FACULTY OF FINE ARTS
DEPARTMENT: GRAPHIC DESIGN
Magazine Design Layout
Course: Desktop Publishing
Skopje, September 2018
Faculty of Fine Arts
Magazine Design Layout
Course: Desktop Publishing
Ass.Prof. Aleksandra Ristevska
Albana EMINI 1415.C.34
Skopje, September 2018
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introuction PAGEREF _Toc517820549 h 11. The History of Magazines PAGEREF _Toc517820550 h 21.1 Invention of Magazines21.2 Today’s Popular Magazines32.Printing5 2.1 History of Printing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..6 2.2 Printing Market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………10 2.3 Printing Process……………………………………………………………………………………………………………11
3. Digital Publishing11
4. Rules for a better magazine design156. Traveller Magazine description PAGEREF _Toc517820560 h 16Conclusion23References24
IntrouctionMagazines are one of the most successful forms of written journalism. Layout design is more than just a design, it is a visual communication. Newspaper, magazine, book and other paper media layout designers not only must make the layout visually appealing to the eye, but also tell and show the importance of the story, the text, and the message through their designs.Stories and photographs are not the only elements that convey a context to a reader but a good design suggests a context too. The layout design of a book has also a significant effect on how a reader would be informed about the subject.The layout designs must balance the overall compositions of the page taking into considerations all elements of design: -the composition of image -text-white space -the effects of color-texture of its paper
This thesis has the main target people with a passion for travel, to inspire them to discover new continents or exploring uncharted territories that are a lot to explore and through magazine they’ll be able to share travel stories and guiding people what they have experinced.I connected the message I wanted to share with combining text and graphics to produce a creative and a well designed magazine.
1. The History of Magazines1.1 Invention of Magazines
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine). Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles. The publisher’s purpose for a magazine is to give its advertisers a chance to share with its readers about their products.According to British philosopher Francis Bacon, the printing press was one of three inventionsthat “changed the whole face and state of things throughout the world.” Prior to the invention of the printing press, books had to be painstakingly copied by hand. When Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1440, he created a way for knowledge to be mass-produced for the first time in human history. Within a century of its advent, the printing press was being used to print pamphlets, almanacs and newsletters in addition to Bibles and religious materials.
In 1663, German theologian and poet Johann Rist created a periodical called Erbauliche Monaths-Unterredungen (“Edifying Monthly Discussions”). Widely considered to be one of the earliest examples of a modern magazine, the gazette lasted for five years and spanned a myriad of similar journals in England, France and Italy. Cultured young intellectuals readily devoured the periodicals, which summarized new books and welcomed scholarly articles.
In 1672, the first “periodical of amusement” was published. Le Mercure Galant (later called Mercure de France), was created by French writer and playwright Jean Donneau de Vizé. The publication contained news, songs, short verses and gossip. Despite being disparaged by other writers of the day for its amusing rather than intellectual content, the periodical became very popular in France.
The 1700s ushered in a time of increased literacy and intellectual prowess, especially among women. Society’s hunger for knowledge enabled magazines to become a popular cultural staple. English printers produced three essay periodicals that set the stage for modern magazines: Daniel Defoe’s The Review (published 1704-13); Sir Richard Steele’s The Tatler (published 1709-11); and Addison and Steele’s The Spectator (published 1711-12). Since the periodicals were published several times a week, they resembled our modern newspapers. However, their content was more similar to that of modern magazines. The Review published opinionated essays about national and international events. The Tatler and The Spectator sought to “enliven morality with wit, and to temper wit with morality.” These two publications influenced the manners and thoughts of the day. These periodicals represented a middle ground between the in-depth research found in books and the quick recaps found in newspapers. They set the stage for our concept of the modern magazine.
In 1731, an Englishman named Edward Cave published a periodical called The Gentleman’s Magazine. He invented the word “magazine” from the Arabic word makhazin, which meant storehouse. Cave’s goal was to create a magazine that the general public would be interested in. His publication contained everything from essays and poems to stories and political musings. Cave achieved two noteworthy accomplishments: he coined the term “magazine,” and he was the first publisher to successfully fashion a wide-ranging publication.
