Electroencephalogram (EEG)- A test that detects electrical activity in a patients brain. Electrodes are attached to the scalp. EEGs are used to diagnose and help treat brain disorders, epilepsy, and sleep disorders to name a few. A patient would need an EEG if they have had a head injury or seizures.

Evoked Potential (EP) A test that measures electrical activity in the brain by stimulating nerve pathways. EPs are used to diagnose Multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injuries. One electrode is attached to patients scalp and another electrode is placed on the part of the body that is being tested.
Visual Evoked Potential (VEP)- A test used to evaluate a patients retinas and vision. During the procedure, surface electrodes are placed on to the cortex. The use of the information is used to compare with the data found on an Evoked Potential.

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Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP)- BAEP is used to evaluate brainstem functions non-invasively with surface electrodes using sounds. The test may be used if someone is experiencing hearing loss. During the test, electrodes will be glued to patient’s earlobe(s) or parts of the patients scalp. The patient will be asked to listen to different sounds through special headphones and follow prompts from the person conducting the test.

Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Potential (MNSEP)
Polysomnogram (PSG)- A sleep study test used for diagnosing sleep disorders. Polysomnograms will measure the stages of sleep, breathing, and activity of the brain. The patient will be asked to come in overnight typically. They’ll be in a comfortable setting with a nice bed. They will then be monitored while asleep by a technician. There are several different types of equipment used for a PSG test depending on what the patient is being tested for. Common equipment used is an EEG, video monitoring equipment, and sound probes.
Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)- The MLST is a test used to monitor excessive daytime drowsiness and sleepiness. The test is made up of five scheduled naps separated with two hour breaks in-between each nap. The patient will be in a dark and quiet room and sensors will be placed on patients head, face and chin. As soon as the lights are turned off is when the trial will begin. The technician will measure how long it takes the patient to fall asleep. If the patient hasn’t fallen asleep after 20 minutes the first round will end and the patient will have a two hour break where they will need to stay awake until the next trial begins.
Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT)- A test used to measure how alert and oriented a patient is throughout the day. This test would be used to determine whether or not a treatment is working in a patient with a sleep disorder. During the procedure, sensors are placed on patients head, chin and face. Patient will be seated in a bed and asked to follow a series or directions. The patient will be asked to stay awake as long as they can.
Nerve Conduction Study (NCS)- A nerve stimulation study. During the procedure nerves are stimulated with an electrical current and time it takes the nerve impulse to reach the muscle is recorded. A patient would have this test performed if they have been experiencing muscle weakness or muscle cramping.
Electromyogram (EMG)- A procedure used to asses muscle health and the nerve cells that control those muscles. There are a few different types of EMGs. A needle EMG is done by placing a needle electrode directly into the muscle. An EMG would be done if a patient is experiencing limb pain or numbness.

Intraoperative Monitoring (IOM)- Used to measure neural function during surgery and prevent risk of potential injury that may occur. IOM is team based and includes consulting between neurosurgeons and neurophysiologists. The procedure is using performed before and during surgery.
Long Term Monitoring (LTM)- Long term monitoring is the long term use of EEG monitoring patients. This is especially used for patients with epilepsy. They are hooked up to an EEG machine for a continuous amount of time to record.

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