FEASIBILITY OF CHARCOAL RESIDUES AND ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL AS AN ALTERNATIVE WHITEBOARD MARKER INK

JAMES ALBERT PINEDA
DONNA BETH CABILLA
MA. GWYNETH ANNE ESTIMADA

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A RESEARCH PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF CENTRAL MINDANAO UNIVERSITY LABORATORY HIGHSCHOOL IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COURSE

SCIENCE RESEARCH 1

APRIL 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents ii
Introduction iii
Background of the study iii
Statement of the study iii
Significance of the study iv
Objectives v
Scopes and Limitations v
Review of Related Literature v
Methodology xi
References xii

ii
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study

School supplies are very essential to everyone; we can use it in many aspects such as doing reports, beautification of projects and a lot more. Mostly students and teachers are needy of those in their school works. Marker is very important for any student of teacher regardless to which field they belong to, it is just as important as a pen or pencil is to any student or teacher. But to talk of their uses it is not hidden that they are not only useful in education sector but is also much useful for peoples in Commercial and Art sector. Whiteboard markers nowadays tend to dry out and fade easily. Commercialized whiteboard markers like traditional whiteboard markers have long been used but the problem is that they can hold onto some of the pigment, creating a ghosted or streaked look after many uses. The reason for conducting this research is to provide an alternative way to produce a whiteboard marker ink and to help everyone acquire a less expensive whiteboard marker ink. By conducting this study, its either we will produce a whiteboard marker that is much more enhanced than the commercialized marker or both will be equal in terms of writing quality.

Statement of the problem
This study will be conducted to determine the feasibility of charcoal residues and isopropyl alcohol as alternative whiteboard marker ink. Specifically, these will answer the following questions:
1. Determine the effectiveness of charcoal residues and used isopropyl alcohol in terms of:
a. Color test
b. Odor test
c. Eraser test
2. Compare the difference between whiteboard marker ink out of charcoal residues and isopropyl alcohol and commercialized whiteboard marker ink.

Objectives
This experiment will be done to prove that there is an important difference between a commercial Whiteboard marker ink and a Whiteboard marker ink out of charcoal residues and isopropyl alcohol.
1. Determine the effectiveness of Whiteboard Marker Ink made out of Charcoal Residues and Isopropyl Alcohol in terms of :
o Color
o Odor
o Eraser test
2. Compare the difference of Commercial Whiteboard Marker Ink and a Whiteboard Marker Ink made out of Charcoal Residues and Isopropyl Alcohol

Hypotheses
Are charcoal residues and isopropyl alcohol effective enough as an alternative whiteboard marker ink?
Ho: Charcoal residues and isopropyl alcohol can be effective as an alternative Whiteboard marker ink.
Ha: Charcoal residues and isopropyl alcohol cannot be effective as an alternative Whiteboard marker ink.
Is there an important difference between the whiteboard marker ink out of charcoal residues and isopropyl alcohol and the commercialize whiteboard marker ink in terms of writing quality?
Ho: There is an important difference between a commercial whiteboard marker ink and a whiteboard marker ink out of charcoal residues and isopropyl alcohol in terms of writing quality.
Ha: There is no important difference between a commercial whiteboard marker Ink and a whiteboard marker ink out of charcoal residues and us isopropyl alcohol in terms of writing quality.

