Shanghai Ocean University
Semester 2 2017/18
Research Paper (First Draft)
Name (Pinyin and English)_______LvYa Lin __Annie_________
Student ID Number:____1793222_______
2017 Cohort – Class:_______BIS 4________
Title:__Beneficial aspects and potential risks of Artificial intelligence in daily application in north America
I declare that this paper is all my own work and does not contain unreferenced or unacknowledged material.
I understand that plagiarism may result in zero marks and no chance to rewrite.
Ta1010101010101010101010ble of contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc513991114 h 3Body PAGEREF _Toc513991115 h 61. Positive aspects PAGEREF _Toc513991116 h 61.1 Simplify daily lives PAGEREF _Toc513991117 h 61.2 benefits the business PAGEREF _Toc513991118 h 82. Potential risks PAGEREF _Toc513991119 h 102.1 the loss of jobs PAGEREF _Toc513991120 h 102.2 impacts to creativity PAGEREF _Toc513991121 h 112.3 devastating behaviors PAGEREF _Toc513991122 h 123. Discussion of performance and malpractice PAGEREF _Toc513991123 h 133.1 high effectivity vs high cost PAGEREF _Toc513991124 h 13Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc513991125 h 15Reference list PAGEREF _Toc513991126 h 17
IntroductionDijkstra?1988?maintains that the puzzle of whether the submarine can swim is more attractive than the question whether a computer can reflect on confusion. Nevertheless, Artificial intelligence has been developed rapidly in recent 20 years. With the beneficial aspects they have, there are also several potential risks of AI. Artificial intelligence (AI) is machine, which can execute the simulation of human intelligence processes, particularly computer systems. Learning (the acquisition of obtaining information and the rules for using messages), reasoning (to come to the approximate or definite conclusions by using the rules) and self-correction are included in these processes. Daily applications of AI include machine vision, speech recognition and expert systems. According to Tegmark (2016), about civilization, the whole shoot people love ardently is a product of intelligence, consequently, amplifying human intelligence with artificial intelligence has the opportunities to help civilization prosperous like never before – in the premise of the guarantee people have promised to keep the benefits of technology. As a result, both of beneficial aspects and potential risks exist in Artificial intelligence.
-2959101285240Artificial intelligence is becoming increasingly universal to the public. In addition, AI is able to finish a variety of tiring work effectively. According to the research created by (2017), forty-six percent of early adopters say that their AI projects are leading to improve the decision making and planning.
Figure 1? Public opinion on A.I.’s role in daily life, nationaljournal.com, 2017
Consequently, the purpose of the paper is to provide the readers with a further understanding of advantages and ventures aspects of Artificial intelligence in daily application. In a research, the graph shows several public opinions in America on AI’s role in daily life. In the majority of these aspects, more people hold the opinion of very uncomfortable with AI in their daily life while the number of people who have no opinion on the situation of living with Robots is the lowest. Specially, more people feel comfortable to accept Artificial intelligence in their daily life in the aspects of cleaning house and cooking meals. There are some points analyze the benefits and the potential risks of Artificial intelligence.
This paper will describe the artificial intelligence in daily application. Firstly, there is an analysis of the positive aspects, which include a simplified life such as Siri and Cortana, purchase prediction and the GPS, and the enormous economic increase. Further, the research will identify the potential risks of the robots: the loss of jobs and the impact that AI will cause to creativity. Finally, it will also analyze in detail, the discussion of the performance and malpractice of the Artificial intelligence.
It is vital to fully understand the effect of Artificial intelligence in daily application, which will lead the public to master and utilize the supporting aspects and prevent the latent ventures of Artificial intelligence. The research paper is written to enable the readers to fully understand the advantages and possible danger of artificial intelligence in daily application.
Body1. Positive aspects1.1 Simplify daily lives
Amongst the most popular technological trends, one technology that has seen massive advancement is Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence is almost being used in every sector, from big companies to social media platforms, people are using artificial intelligence in their daily applications to simplify their workload. Humans are taking advantage of Artificial intelligence in their daily application because it simplifies their daily life. There are some examples of how Artificial intelligence has simplified the daily application of people. Dani (2018) states that machine learning and Artificial intelligence are developing as a method to pave the path for a more excellent and advanced future.