In 1842, British newsagent Herbert Ingram created the first illustrated magazine. After realizing that colorful sketches and illustrations contributed to magazine sales, Ingram began publishing The Illustrated London News. The weekly news and arts periodical was filled with dozens of woodcut designs. The Illustrated London News also earned the distinction of being the first magazine to incorporate photos.
2.2 Today’s Popular MagazineIn 1888, National Geographic Magazine was founded. The publication was filled with scientific content and colorful photos. Some of the magazine’s early revenue was used to fund scientific expeditions and endeavors. Today, the magazine is a highly respected publication that covers science, geology and world events.
In 1922, William Roy DeWitt Wallace founded Reader’s Digest. The magazine contained articles about American culture, humorous bits, cartoons and heartwarming stories. Reader’s Digest was the best-selling magazine in America for several years. Today, the beloved publication is filled with health tips, recipes, inspiring true stories and funny blurbs.Better Homes and Gardens, now the fifth largest magazine in America, was founded in 1923. The magazine was filled with decorating tips, entertaining ideas and gardening suggestions. Today, Better Homes and Gardens is beloved for its recipes and design ideas.America’s first weekly news magazine was founded in 1923. The publication covered the top national and international stories. Today, TIME magazine is a leading source for factual, in-depth news articles. Sports Illustrated was first published in 1954. Initially, Sports Illustrated covered activities geared towards wealthy Americans, such as boating and playing polo. In the 1960s, journalist Andre Laguerre became the assistant managing editor of the fledging publication. Thanks to his leadership, the magazine began focusing on all major sports. Today, Sports Illustrated is famous for its sharp sports coverage.
Today, there are thousands of magazines worldwide. Magazines inspire, inform, educate and entertain audiences across the globe. Nearly 600 years after the advent of the printing press, magazines continue to change the nature of things throughout the world.
4. Printing press
Printing, or the process of reproducing text and images, has a long history behind it. There is a separate section on the history of prepress:-3000 BC and earlier The Mesopotamians use round cylinder seals for rolling an impress of images onto clay tablets. In other early societies in China and Egypt, small stamps are used to print on cloth.-Second century ADA Chinese man named Ts’ai Lun is credited with inventing paper.-Seventh centuryA small book containing the text of the Gospel of John in Latin is added to the grave of Saint Cuthbert. In 1104 it is recovered from his coffin in Durham Cathedral, Britain. The Cuthbert Gospel is currently the oldest European book still in existence.-Eleventh centuryA Chinese man named Pi-Sheng develops type characters from hardened clay, creating the first movable type. The fairly soft material hampers the success of this technology.-Twelfth centuryPapermaking reaches Europe.-Thirteenth centuryType characters cast from metal (bronze) are developed in China, Japan and Korea. The oldest known book printed using metal type dates back to the year 1377. It is a Korean Buddhist document, called Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters.-Fifteenth centuryEven though woodcut had already been in use for centuries in China and Japan, the oldest known European specimen dates from the beginning of the 15th century. Woodcut is a relief printing technique in which text and images are carved into the surface of a block of wood. The printing parts remain level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with a knife or chisel. The wood block is then inked and the substrate pressed against the wood block. The ink that is used is made of lampblack (soot from oil lamps) mixed with varnish or boiled linseed oil.Books are still rare since they need to be laboriously handwritten by scribes. The University of Cambridge has one of the largest libraries in Europe – constituting of just 122 books.In 1436 Gutenberg begins work on a printing press. It takes him 4 years to finish his wooden press which uses movable metal type. Among his first publications that get printed on the new device are bibles. The first edition has 40 lines per page. A later 42-line version comes in two volumes.In 1465 the first drypoint engravings are created by the Housebook Master, a south German artist. Drypoint is a technique in which an image is incised into a (copper) plate with a hard-pointed ‘needle’ of sharp metal or a diamond point.In their print shop in Venice John and Wendelin of Speier are probably the first printers to use pure roman type, which no longer looks like the handwritten characters that other printers have been trying to imitate until then.In 1476 William Caxton buys equipment from the Netherlands and establishes the first printing press in England at Westminster. The painting below depicts Caxton showing his printing press to King Edward IV.That same year copper engravings are for the first time used for illustrations. With engravings, a drawing is made on a copper plate by cutting grooves into it. By the end of the century, printing has become established in more than 250 cities around Europe. One of the main challenges of the industry is distribution, which leads to the establishment of numerous book fairs. The most important one is the Frankfurt Book Fair. -Sixteenth centuryAldus Manutius is the first printer to come up with smaller, more portable books. He is also the first to use Italic type, designed by Venetian punchcutter Francesco Griffo.