Significance of the study
The importance of this study is to help students and teachers in our society and to the people around us to acquire an affordable source of whiteboard marker ink. To produce a less expensive Whiteboard Marker Ink.
Scopes and Limitations
This study focuses to make a Whiteboard marker ink out of charcoal and used engine oil. This project is concentrated to find out the important difference between a commercial Whiteboard marker ink and a Whiteboard marker ink out of charcoal residues and isopropyl alcohol in terms of writing quality. The researchers will only have three trials to compare findings. This study is only limited in making a Whiteboard marker ink not in any other markers.
Definition of terms
Charcoal – is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis or the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen.
Charcoal Residue – The remains of a burned out charcoal.
Isopropyl Alcohol – is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O. It is a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Whiteboard Marker Ink
According to the source, which is in the presentation of Cruz, Sahagun and Valero, it is said that in the ancient times, people have used oil, and even making use of improvised sticks and stones. The most common evidence of this in the hieroglyphics found inscribed in caves. After a while, these people felt a something that they could write with more efficiently and effectively. The people’s growing curiosity about these things eventually motivated them to the advancement and modernization that we are still experiencing today.
Now, in modern times, we have all sorts of writing materials such as mechanical pencils, colored markers and different kinds of pens. But the one we are focusing one is the whiteboard marker, a marker that can be erased with just simple wiping, causing it to be the most favorable writing tool for teaching alongside with chalk, but, it also has its disadvantage such as its affordability as the whiteboard marker ink is expensive. So in this study, we have come up with a simple, cheap alternative to the whiteboard marker ink.
This study focuses on procedures used for proving the feasibility of charcoal and used engine oil as an alternative whiteboard marker ink and what similarities and differences between the two has. This study focuses on whiteboard marker ink out of the said materials.
This literature review explores the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) to enhance the teaching of science to special education students. The literature on using IWBs is reviewed to determine whether this new tool will help special education science students to learn and retain science concepts. IWBs, when used properly are simply a large computer monitor. The IWB when used with a projector and a computer becomes a system which enables a teacher to involve students in their learning in ways that cannot be accomplished by a computer alone. This requires special education teachers to learn new methods of teaching. The key idea behind the future success of the IWB in the special education classroom is the willingness of special educations teachers to learn and use these new methods, as opposed to using old methods with new technology.
Finding research regarding special education students and IWBs proved to be difficult, making it complicated to conclude about the possible advantages of using IWBs with special education science students. However, research does show that IWBs have many features that can assist the teacher of special education students. The interactivity of the IWB, combined with computers, animation and other features, make the boards ideal for use with visually-oriented students as well as easily distracted students.
In the 15th century, a new type of ink had to be developed in Europe for the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. Two types of ink were prevalent at the time: the Greek and Roman writing ink (soot, glue, and water) and the 12th century variety composed of ferrous sulfate, gall, gum, and water. Neither of these handwriting inks could adhere to printing surfaces without creating blurs. Eventually an oily, varnish-like ink made of soot, turpentine, and walnut oil was created specifically for the printing press. Up until a few years ago, consumers had very little interest in ink other than refills for their pens. Fountain pens became a novelty as the disposable ball point pen took over the market. The introduction of home computing led to home printing. Today in developed nations, most residences and business have a printing capability. As a result, buying ink in the form of a printer cartridge has once again become part of the day-to-day shopping experience, similar to buying a bottle of ink fifty years ago. Ink refilling services for printer cartridges are offered by large, official printing companies as well as smaller, “unofficial” refill companies. Customers can often cut printing costs by using refill services from a refill company, or buying the new non-OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) brands instead of refilling.
The refilling of ink cartridges and the use of continuous ink supply systems for inkjet printers is very common in most countries, with the exception of the United States. As printer manufacturers control the type of competition that they allow on retail shelves to a great extent, devices to ease the use of refill inks are usually available online.