1.1.1 Siri and Cortana
Siri and Cortana are typical representatives of Artificial intelligence. Siri and Cortana are becoming increasingly perfect in automated reasoning, learning, perception and other aspects. When people are photographing, Siri and Cortana will algorithm identifies and detects the face of person and tags the individuals when they are posting our photographs on the social media sites. When utilizing Siri and Cortana, only the utilizing of voice saves eyes and hands from fatigue. Another reason people have a tendency to use to rely on Siri and Cortana more is that they have gotten faster and more accurate at parsing and completing the requests. The bigger reason for using and appreciating Siri and Cortana is the accessibility they have, which cannot be taken lightly. Artificial intelligence is extremely helpful for people with visual and motor delays, because they can deal with affairs by using just their voice. As a result, Siri and Cortana are not only a feature of convenience, but also an accessible instrument as well.
1.1.2 Purchase Prediction
The era of predictive commerce retail has peaked. It is time for retailers to help people find the exact products in their precise moment of requirement before they even perceive that requirement. Retail giants have been using the algorithms in Artificial intelligence to forecast demand and set prices for years. Sharma(2016) points out that Amazon patented predictive stocking in 2014, and saying that AI, machine learning, and personalization technologies have improved since then is an understatement. Retailers require to use Artificial intelligence and the machines not only to predict how to stock stores and staff shifts but also to dynamically recommend products and set prices that appeal to individual consumers.
1.1.3 Global positioning System
With the help of GPS, we are able to hit the road for long-distance drives and trips. GPS was invented in north America. According to Random House (2018), Global Positioning System (GPS) is a worldwide system of America navigational satellites developed to provide precise positional and velocity data and global time synchronization for air, sea, and land travel. Kapoor (2010) claims that GPS can utilize the voice of Artificial intelligence to give clear instructions about small turns and lanes. In addition, the voice of AI will create the sense of someone sitting next to the driver, which can provide relaxation to the travelers.
1.2 benefits the businessArtificial Intelligence is widely employed by financial institutions and banking institutions to organize and manage data. Artificial intelligence has provided enormous proceeds for financial institutions and banking institutions. Mills (2017) analyzes that by 2030, ?with the developing of technology?Artificial intelligence has the potentiality to provide 15.7 trillion dollars to the global economy. People will encounter the influence of AI on the economy every day. Think of all those times Amazon recommended a book to you or Netflix suggested a film or TV show. Those recommendations are based on algorithms that examine what you’ve bought or watched. The algorithms learn from those purchases, using them to suggest other things you might enjoy. Artificial intelligence lies behind those algorithms.
2. Potential risks2.1 the loss of jobs
In following fifty to one hundred years, the technology of Artificial intelligence will become increasingly mature and popular. Nevertheless, with the phenomenon that Artificial intelligence is used in industrial production and some laborious jobs, the scare stories about robots taking their jobs are bombarded by people. In other words, replacing people with machines can result in mass unemployment. Forbes (2018) claims that unemployment is a socially undesirable phenomenon, the replacement of humans with machines can bring about a large scale unemployment. Robots will truly destroy the jobs in the future. According to Shewan (2017), on the foundation of a survey of the masses in the United States, most of them hold the optimism bias about this phenomenon while approximately two-thirds of Americans believe that robots will inevitably perform most of the work currently done by people during the next 50 years, about 80 percent also believe their current jobs will either “definitely” or “probably” exist in their current form within the same timeframe. Somehow, people believe that their livelihoods and jobs will be safe. Nevertheless, people are actually wrong: every commercial sector will be affected by robotic automation in the next several years. For example, Australian company Fastbrick Robotics has developed a robot, which named the Hadrian X, can lay 1,000 standard bricks in one hour – a task that would take two human bricklayers the better part of a day or longer to complete, center499649claims Shewan (2017).
Picture 2, the jobs that are most at risk, Hayley Peterson, 2015
As the graph shows, the public is generally believed that the loan officers, receptionists, information clerks, paralegals and legal assistants and retail salespersons are most likely to be replaced by artificial intelligence and the probability of them are over ninety while lawyer is the most impossible job for Artificial intelligence to replace and the percentage of it is less than 5 percent.
2.2 impacts to creativityArtificial intelligence is the fruit that human intelligence bears. With the additional exploration and progress of technology, artificial intelligence has been able to engage in some creative jobs that require a lot of reflections and logical thinking, such as lawyers, teachers, and gardeners. However, the dependence to Artificial intelligence may affect human creativity, Reddy (2016) states that if the use of robots becomes frequent and rampant, humans may unnecessarily be highly dependent on the Artificial intelligence. The creators of AI will lose their ingenuity and will become lazy. Besides, if humans start thinking in a destructive way, they can create havoc with these machines.