In 1507 Lucas Cranach invents the chiaroscuro woodcut, a technique in which drawings are reproduced using two or more blocks printed in different colors. The Italian Ugo da Carpi is one of the printers to use such woodcuts, for example in Diogenes, the work shown below.In 1525 the famous painter, wood carver and copper engraver Albrecht Dürer publishes ‘Unterweysung der Messung’ (A Course on the Art of Measurement), a book on the geometry of letters. The ‘Historia Veneta’ (1551) is one of the many books of Pietro Bembo, a Venetian scholar and cardinal who is most famous for his work on the Italian language and poetry. The Bembo typeface is named after him.Christophe Plantin is one of the most famous printers of this century. In his print shop in Antwerp, he produces fine work ornamented with engravings after Rubens and other artists. Many of his works as well as some of the equipment from the shop can be admired in the Plantin-Moretus museum.-Seventeenth centuryPlantin is also the first to print a facsimile. A facsimile is a reproduction of an old book, manuscript, map, art print or other item that is as true to the original source as possible.The word ‘not’ is accidentally left out of Exodus 20:14 in a 1631 reprint of the King James Bible. The Archbishop of Canterbury and King Charles I are not amused when they learn that God commanded Moses “Thou shalt commit adultery”. The printers, Robert Barker and Martin Lucas, are fined and have their printing license revoked. This version of the Bible is referred to as The Wicked Bible and also called the Adulterous Bible or Sinner’s Bible.
In 1710 the German painter and engraver Jakob Christof Le Blon produces the first engraving in several colors. He uses the mezzotint method to engrave three metal plates. Each plate is inked with a different color, using red, yellow and blue. Later on, he adds a fourth plate, bearing black lines. This technique helped form the foundation for modern color printing. Le Bon’s work is based on Newton’s theory, published in 1702, which states that all colors in the spectrum are composed of the three primary colors blue, yellow and red.William Caslon is an English typographer whose foundry operates in London for over 200 years. His Caslon Roman Old Face is cut between 1716 and 1728. The letters are modeled on Dutch types but they are more delicate and not as monotonous. Caslon’s typefaces remain popular, digital versions are still available today.Alois Senefelder invents lithography in 1796 and uses it as a low-cost method for printing theatrical works. In a more refined form lithography is still the dominant printing technique today.Another famous person from this era is Giambattista Bodoni who creates a series of typefaces that carry his name and that are still frequently used today. They are characterized by the sharp contrast between the thick vertical stems and thin horizontal hairlines.-Nineteenth centuryIn 1800 Charles Stanhope, the third Earl Stanhope, builds the first press which has an iron frame instead of a wooden one. This Stanhope press is faster, more durable and it can print larger sheets. A few years later another performance improvement is achieved by Friedrich Gottlob Koenig and Andreas Friedrich Bauer who build their first cylinder press. Their company is still in existence today and is known as KBA.In 1837 Godefroy Engelmann is awarded a patent on chromolithography, a method for printing in color using lithography. Chromolithographs or chromos are mainly used to reproduce paintings. The advertisement below is from the end of the century and shows what can be achieved using this color printing technique. Another popular technique is the photochrom process, which is mainly used to print postcards of landscapes.
In 1903 American printer Ira Washington Rubel is instrumental in producing the first lithographic offset press for paper. In offset presses a rubber roller transfers the image from a printing plate or stone to the substrate. Such an offset cylinder was already in use for printing on metals, such as tin.In 1907 the Englishman Samuel Simon is awarded a patent for the process of using silk fabric as a printing screen. Screen printing quickly becomes popular for producing expensive wallpaper and printing on fabrics such as linen and silk. Screen printing had first appeared in China during the Shang Dynasty (960–1279 AD).A few of the new press manufacturers that appear on the market are Roland (nowadays known as Man Roland) in 1911 and Komori Machine Works in 1923.In 1915 Hallmark, founded in 1910, creates its first Christmas card. It is during this same era that magazines such as the National Geographic Magazine (1888), Life (1883, but focussing on photojournalism from 1936), Time (1923), Vogue (1892) and The Reader’s Digest (1920) starting reaching millions of readers.