Charcoal
Charcoal, impure form of graphitic carbon (q.v.), obtained as a residue when carbonaceous material is partially burned, or heated with limited access of air. Coke, carbon black (qq.v.), and soot may be regarded as forms of charcoal; other forms often are designated by the name of the materials, such as wood, blood, bone, and so on, from which they are derived. Charcoal has been replaced by coke for reducing metal ores in blast furnaces and by natural gas as a source of carbon in making certain chemicals, but it is still employed in making black gunpowder and in case-hardening metals. Formerly, charcoal production from wood was an important source of acetone, methyl alcohol, and acetic acid, all of which are now produced from other raw materials.
The use of special manufacturing techniques results in highly porous charcoals that have surface areas of 300–2,000 square metres per gram. These so-called active, or activated, charcoals are widely used to adsorb odorous or coloured substances from gases or liquids, as in the purification of drinking water, sugar, and many other products, in the recovery of solvents and other volatile materials, and in gas masks for the removal of toxic compounds from the air. They also are used as catalysts in making certain chemicals (e.g., phosgene, sulfuryl chloride) or as supports for other catalytic agents.
Charcoal, substance obtained by partial burning or carbonization (destructive distillation) of organic material. It is largely pure carbon. The entry of air during the carbonization process is controlled so that the organic material does not turn to ash, as in a conventional fire, but decomposes to form charcoal. The most common variety of charcoal, wood charcoal, was formerly prepared by piling wood into stacks, covering it with earth or turf, and setting it on fire. In these process volatile compounds in the wood (e.g., water) pass off as vapors into the air, some of the carbon is consumed as fuel, and the rest of the carbon is converted into charcoal. In the modern method, wood is raised to a high temperature in an iron retort, and industrially important byproducts, e.g., methanol (wood alcohol or wood spirit), acetone, pyroligneous acid, and acetic acid, are saved by condensing them to their liquid form. Air is not really needed in the carbonization process, and advanced methods of charcoal production do not allow air to enter the kiln. This results in a higher yield, since no wood is burned with the air, and quality is improved. Charcoal is also obtained from substances other than wood such as nut shells and bark; that obtained from bones is called bone black, animal black, or animal charcoal. Charcoal yields a larger amount of heat in proportion to its volume than is obtained from a corresponding quantity of wood and has the further advantage of being smokeless. The greatest amount is used as a fuel. Charcoal is often used in blacksmithing, for cooking, and for other industrial applications. One of the most important applications of wood charcoal is as a component of gunpowder. It is also used as a reducing agent in metallurgical operations, but this application was diminished by the introduction of coke. A limited quantity is made up into the form of drawing crayon. Bamboo charcoal is the principal ingredient in sumi-e, a form of Japanese ink painting that uses only black ink in various concentrations. Because of its porous structure, finely divided charcoal is a highly efficient agent for filtering the adsorption of gases and of solids from solution. It is used in sugar refining, in water purification, in the purification of factory air, and in gas masks. Wood charcoal can remove coloring agents from solutions, but this is accomplished more efficiently by animal charcoal. By special heating or chemical processes the adsorptive property can be greatly increased; charcoal so treated is known as activated charcoal.
Yearly, huge amounts of agricultural residues and forest waste are produced. But these are either wasted or burnt inefficiently in their loose form causing air pollution. Faulty use of these biodegradable wastes may cause certain pollutions in the atmosphere. Fortunately, these can be utilized for the production of fuel briquettes.
Charcoal briquettes could be used as an alternative energy source for household use. These are made from a combination of organic materials such as grass, leaves, saw dust, rice husk or any type of paper. These materials are then compressed in fuel briquette press. The fuel briquette produced is environment-friendly since it utilized waste materials. In comparison with fossil fuels, the briquettes are easier to produce because it is a renewable source of energy.
Charcoal briquettes are useful and can be used as an alternative substitute to expensive cost of kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas and electricity. The briquettes are mostly composed of organic waste and other materials that are biodegradable, and are commonly used as heat and cooking fuel. The composition of the briquettes may vary due to the availability of the raw materials in an area. These materials are compressed and made into briquettes. The briquettes are different from charcoal because they do not possess large concentration of carbonaceous substance. In comparison to fossil fuels, the briquettes produce low net total greenhouse gas emissions because the materials used are already a part of the carbon cycle. Environmentally, the use of briquettes produces less greenhouse gases.
All natural wood charcoal has been used since 30,000 BC. In the other hand, many ancient cultures around the world have independently discovered and formulated inks for the purposes of writing and drawing. The knowledge of the inks, their recipes and the techniques for their production comes from archaeological analysis or from written text itself. The history if Chinese inks can be traced back to the 12th century BC, with the utilization of natural plant (plant dyes), animal and mineral inks based on such materials as graphite that were ground with water and applied with ink brushes. Evidence for the earliest Chinese inks, similar to modern ink sticks, is around 256 BC in the end of the Warring States Period and produced using manual labour from soot and animal glue.
Over time it fades to a dull brown. Scribes in medieval Europe (about AD 800 to 1500) wrote principally on parchment or vellum. One 12th century ink recipe called for hawthorn branches to be cut in the spring and left to dry. Then the bark was pounded from the branches and soaked in water for eight days. The water was boiled until it thickened and turned black. Wine was added during boiling. The ink was poured into special bags and hung in the sun. Once dried, the mixture was mixed with wine and iron salt over a fire to make the final ink. The reservoir pen, which may have been the first fountain pen, dates back to 953, when Ma’ad al-Mu’izz, the caliph of Egypt, demanded a pen that would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen that held ink in a reservoir.
Isopropyl Alcohol
Isopropyl alcohol, also called 2-propanol, one of the most common members of the alcohol family of organic compounds. Isopropyl alcohol was the first commercial synthetic alcohol; chemists at the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (later Exxon Mobil) first produced it in 1920 while studying petroleum by-products. It is easily synthesized from the reaction of propylene with sulfuric acid, followed by hydrolysis.
In some cases the hydration of propylene is carried out in one step, using water and a catalyst at high pressure. Isopropyl alcohol is mixed with water for use as a rubbing-alcohol antiseptic. It is also used in aftershave lotions, hand lotions, and other cosmetics. In industry it is used as an inexpensive solvent for cosmetics, drugs, shellacs, and gums, as well as for denaturing ethanol (ethyl alcohol). Added to wet gas, it helps to prevent separation and freezing of a water layer. Isopropyl alcohol is easily oxidized to acetone, another important solvent.

