</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>5 GaP, HYPERLINK l “_ENREF_6” o “Liu, 2012 #7″ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Liu</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>7</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>6</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>7</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528952390″>7</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Liu, C.</author><author>Sun, J.</author><author>Tang, J.</author><author>Yang, P.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.</auth-address><titles><title>Zn-doped p-type gallium phosphide nanowire photocathodes from a surfactant-free solution synthesis</title><secondary-title>Nano Lett</secondary-title><alt-title>Nano letters</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Nano Lett</full-title><abbr-1>Nano letters</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>Nano Lett</full-title><abbr-1>Nano letters</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>5407-11</pages><volume>12</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2012</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 10</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1530-6992 (Electronic) 1530-6984 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23025657</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23025657</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/nl3028729</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>6 InP, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Lee</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>8</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>7</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>8</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528952423″>8</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Lee, M. 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W.</author><author>Javey, A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California , Berkeley, California 94720, United States.</auth-address><titles><title>Amorphous Si thin film based photocathodes with high photovoltage for efficient hydrogen production</title><secondary-title>Nano Lett</secondary-title><alt-title>Nano letters</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Nano Lett</full-title><abbr-1>Nano letters</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>Nano Lett</full-title><abbr-1>Nano letters</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>5615-8</pages><volume>13</volume><number>11</number><keywords><keyword>Catalysis</keyword><keyword>Electrodes</keyword><keyword>Hydrogen/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>Platinum/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Silicon/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>Solar Energy</keyword><keyword>Sunlight</keyword><keyword>Titanium/chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>1530-6992 (Electronic) 1530-6984 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24079390</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24079390</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/nl403265k</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>9 CdS, CdTe HYPERLINK l “_ENREF_10” o “Xavier Mathew, 2002 #10″ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><RecNum>10</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>10</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>10</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528953053″>10</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Xavier Mathew, A. Bansal, J.A. Turner, Ramesh Dhere, N.R. Mathews and P.J. Sebastian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>&lt;Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Surface Modi?ed CdTe for Hydrogen Production.pdf&gt;</title><secondary-title>Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems</full-title></periodical><pages>149-154</pages><volume>5</volume><section>149</section><dates><year>2002</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>10 etc already find application as hydrogen generating photocatalyst materials. However, the performance of the presently developed photocatalytic systems for the water reduction reaction is far from satisfactory. On the other hand, people also used platinum and other noble metals as heterogeneous hydrogen evolution catalysts; however, their limited earth abundance and cost precludes further development and/or large-scale applications.PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PFJlY051bT41PC9SZWNOdW0+PERpc3BsYXlUZXh0PjxzdHlsZSBmYWNl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 19-22 offer not only to enhance stability of Cu2O photoelectrode and visible light absorption due to synergy among the components but also to drive reactions with minimum electron-hole recombination Although all of these investigations have beneficial features, the design of alternative photocatalysts with minimum charge recombination, maximum visible light absorption, reduced cost and complexity in fabrication processes is equally an important issue.

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