Offset presses still evolve incrementally. Two prime examples are the introduction of the KBA Cortina, a waterless web press for newspapers and semi-commercials, in 2000 and that of the giant Goss Sunday 5000, the world’s first 96-page web press, in 2009.One area of the market that evolves quickly is that of large format inkjet presses for the sign ; display market. Inkjet technology also starts making inroads in the packaging industry. At the 2016 edition of drupa the EFI Nozomi C18000, HP PageWide C500 and Durst Rho 130 SPC (shown below) are all presses optimized for printing on corrugated packaging board.
Figure 1: First printing press Figure 2: Franklin printing press
Printing marketThe printing market can be split in segments:Commercial printing – Commercial printers typically print a wide range of products, from stationery to brochures, catalogs and magazines. Some companies focus on specific markets, such as quick printers, forms printers, wide format printers, direct mail printers and companies doing security printing. Web-to-print printers are companies whose entire print volume is generated by selling print products online. In-plants are printing facilities that are part of a company or institution and only produce print for their own employer.
Publication printing – Newspaper printers, book printers, magazine printers and directory printers target the high volume work in a specific market. Many of these companies are both publisher and printer.
Packaging printing – Packaging printers specialize in printing all kinds of packaging such as boxes, cartons, bags, cans, tags and labels. Many companies specialize in printing on specific substrates such as metal (e.g. drinking cans) or plastics (e.g. in-mould printing)
Industrial printing – When printing is only one of the steps in a manufacturing process, it fits in this category. This includes printing on textiles, panels, floor tiles or wallpaper. Decorative or functional printing on products like watches, dashboards or cooktops is also in this category. Printable electronics is seen as a major new field.
Home and office printing – Both inkjet and laser printers are used for printing personal and business documents. Other machines such as thermal and dot matrix printers are still used in some places.Printing processesThere is a wide variety of technologies that are used to print stuff. The main ones are:
Offset – The full name of this process is offset lithography. It is the most widely used printing technique on the market, suitable for printing on paper, cardboard, plastic and other flat materials. Offset is used for printing books, newspaper, stationery, packaging, etc.
Flexo – In flexography flexible (typically rubber) printing plate is used, which extends the range of substrates that can be printed on. Plastics, metals, cellophane and other materials can be printed on. Flexo is mainly used for packaging and labels and to a lesser extent also for newspapers.
Digital printing – A number of different printing technologies such as inkjet and xerography are often referred to as digital printing. These are the newest processes and as such, they are gradually replacing other processes. They also offer new possibilities such as variable data printing, in which each printed copy is different from the previous one.
Screen printing – This printing technique can handle a wide range of materials and the printing surface does not have to be perfectly flat. Printing t-shirts or glass surfaces or on wood are some of the possibilities.
Gravure – Also known as rotogravure, this is a technique in which an image is engraved into a printing cylinder. That cylinder is inked and this ink subsequently transfers to the paper. Gravure is used for high volume work such as newspapers, magazines, and packaging.
2.Digital PublishingWhat does digital publishing means? Taking anything that could be done in print, sound, or that can be seen with the eyes and putting it into a format that can be accessed by computer technology.-Newsletters-Journals and blogs-Advertisements-Company Reports-Catalogs-Books, magazines, and other periodicals,-Massive libraries, resource materials, and databases;-Scrapbooks.
Digital publishing is the future of magazine publishing. At least we all hope that it is! Tablet devices, although only a few years in circulation, have spread around the globe and have become new toys that we all love to fiddle with. Almost simultaneously with the arrival of the first tablet, the iPad, magazine publishers started to convert their publications to this new medium. Digital magazine publishing is still something new and we as creators of such publications are still learning the process of successful publication creation. The design principles are a bit different from print, and the biggest problem is adjusting the magazine to look good on so many devices that are on the market today. Besides iPad, which is de facto standard, you have to choose on which tables you are going to publish your work. This means adjusting the layout or even creating the new one to fit other screen sizes and resolutions. And all this means much more work. Not to mention choosing between the orientation. Will you be doing portrait only magazine, or portrait and landscape, which translates into twice the work?
