Mr. Robert Edwards
21 March 2018
The 14th Century in Europe was described as an age diversity. When we talk about the term Renaissance it means rebirth, the major idea for the Renaissance was individualism. In the middle age Europe, people use the word middle age to describe Europe between the fall of Rome and the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th century.
People and Lifestyle, it defines the system of family and community life, rural settlement and urban centers in private and public. It also shows the people of the middle ages where not different from the way we live now. Social status and gender where highly consequential in those days. Some activities where link with keen ship, others with the search for protection , they often engage with individuals who were stronger, richer or more resourceful than themselves . Europeans generally lived a fancy lifestyle.
Black death, this is also known as the plague. Almost 1/3 of Europe died in this plague, this plague also contributed in famine and slowing down the late middle age period. It was believed that the Jews brought the plague into Europe because they were traders. Between 1347 and 1350 the black death killed 20 million people in Europe, 30 percent of the continent population. This was especially deadly in cities where it was impossible to prevent the transmission of the disease from one person to another.
The Catholic Church, after the fall of Rome, no single state or Government united the people who lived on the European continent. Instead, the Catholic Church became the most powerful institution of the medieval period. Kings, Queens and other leaders derived much power from the alliances with a protection of the church. In 800 CE, Pope Leo III named the Frankish King Charlemagne the Emperor of the Romans, the first since that empires than 300 years before. Charlemagne’s realm became the holy Roman Empire, one of several political entities in Europe whose interest tended to align with those of the church. People across Europe had to pay tithe, 10 percent of their earing each year to the church, at the same time, the church was mostly exempt from taxation. These policies helped it to amass a great deal of the money and power.
The Rise of Islam, the Islamic world was growing larger and more powerful. After the prophet Mohammed’s death in 632 CE, Muslims armies conquered large parts of the Middle East, uniting them under the rule of a single caliph. At its height, the medieval Islamic world was more than three times bigger than all of Christendom, under the caliphs, great cities such as Cairo, Baghdad, Damascus fostered a vibrant intellectuals and cultural life. Scholars translated Greek, Iranian and Indian texts into Arabic, religious scholars and mystic translated, interpreted and taught the Quran and other scriptural texts to people across the middle East.
The Crusaders, towards the end of the 11th century, the Catholic Church began to authorize military expeditions, or crusaders to expel Muslim infields from the Holy land. Crusaders, who wore red crosses on their coat to advertise their status, believed that their service would guarantee the remission of their sins and ensure that they could spend eternity in Heaven. They also received more worldly rewards such as papal protection of their property and forgiveness of some kind of loan payments. The crusades began in 1095, when Pope Urban summoned a Christian army to fight it way to Jerusalem and continued on and off until the end of the 15th century. No one won the crusades, many thousands of people from both sides lost their lives.
Arts and Architecture, another way to show devotion to the church was to build grand cathedral and other ecclesiastical structures such as monasteries. Cathedrals were the largest building in medieval Europe, and they could be found at the center of town and cities across the continent. Between the 10th and 13th centuries most Europeans cathedral were built in the Romanesque style. Romanesque cathedral is solid and substantial they have rounded masonry arches and barrel vaults supporting the roof, thick stone walls and few windows. In 1200, church builders began to embrace a new architectural style, known as the Gothic. Gothic structures, such as Abbey church of Saint Denis in France and the rebuilt Canterbury cathedral in England, have huge stained-glass windows, pointed vaults and arches. The Gothic architecture was termed as barbaric because of how pointy it was. Gothic architecture seems to be almost weightless.
Also, before the invention of the printing press in the 15th century, even books were work of arts. Craftsmen in monasteries and later in universities created illuminated manuscripts. In the 12th century, urban booksellers began to market smaller illuminated manuscript like books of hours, and other prayer books, to wealthy individuals.
In conclusion to my essay, the most impactful development upon the Renaissance was the printing press. The printing press has helped the poor by translating letters into their common language for the uneducated to have knowledge and under what was going on. In our today modern world we have universities, books and other educated thing through the printing press, they help impact knowledge to all not only the rich.