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Chapter 3
Methodology
Location of the study
This study will be conducted at Central Mindanao University Laboratory High School Chemistry room for the duration of the study
Duration of the study
The study will last for the duration of 3 months starting from March to May
Materials
The materials needed for this study are pH indicators, three beakers, three stirring rods, two graduated cylinders, three funnels, mortar and pestle, 50 g of charcoal residues, 50 ml isopropyl alcohol and 100 ml cooking oil.
1. Production of Whiteboard marker
Measuring charcoal residues
First, the 50 g of charcoal residues will be pounded to its smallest portions. Second, the charcoal residues will be mixed with the 50 ml isopropyl alcohol and 20 ml cooking oil based on the given measurements per trial. Third, the mixture will be filtered using the rug or filter paper filter into another cup to remove the whole pieces of charcoal. Then, the mixture will be transferred into a Whiteboard cartridge.

Measuring the effectiveness of the Whiteboard marker
In getting the results, the researchers consider the following: Odor, Color, and Eraser test. The researchers had set ups A, B and C with different measurements of its components with a temperature of 30?C, by sketching a shaded rectangle for each set up and the commercialize one for the eraser test. The color chart (from white to black) was used in getting the color of each set up for the intensity test.

REFERENCES
Anonymous, (March 10, 2017), Alcohol with Charcoal as Substitute to Pentel Pen Ink. Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/alcohol-with-charcoal-as-substitute-pentel-esssay#
Chan, Shan (March 7, 2014), Sedimentation Method Used in Purifying Used Cooking oil from https://prezi.com/m/hzwdn0f2yz3n/sedimentation-method-used-in-purifying-used-cooking-oil/\
Cole, Clarissa K., (2012), A Literature Review Exploring the Effectiveness of the use of Interactive Whiteboards on Teaching Basic Science Concepts to Special Education Students. Retrieved from Semanticscholoar.org https://www.google.com.ph/search?/dcr=0;ei=ysGCWqmhHpbcvQTsv4PAAw;q=rrl+about+interactive+whiteboard;oq=rrl+about+interactive+whiteboard;gs_l=7jlj0jlj2j.12.0….0…lc.lj4.64.mobile.gws-serp..20.2.411…30i10klj33i160k1.0.irrb4PmEPZo
Columbia Encyclopedia, (April 09, 2018) Charcoal. Retrieved from 6th ed.. Encyclopedia.com https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/organic-chemistry/charcoal
Langkay, Ning (March 13, 2016). Feasibility of Charcoal as an Alternative for Whiteboard Marker Ink. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/m/a-lr6uzuektn/feasibility-of-charcoal-as-an-alternative-for-whiteboard-marker-ink
Macanlalay, Elvin Jay (August 3, 2013), The Feasibility of Charcoal and Used Engine Oil as Alternative Whiteboard Marker Ink. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/m/-zzn¬-__trn8jx/investigatory-project/
Wade, Leroy G. (October 24, 2017) Isopropyl alcohol. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/science/isopropyl-alcohol
Yilmaz, E. (2004), A Practical Analysis of Turkish Discourse Markers. Retrieved from https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t;source=web;rct=j;url=https://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload.12604853/index.pdf;ved=0ahUKEwjv4LKowbjZAhXIGZQKHZNrDhEQFggpMAA;usg=AOvVaw21CNFSriylp5q81ZEkm9HI

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