2.3 devastating behaviorsIn the wrong hands, artificial intelligence can be programmed to do devastating behaviors. For example, kidnapping and murder, which would not only disturb the normal lives of people but also bring panic to the public. It seems plausible to people that highly advanced artificial intelligence systems could potentially be used for social control, such as machine learning could potentially be used by governments to efficiently analyze vast amounts of data collected through surveillance. Because AI has the potential to become more intelligent than any human, we have no surefire way of predicting how it will behave, scientific advisor Dario Amodei suggested to the public that this may be one of the most understudied and serious risks of advanced AI, though also potentially among the most challenging to address.
3. Discussion of performance and malpractice3.1 high effectivity vs high costMachines, unlike humans, do not require frequent breaks and refreshments. They are programmed for long hours and can continuously perform without getting bored or distracted or even tired, according to Reddy (2016?.Hill (2017) claims that the increase in easier-to-use machine learning tools, and the continuous expansion of data monitoring will make Artificial intelligence more efficient to complete the mission. Without the high effectivity of AI, an ordinary investigation or research, might require many human hours and thousands of documents, and even more. According to DORFMAN (2018), there is a phenomenon that currently, robots are not only working faster and more reliably than their human counterparts but also performing tasks beyond human capability altogether, such as microscopically precise assembly. The appearance is also an embodiment of the efficiency in work of Artificial intelligence. As a result, Artificial intelligence today is a huge benefit to society because it enhances our efficiency, while creating new opportunities for revenue generation and saving the cost.
However, Artificial intelligence is a very complex machine, the choiceness performance of artificial intelligence also means that the cost of its production will be very high. For example, these robots require regular maintenance and repair, which will cost money. Forbes?2018?analyzes that with AI spending expected to reach 46 billion dollors by 2020, according to an IDC report, there is no sign of the technology slowing down. According to Reddy?2016?, Artificial intelligence will have software programs, which demand frequent up gradation to cater to the requirements of the changing environment and the need for the machines to be smarter by the day. In addition, in the case of severe breakdowns, the procedure to recover lost codes and re-instating the system might require huge time and cost.
ConclusionThe aim of paper is to help public understand the beneficial aspects and potential risks of Artificial intelligence in daily application in north America. Another purpose of the research is assisting the public in making rational application of the beneficial aspects of artificial intelligence and preventing the phenomenon that the gossips hinder the normal development of Artificial intelligence when it is widely applicated in daily life. In addition, while the disadvantages of Artificial intelligence are not serious enough for people to be afraid and withstand it, but this article will also give some warnings on the potential risks: be careful when enjoying the benefits of Artificial intelligence, they also have possible dangers, which have to be guarded against
A further understanding of Artificial intelligence is essential for the public. Artificial intelligence is the combination of some beneficial aspects and potential risks. This dissertation has depicted some profits and possible hazards of Artificial intelligence in daily application. Firstly, the profits of AI include a palpable handy life such as the application of Siri and Cortana, a prediction of shopping trends and the GPS, and the contribution to economic growth. Further, the treatise will relate and analyze the latent dangers of the robots: the risks of unemployment and the reduction of creativity AI caused. Ultimately, it will also make a proper analysis on the debate of the excellence and shortcoming of the Artificial intelligence.
As the technology developing expeditious, Artificial intelligence has attained a golden period of development. Under the general situation that the public hold the ignorance and unwillingness attitudes towards Artificial intelligence, although AI is ubiquitous in daily life, many people still resist to understand it, be scared of the development of Artificial intelligence and believed that it would lead to the destruction of human civilization, the change of dominant between human and robots. However, these are incomplete and exaggerated guesses. Additionally, in the long run this prejudice on AI will have a negative impact on the development of it. In fact, Artificial intelligence has many beneficial aspects in daily application and some certain controllable potential risks. As a result, it is essential to have a further understanding of Artificial intelligence, which will assist people in not only take full advantage but also avoid the potential risks of them. Overall, Artificial intelligence requires to be treated in the right manner.
This research report offers the public an opportunity to fully understand the advantages and potential risks of marvelous Artificial intelligence in the usual appliance.
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