Gambling has effects on students in Kenya. It affects the students from the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. The effects are both positive and negative. According to the business dictionary (2018) it defines gambling as betting that result either in gain or loss. It is neither risk taking in the sense of speculation nor investing. The purpose of this essay is to create awareness on the effects of gambling on students in Kenya and put forth the solution to it. The target audiences for this essay are the tutors, students and adults who are parents. This essay will focus on the causes of gambling, positive and negative effects and solutions and finally conclusion.

Gambling is addictive and destructive therefore, there should be strict rule and regulations to prohibit students from engaging in it.

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Gambling on students is caused by the following factors;
Parent influence is an interpersonal factor that causes student’s gambling. A student that gambles is lucky to have parents who gamble too. The social acceptability of gambling has certainly impacted the students gambling. Some parents engage their children in gambling by buying them lottery tickets, ruffles for fundraisers and joint draw tickets. They also assist in gambling on electronic gambling machines, the internet and casino games. This makes the students not even to fear their parents when analyzing games.

Peer pressure is another cause that influences students to gamble. This is an equally important role in shaping wide range of behavior played by friends and peers. Having peers being influential in drugs and alcohol use, cigarette smoking and other potential risks, gambling behaviors is unexceptional. The peers and friends in the school institutions influence each other to gamble. This may be dangerous if not monitored closely because it begins as social enjoyment, and exciting activity actually can get out of hand and become problematic

Marketing is also another factor that causes students to gamble whereby by the use of some marketing efforts that use various forms of media such as televisions and radio commercials, billboards and other signage, sponsorship arrangement and promotional products has endorsed gambling opportunities for the youths or students, since they are equally exposed to the same messages as adults. Other gambling sites promises incentives when one places certain amount to bet therefore are encouraging most students to keep gambling.

The spread of internet gambling has further made access to gambling a global phenomenon and an activity that can be undertaken anywhere where the internet connections are established (Griffiths and Barnes 2008). Interactive gambling through mobile phones, the internet and digital television allows the delivery of gambling services to the homes of consumers (the Allen Consulting group 2009) this is actually the cause to student gambling because students have smart phones and internet connections in the school premises.

Certain personality traits are thought to contribute to problem gambling. Students who are likely to have gambling problems appear to exhibit less ability to self-regulate their behavior, tend to be more impulsive, easily distractible, self-indulgent and had considerable difficulty in conforming to rules while excluding the impression that they are care free sociable and happy. This personality characteristic is assumed to have really influenced the behavior of gambling.
Enjoyment and excitement is another cause where most students gamble just for enjoyment or just to have fun. This is the reason certain students continue to gamble in spite of their repeated loses. Individuals keep gambling in order to achieve the same level of excitement and enjoyment but in order to maintain the same level of excitement students need to continually increase their bets size. This indicates the primary reason why students gamble.PERSONALITYSEX

Financial factors
Gambling to win money is the cause for gambling. Gambling by its very own nature involves risking money in order to make more money. That reason that individual gamble is because there is an opportunity to win money. The students engage themselves in gambling with the hope to win more or get more money in return. They persistently gamble even after losing the odds. After winning they end up chasing the money that they have lost with the money they have gotten from the previous games.

Environmental factors
Environmental factor is also another cause whereby levels of gambling participation have increased due to accessibility and availability of gaming venues. There is a high presence of gambling opportunity exposure in the popularity among the students, accounting for the increasing number of individuals who have gambled. It is important to understand that gambling problem does not result from single trial learning but from the repeated excess, exposure and engagement with ever increasing availability and accessibility of gambling especially in the context of internet and mobile gambling.

Availability of gaming machines also cause the students to gamble because students who are likely to play for long times, reinvest their winning and leave only when all the money has been gambled away. Long opening hours ensure a person will have plenty of time to gamble, since there are no restrictions and no limits imposed. Gambling machines are considered one of the main factor that contribute to excessive gambling related problem (kweitel and Allen, 1998, productivity commission 2009), because of the large number of people who gamble and the easy access to gambling machines in community venue.