Today on the market there are several platforms through which you can create and publish your magazine. Some are capable of producing truly amazing applications and are using all capabilities that the tablets have to offer. Others are just creating so called digital replica which is based on PDF files with the added functionality of slide shows, sound listening and movie viewing. Digital replica platforms do not offer full tablet functionality and can be frustrating to view on smartphones.Although digital replica platforms are widely spread and magazines created in this way sell in big numbers, this way of creating digital magazines does not have a bright future.Users today want more and these platforms cannot deliver what users want. In my opinion this is why editorial designers should focus on digital publishing platforms that can deliver truly engaging experience for the reader.
Today there are few such platforms. Adobe Digital Publishing, Aquafadas Digital Publishing, Mag+, Quark Dynamic Publishing and WoodWing.These platforms offer great possibilities for designers and all of them are based on software solutions already known to us. It does not matter if you work in InDesign or QuarkXPress, you can easily start to create digital publications in your preferred software.Yes, we will have to start learning again, but this is good. Since we are already familiar with the applications used to create digital magazines, now we only need to learn new skills and design principles that work. Since these principles are still new and are not set in stone we can play with them and go through trial and error process.Some principles do work and are already established but digital publishing is so new and design territory is still uncharted and new possibilities and concepts arise on a daily basis.
5. Rules for a better magazine designThe idea of a publication is to communicate a message to the reader. Words communicate the literal message while font and graphics communicate in an emotional way.-Identify your audience and design for themThis is the most important rule depends whether you’re launching a new publication or moving into a design role at an existing title, it’s important to know your audience and design for them accordingly. The reader must be able to identify with the tone of voice of the publication, the design must also speak to them.-Cover magazineThe cover needs to work on a number of levels- it must be unique enough to attract attention on a crowded newsstand whilst at the same time not alienating existing readers. It must spark curiosity and intrigue and tell a story selling the contents of the title to the onlooker.-Keep it griddedGrid systems are a fundamental of all areas of graphic design but nowhere more so than in editorial design. It’s essential that you have a solid grid in place as this will form the backbone of your design, giving your pages their structure.-Typographic hierarchyAll great editorial design must have a strong typographic structure, from body copy to headline display faces and everything in-between, the type choices that you make will not only help to give the title its visual voice but will also act as a guide for the reader to navigate through your layouts.-Having a white space is not a mistakeAlthough for many of us white space is somewhat of a luxury, don’t be tempted when you do have some extra room to just fill every available inch of it. – PacingPacing is incredibly important in any magazine and a structured flat-plan with section breaks can really help, allowing the content to breath and letting the reader know where they are in the publication.-Hierarchy of elements and entry pointsWhen faced with a number of different elements or stories of varying size and importance its easy to feel a little overwhelmed. Ensure that it is clear which story or element takes prominence through prime positioning and larger headline and image sizes. Drop caps, arrows and simple entry point graphics can help to guide the reader.-Being uniqueMost importantly, be unique in both your ideas and design application furthermore in the publishing industry, it’s never been more important to stand out from the crowd.
7. Travel Magazine
It has been claimed that travel experience is generally pleasure-based and consumed through images such as photographs and stories. It is often assumed that travel oriented publications such as travel magazines have substantial effects on people’s travel decisions, however the influence of these informal information sources has not been investigated to any great extent. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of feature stories and photos in an ongoing source of information, a travel magazine, on travel decisions.Magazine contains 24 pages, each of them present topics for places that are not commercial, people of all ages, from all countries, travel to foreign places for many different reasons – namely family, work, and leisure and they write different stories to inspire. Too often, people get wrapped up in their lives, their daily routine of working, sleeping, eating and living and they become self-absorbed to the point it affects their health, their happiness, and their perspective but we forget that it’s a great, big world out there with billions and billions of people, who each day live their life and have their own unique experiences. Travel reminds those paying attention that they are not the only ship in the sea, that this is a huge world and that they are only a small, insignificant pea in it. This is quite a humbling experience – to go to another country and see large numbers of peoples living differently, and coming to understand how large the crazy world actually is. When people who learn return home, they keep with them this perspective for the rest of their life and they benefit from this is knowledge and perspective. So this is also one of the main purposes of this magazines, to inspire people to travel as much as they can and to change their lifestyle, their thoughts through travelling. Traveling gets a person out of their comfort zone, away from all their normal pleasures and comforts and way of doing things.
