Egypt is a country of “everyday piety”. The main religion of Egypt is Islam. The overwhelming majority of the population (95%) proclaims Sunni Islam. Several thousand people are Shiites. Some of them are Sufis. Modern Sufis of Egypt are young, educated men who are building their professional careers.
The central core of Islam is the belief in the unity of God, whose truths were revealed through the prophet Muhammad. Recognition of this basic profession of faith is one of the five pillars of religion. The other four are Ramadan, a pilgrimage to Mecca, five daily prayers and alms giving.
For many Muslims, these five pillars are summed up into a belief system and implemented in practice. The Egyptians often refer to the concept of God and his power. Any statement about the future contains a prohibition, the phrase “God will give” is often used, showing that the final solution of the question depends on the will of God.
In ancient Egypt there were a very large number of gods. Each city had its own pantheon or ennead – the 9 main deities that people worshiped. However, for the first time such an ennead appeared in the city of Heliopolis (Heliopolis). It has been known since the time of the Early Kingdom, that is, from the sources of Egyptian civilization.
This is the supreme ancient Egyptian deity. It represented the sun. After the creation of the world, Ra began to reign over him, and this was the most gracious time for people. The power of God was in his mysterious name. Other celestials wanted to know this name in order to obtain the same strength, but the sun god did not tell anyone.
This deity personified an air space illuminated by the sun. Shu was the son of Ra, and when he ascended into heaven, he began to reign instead of him. He ruled the sky, the earth, the mountains, the winds, the seas
This deity also belonged to the main gods of Ancient Egypt. Tefnut – the goddess of heat and moisture.
Geb is the god of the earth, son of Shu and Tefnut. He married his own sister Nut – the goddess of heaven – and this couple had children: Osiris, Isis, Seth, Nephthys.
She lifted the dead into the sky and guarded the tombs of the dead. It was portrayed as a woman with a curved body.
The Goddess Isis
Isis (Isis) was extremely popular in ancient Egypt, was considered the goddess of fertility, symbolized motherhood and femininity. She was the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus. The Egyptians believed that the Nile flooded when Isis crying, mourning Osiris, who left her and left to rule the kingdom of the dead.
The largest Christian community in the Middle East – Coptic Christians in Egypt, consider themselves not as a cultural or ethnic minority, but by the Egyptians, whose ancestors, the pre-Arab population of Egypt adopted Christianity in the first centuries.
Also in Egypt are very common associations of mystics (Sufi brotherhoods). These groups of men, under the leadership of the sheikh or hierarchy of the sheiks, are directed to help their brethren achieve allegorical experience of union with God. This mystical experience is often achieved through collective rituals
It is not surprising then that there were over 2,000 deities in the Egyptian pantheon. Some of these deities’ names are well known: Isis, Osiris, Horus, Amun, Ra, Hathor, Bastet, Thoth, Anubis, and Ptah while many others less so.
Rituals and holy places
Rituals are an integral part of the religious consciousness of Egypt. These are important practical manifestations of religion, which make clear dissimilitude between Muslims and Christians. Egyptians celebrate the ceremony of naming the baby on the name within a week.
It is a mixture of Islamic and Coptic “traditional” elements, and this is basically a family holiday, which is organized to include a newborn in the family. All boys are circumcised, usually in infancy, and girls, as a rule, are also “circumcised” before they reach puberty.
Although the shape of the female genitalia varies, polls show that about 97 percent of Egyptian women, both Christians and Muslims, are not circumcised. Marriage is one of the main agreement of Egyptian culture. For Muslims, this is considered a contract, the signing of which later entails a major family celebration. For Christians, the sacrament takes place in the church, as a rule, it follows the same day on a family celebration.