Societal influence
Societal influence is yet another cause where gabling continue to gain acceptance as a socially acceptable charitable form of entertainment because gambling revenues have shown to be lucrative source of funds for government, charities and business. It is therefore really expanding and students tend to gamble because the conservative attitude towards gambling has been modified and other gambling sites do not limit those who are under age from gambling..

The following are the positive effects of gambling
Socialization and interaction
Gambling has positive effects to students. Students, finds gambling to be form of therapy. It is a place for them to socialize and interact with fellow students and meet with other new people at the gambling venues. It alleviates their loneliness or feeling of uselessness when they are way from school and it makes them have something to do than engaging in other criminal activities and avoiding bad groups.
For the students, gambling can make students relax from a hard day’s schoolwork. I9f they are tired, Students are able to think and do well when they have relaxed. Friends will have time for each other when they engage themselves in gambling. It can take their mind off the pressures that they have. Any card game can be a fun if played with the friends. Also, it is an activity for friends, who want to get together. While playing they can have good conversation and socialize.

The negative effects of gambling on students in Kenya are as follows:
Financial problems
Financial problems is where ‘the more you gamble, the more you lose’ with repeated playing, most students with gambling problems no matter how much they are smart or see themselves intelligent they ultimately lose all their money. Individuals are forced to acquire more money in order for them to continue gambling. This may lead to students start selling their personal possessions, using all their savings, borrowing money from those who are close to them under false excuses from them. Though some students when the money is depleted they completely stop gambling while for others the need and urge to continue is too great and go to any length to get money to maintain their gambling.

Gambling causes Psychological problems which are discussed below:
Depression and mood disorder is a negative effect where the persistent gambler has increased levels of disorder and depressive symptoms. It is unclear whether students who persistently gamble are depressed as a result of gambling or the depression cause them to gamble as a way of coping up with depressed mood. For some students the depression may have resulted in excessive gabling in order to relieve depression while for others there have been few signs of depression before individual gambling became excessive.

Suicide ideation and attempt is another effect of gambling this is due to huge debts, perceived insurmountable problems and high rates of depression, the students decide to contemplate suicide as an alternative to address their gambling related problems. It is not uncommon for students to have suicidal thought as a result of depression. This incident is highest among students’ problem gamblers.

Criminal behaviors is also another effect according to Blaszczynski and Sivole (1996) noted that criminal behaviors among students and adolescent gamblers may be more prevalent than among adults gamblers, in part because youths have few options for obtaining funds and greater susceptibility to social pressure among gambling peers.

Lower academic achievement is commonly associated with gabling problems. It leads to the absences and lateness to class due to individuals becoming preoccupied with gambling. There are left thinking about next episode of gambling and experiencing negative emotional consequences in response to losses therefore leading to achieving poor performance in school.

Substance use or abuse is also an effect since most students who are involved in gambling are associated with drug abuse, alcohol abuse and smoking. Students who seek treatment for alcohol also have the gambling problem. Those students with gambling addiction have a higher activation of the reward areas in the brain and these are similar areas of the brain where are involved in alcohol use disorders.
Finally antisocial is another negative effect on students. Students with gambling problem have a tendency to be preoccupied with their gambling, gambling trip or planning their next gambling activity, lying to their parents and friends, and become obsessed with obtaining increasing amount of money with which to gamble. They thereby distance themselves from friends and family and putting all concentration on gambling therefore losing more friends.

Solutions for gambling
In order for student gambler to reduce opportunities for gambling they should organize their daily and weekly activities well by coming up with the activity scheduling. They should go home or to the hostels in the way that they avoid gambling venues and they should also not do their social activities at the gambling venues. They should also ensure that their leisure time is occupied by other activities like watching inspirational movies, help in the house chores and listening to inspiring shows.