The magazine layout is minimal, modern and very impressive. Design layouts are made from Adobe Indesign CC. Also pictures included in magazine are touched in photoshop effects for being in one style. The font which is used in magazine is Bodoni is known as a classic magazine heading typeface. Massimo Vignelli stated that ‘Bodoni is one of the most elegant typefaces ever designed’. The application of Bodoni paired with the contrasting of Montserrat is sophisticated and contemporary. There are also lines in the cover and inside to combine and to connect the cover and the layouts inside. Cover pages are minimal and clear. In the cover front page there is a place for the ‘Center of visual interest’ the picture that is putted and the slogan ‘Tell me your story’ which means you have inside advices, tips, experiences, pictures and so on, many reasons to benefit from this is magazine. Layouts of the magazines are made depending on rules and creativity such as headlines, subheads, the way the pictures are putted and other elements which make the magazine very unique and impressive.I also used main components as: Shapes, Heading, Subheading, Body text, Image, Background, Elements.
Picture: Elements of cover magazine “Travelling”
Main Parts of a Magazine Cover
Masthead – The name of the magazine displayed in the typeface in which it is designed. This is the visual branding of the title and is usually done in a unique typeface to be very recognizable.
Selling line – Short, sharp description of the title’s main marketing point or perhaps setting out its editorial philosophy.
Dateline – Month and year of publication, often with the price. Note that a monthly magazine usually hits the news-stands the month before the cover date.
Main image – In a classic way, the face is big enough to make an impact on the news-stand, with the model making full eye-contact.
Main cover line – This is very large – taking up about a quarter of the cover area – and comes in three layers, each with a different color. Note it is positioned against the model’s shoulder so it shows up clearly.
Cover lines – Cosmopolitan uses many of cover lines, which are distributed around the main image without detracting from it too much.
Model credit – It is not unusual for such a credit to appear on the cover.
Left third – In western countries, the left third of the cover is vital for selling the issue in shops where the magazine is not shown full-frontage. The title must be easily recognizable in a display of dozens of competitors. The start of the masthead is important here.
Bar code – Standard bar code used by retailers.
Picture: Inside elements of magazine pages
Main Parts of the layouts magazine- Headline A headline should be interesting, meaningful and compelling enough as it increases the chances of an article to be read.- Body TextA well-written body copy keeps a reader engaged to an article for the most part, generally till the end of the article.- Sub-headlineThese are used to break an article into various sections or compartments, indicating what the next set of paragraphs is going to talk about.
– Pull QuotesQuotes aid in conveying your story to a reader, and if coupled with images, become potent. the quotes or excerpts or blurbs should be in a font that is different from the font in which the body copy has been written.
– Captions for Images A caption should describe an image and should ideally be placed immediately below the image.
– FolioIt should be designed in such a way that you do not annoy a reader who looks into it on almost every page of a magazine.
Picture: Inside pages of magazine layouts “Traveller Magazine”
ConclusionThe effect of travel magazine features and photos on tourist decision making and their impressionsThe results of this thesis strongly emphasize a need for providing travelers with a variety of information sources. Although travelers perceive a variety of benefits from using tourism brochures and magazines (including online magazines), and report actual changes in their trip planning behavior, there is still great room for improvement in affecting their decision making. Potential travelers seek information not only to acquire and broaden knowledge about the destination, but also to have fun and enjoy the experience of seeking the information. Tourism marketing organizations need to focus on understanding what type of information sources can be more attractive in relation to the different types of tourism decision making. Given the experiential nature of tourism and the enjoyment many travelers derive from planning their trips and their desire to obtain more reliable information regarding the potential destination, improving and diversifying the information sources on travel magazine is important.
Haris, C 2005, Basic design layout, 2nd edn, AVA Publishing,USA.