Effective communication has a requirement of 4 main skills: Engaged listening, nonverbal communication, managing stress in the moment and asserting yourself in a respectful way. This applies in a given situation where you’re trying to improve your communication skills with your husband/wife, kids, boss, or just people in general. Learning these skills are vital to ensure and maintain a healthy relationship with others, as well as building greater trust and respect, improved teamwork, easier problem solving, and bringing an improvement to your overall social and emotional health.
Having effective communication skills in a health and social care setting such as a care home, hospital and/or hospice, is very important as the bond that a patient feels with his or her clinician can ultimately improve or worsen their health mediated through participation in their care.
Interpersonal interaction is a broad term that defines how people relate to each other. This term is often used to ask potential hires how good they are at operating in a team environment. Interpersonal interaction consists of communication skills, body language, tone, listening skills and any other verbal or non-verbal communication.
Interaction is between individuals. It may involve words, gestures, sounds, drawings, touch and smell. This interaction may apply to the people that have a hearing deficiency and therefore look to BSL to communicate, or a visually impaired person who needs to use BRAILLE to convey a message and/or interact with another individual.
Communication is the exchange of a verbal or non-verbal message. This may be carried out in 2 ways:
Non- verbal: Touch, facial expressions, gestures, letters.
Verbal: speech, writing, clarity, tone, pitch.

One-to-one communication is when two individuals are interacting with each other, for example, a doctor discussing medical issues to a patient in a GP surgery.
Group communication is communication between 3 – 20 people. For example, an AA meeting for substance abuse.
Small group communication, as well as large group communication include a group larger than that. For example, a lecture hall of 300 students or a theatre production with an audience of 3,000.
In a Health and Social Care setting, non-verbal communication is important, this refers to the body language being used by the nurse/doctor when speaking to the patient. This should be professional: Facing the patient, arms unfolded and eye contact to ensure a smooth flow of conversation.
In a Health and Social Care setting, verbal communication is just as important, as this is how a message is received and understood. It is important to speak clearly to the patient and make sure that as well as understanding them, you are asking enough questions to ensure that they understand you too. For example, prescribing a patient a medication and asking them if they understand the times and side effects they will have when taking their medicine.
Formal communication is when a type of verbal presentation or document that is intended to pass on information which is then used to establish professional rules, standards and processes that avoid using slang terminology. Yo, Wag1, Neva dat, Fam, Ting. In a health and social care setting, the nurse/doctor would have to speak very clearly and avoid using slang and/or difficult vocabulary with the patient so that they remain on-track throughout the conversation.
Informal Communication is the casual and unofficial form of communication where information is exchanged between two or more people without conforming to the prescribed official rules, processes, system, formalities or chain of command. For example, in a Health and Social Care setting, If, when the patient enters the room, and is greeted by the doctor saying, “Wag1 bruva how’s it going?” It would not be surprising if the patient was confused and offended by the doctor’s choice of communication. This is because the use of informal language may be seen as being impolite, and using slang/jargon with someone other than friends or family, or even someone who doesn’t understand the meaning behind it, may cause conflict.
Types of speech:
Jargon: This a literary term that has specific phrases/ words that are used to convey hidden meanings accepted and understood in a certain field. Jargon is mainly used in Gangs and group chats. It is important NOT to choose this as a choice of communication, particularly when speaking to a patient or someone at a higher position Your Boss this is because there is a possibility that the message will not be understood and either side may take it to offense as it is highly un-professional.

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special occasion: This is a formal type of speech, most likely rehearsed and planned in advance.
Communication and language needs and preferences:

BSL: For someone who needs BSL, proximity, body language and gestures are very important. This is because the patient has a hearing deficiency and depends on sign language and other gestures to carry out a conversation. In a Health and Social Care setting, it is crucial that BSL is done correctly, for example if a doctor is prescribing a medicine/treatment, the message must be clear so that the patients’ health and safety is not put at risk.

Braille: Braille Is a 3D keyboard created for blind people. This keyboard has its own alphabet, numbers and style of writing. Braille would be used in a school so that a child doesn’t miss out on learning opportunities and continues to learn.

Objects of Reference: these are objects which have special meanings assigned to them. They were initially used for blind and those with dual sensory impairment. This was done by providing information through touch, being easier to interpret than pictures for those with visual perceptual problems being a concrete object linked to the symbolic words in language, remaining in place giving time to process. Some blind young people at RNIB Pears use this system effectively to make requests. In one-to-one time to choose an activity: play a music CD/sing a song/have a story read. By requesting the object container and selecting an object to make a request.

Finger spelling: Fingerspelling is the representation of the letters of a writing system, and sometimes numeral systems, using only the hands. These manual alphabets, have often been used in deaf education, and have subsequently been adopted as a distinct part of several sign languages; there are about forty manual alphabets around the world.
Communication passports: Personal Communication Passports are a practical and person-centred way of supporting children, young people and adults who cannot easily speak for themselves. Passports are a way of pulling complex information together and presenting it in an easy-to-follow format. Personal Communication Passports are a way of making out the important things about a child and/or adult, in an accessible and person-centred way, and to support an individual’s transition between services. The decision to create and use a Passport gives a clear focus for ongoing home/school liaison, partnership working with families, and for interdisciplinary collaboration.

Human and technological aids: Technological aids support effective communication by enabling individuals to understand and interact with people around them. If you’re unable to use a telephone, textphones can help you to stay in touch with loved ones. They have a keyboard and a display screen for text, allowing for live, one-to-one text-based conversations. They’re particularly useful if you’re profoundly deaf or have a hearing loss which means you find it hard to hear a spoken telephone call.

Variations between cultures: Cultural variation refers to the differences in social behaviours that different cultures exhibit around the world. What may be considered good etiquette in one culture may be considered bad etiquette in another. There are many differences between the various cultures across the planet. These differences include the way people interact, what they wear and what they eat. Many cultural differences can be explained by the environment and resources of the region. For example, Japanese people eat more fish than residents of the United States because fishing is far more practical than raising land animals in Japan. Cultural variations become obvious when put side by side in large multicultural cities.


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