Students who gamble should avoid social interaction with peers or family members who do not support their desire to stop gambling. Instead in situations that there no opportunities for gambling they should interact with them. This will help them stop gambling since it does not stop immediately they should try as much as possible to avoid those who are likely to influence them again in to gambling activities, otherwise if they keep interacting with those who still want to continue gambling they will find themselves falling into gambling again.

Financial management can be useful since the behavioral temptation to gamble is often triggered by the availability of money. Financial obligation should if possible be met by using direct debit systems or other similar means. Students should genuinely ask for money that they need to do shopping for themselves. This will help them have just enough money to maintain them and control their finances on the other hand. They can also keep extra money in the bank if possible so that they don’t end up having extra cash in their pockets.

Self-exclusion is another way of solving gambling problems. Where the students have registered themselves as members of gambling venues they should ask for themselves to be excluded. This will help them reduce the temptations of gamble. They will also think of some high charges it will cost them when they are not members and since they have been excluded they will try as they can to avoid the gambling venues.

Pre-commitment should be done for those students who wish to try gambling. They should first attempt controlled gambling and be taught how to set budget before they commence gambling. This will help them know how to set budget for themselves. In order to avoid the temptation to draw out further money they should carry only the amount that is affordable to the gambling venues. This will help them not to lose a lot of money that they were not to lose at gambling venues which will end up making them have the financial problems.
Students should avoid triggers and cues which influence them to gamble. In order for students to stop gambling they should avoid the gambling related stimuli during daily life they should stop reading form guides, looking on the internet for gambling sites or promotions and even stop reacting to advertisements for gambling on televisions, radios, billboards and other marketing medias. This will help them stop gambling bit by bit and finally they will stop it completely.
Raising public awareness is another solution for students gambling where Parents, teachers, health professionals, policy makers, students themselves and the public in general need to stay informed about the risk factors and consequences in order to help youths or students avoid and overcome gambling problem because the more the society understands about the short and long-term consequences of disordered gambling, the more likely it will be viewed as an important public health concern.

Rebuilding healthy interpersonal relationships is again the solution that will help students to stop gambling. In order to help students with gambling problems to abstain from engaging in it family members peers and other important people in the students life can become essential support and can take active role in preventing relapse. Students with gambling problem will be happier and more apt to abstain from gambling and feel sense of belonging to peer groups and are supported by friends and family. The process of rebuilding in long though and met with partial success.

To conclude, strict rules and regulations should be put forward so that it can prevent students from being addicted to gambling. Institution should develop advisory committees to advice and counsel the students on the effects of gambling in the long run so as to reduce the number of disorders in the institutions and get higher grades from the students.

Blaszczynski and Sivole (1996): in Richard, D. C. S., Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (Eds.). (2013). the wiley-blackwell handbook of disordered gambling. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Derevensky, J. L. (2015). Teen gambling: understanding a growing epidemic. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Derevensky, J. L., Merrick, J., Shek, D. T. L., & Gainsbury, S. (Eds.). (2011). Youth gambling: the hidden addiction. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Fabiansson, C. (2010). Pathways to excessive gambling: a societal perspective on youth and adult gambling pursuits. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Griffiths and Barnes (2008) and the Allen Consulting group 2009: in Fabiansson, C. (2010). Pathways to excessive gambling: a societal perspective on youth and adult gambling pursuits. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Kweitel and Allen, 1998, productivity commission (2009): National R. C. S. (1999). Pathological gambling: a critical; review. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

National R. C. S. (1999). Pathological gambling: a critical; review. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Richard, D. C. S., Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (Eds.). (2013). the wiley-blackwell handbook of disordered gambling. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Griffiths and Barnes (2008) and the Allen Consulting group 2009: in Fabiansson, C. (2010). Pathways to excessive gambling: a societal perspective on youth and adult gambling pursuits. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com


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