CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODELS AND APPROACHES
Today Curriculum development is exposed to many different pressures to respond to demands in labour markets and in society at large. It’s a vital component in the educational process and its scope is exceptionally broad, and it involves nearly everyone who is involved with teaching and learning process. Its function is to research, plan, and prepare the content and methods that will be taught during instruction to achieve the desired outcomes (Kranthi, 2017).
A curriculum is considered as the “heart” of any learning institution which means that without a curriculum, an institution or schools cannot be exist. With consideration to importance of curriculum in formal education, the curriculum has become a dynamic process due to the dynamic nature of the labour market and our society. Therefore, curriculum is refers to the “total learning experiences of individuals not only in school but society as well” in a broadest sense (Alvior ; Mary G., 2014; Kranthi, 2017).

Definitions of curriculum are almost as numerous as the definition themselves. The definition of the Curriculum, appears to be the product of a relatively recent attempt by the curriculum studies discipline to establish its premises, and a close with extensive association with schooling or, more precisely, compulsory education(Billett, 2011).

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The term “Curriculum” is defined by Marsh and Willis (1995) as a “learning experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by instructors, and also learned by the students”. The term usually describes some purposeful order of instruction, or views of students’ skills in consider to instructional aims of the institutions or their professors. An effective curriculum should be meaningful, coherent, articulated, aligned, and promotes high standards for all students(Glatthorn, Carr, and Harris, 2001). Curriculum might cover intentional interaction of students with instructional content and educational resources as well as steps for evaluation of educational aims accomplishment.

The meaning of the term “Curriculum” is found in Latin word currere, which means to run, to hasten, to fly, to run through or traverse. Furthermore, it also used as a neuter noun meaning course or lap. In other hand it can aslo mean running or race, the course of learning(Marsh & Willis, 1995), and even ‘the course of life’.

(Skilbeck, 1990) state that, “Curriculum is referred to the learning experiences of students, insofar as they are expressed or anticipated in goals objectives, plans and designs for learning and the implementation of these plans and designs in school environments”.

Furthermore, Quicke (1999), state that “Curriculum provides a framework for learning. It suggests that for all the things that could be learned these particular things have the most value; and it does this with reference to the educational needs of the students to be taught and the social and political context in which teaching and learning take place.”

Less is known about how faculty and instructor members engage in curriculum development and how their ways of engaging are related to their understandings of curriculum, and their teaching and research experiences. State curriculum standards currently play a major role in schools and how the curriculum is developed. Curriculum development resources provide the necessary resources for teachers to plan and prepare curricula that can meet the standards set by each state. First, the school curriculum, particularly in higher education, must be developed to preserve the country’s national identity and to ensure its economy’s growth and stability(Kranthi, 2017).
If universities have curricular programs that are innovative and in demand in the local or global markets, many students even from foreign countries will enroll. Hence, curriculum development matters a lot in setting the direction of change in an organization, not only at the micro but also at macro levels. As long as the goals and objectives of curriculum development are clear in the planner’s mind, cutting-edge achievements in various concerns can be realized(Kranthi, 2017).
Teacher autonomy is a very important consideration in recognizing teaching as a profession and developing professional teachers. If teachers are to be empowered and considered as professional individuals in the society, they must authorized and have the power and freedom in their professional practice(Pearson ; Moomaw, 2005; Webb, 2002). It is important and necessary that the instructors are given the possibility to adapt the curricula in line with their own teaching context, so that they can participate actively and effectively to curriculum reform efforts(Johns, 2002).

There are social and personal dimensions to consideration of what constitutes vocational education. Decisions about what constitutes vocational education and how it might best proceed, need to be understood and evaluated from societal, situational and personal levels(Billett, 2011).

To understand and articulate clearly what constitutes the dimensions of curriculum for vocational education, an extensive perspective of curriculum is required, than the one that is just associated with achieving the intended outcomes of an educational institution.

The curriculum could be designed in a strict form, or might leave some space for teacher’s or students’ autonomy. The curriculum is not always restricted to some formal document and materials (i.e. syllabus, and education achievement), but could also have some latent form. In order to consider and appraise curriculum provisions for vocational institutions, curriculum concept could be viewed from three different perspectives which are intended, enacted, and experienced curriculum(Billett, 2011).

Beyond what is intended or the goals of the institution (intended curriculum), what is enacted by teachers and others in the educational institutions or outside them (enacted curriculum), is ultimately something which is experienced by the educators or students (experienced curriculum). Thus, rather than definitions of curriculum focusing on achieving the goal of the sponsors or institutions that provide these experiences, curriculum is something experienced by students.

Curriculum can be seen as having qualities associated with intentions, implementation and as experiences. So there is what is intended or planned (i.e. the intended curriculum – syllabus, goals for learning and outcomes, what teachers plan), what happens when the curriculum is implemented (i.e. the enacted curriculum) and also what learners experience as a result of its implementation (i.e. the experienced curriculum).

Together, these three components of curriculum offer a basis for understanding and illuminating what constitutes a comprehensive account of curriculum for vocational education(Billett, 2011).

I. Intended Curriculum (Explicit Curriculum)
II. Enacted Curriculum (Implicit Curriculum)
III. Experienced Curriculum(Hidden Curriculum)
Intended Curriculum

I. Intended Curriculum (Explicit Curriculum)

A set of objectives which are specified at the beginning of any particular curricular plan which established the goal, the specific purpose, and objectives of an institutions to be accomplished.

Often lead to the production of a document (i.e. syllabus) that states the educational aims and goals to be realized, including what and how should be taught, how to assess it and to what standard. This process often involves engaging representatives (stakeholders) from industry for better standardization of the syllabus and guiding enactment of the curriculum.

II. Enacted Curriculum (Implicit Curriculum)

It comprise what is actually implement from educational perspectives, and it refers to the various learning activities, experiences or experiences of the learners in order to achieve the intended curriculum.

It includes factors(including: the kinds of workplaces or practice settings available for students whiting the location of the program, where these students can find support, guidance, and access to particular kinds of experiences) that shape how the curriculum are enacted and experiences provide for learners.

It also includes part of the ‘hidden curriculum’ – which was not directly intended by instructor, but happened nonetheless.

Teacher’s decisions about the particular approaches to select and enact in the educational environment are fundamental and significant. Therefore, in terms of learning, beyond what is intended and enacted by the institutions, it’s very important to know what students achieved, experienced and learned from the program.

III. Experienced Curriculum(Hidden Curriculum)

It discuss about the outcome of the learning or how the students are learned, and engage with those which are prepared and enacted for theme by their institutions. It, refer to the curriculum outcomes, based on the first two type of curriculum. This an effective curriculum reside in what students experience as well as set of experiences which is implement by teachers.

To avoid the conflict between Intended and enacted curriculum in the vocational ICT education context, local job market needs and global qualification frameworks for ICT should be taken in to consideration in the conceptualization, design, and implementation phases of the curriculum development process.

To Review:
*Technology Horizon 006
** Curriculum Development Windows on practice Guide | Curr Devt

Curriculum Definition from Progressivism Point of View


https://simplyeducate.me/author/mary/
*** Curriculum Development | A2202030105

Bibliography
Alvior, ; Mary G. (2014). The Meaning and Importance of Curriculum Development – SimplyEducate.Me. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://simplyeducate.me/2014/12/13/the-meaning-and-importance-of-curriculum-development/
Billett, S. (2011). Vocational Education in Prospect. Vocational Education, 229–249. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1954-5
Glatthorn, A. A., Carr, J. F., ; Harris, D. E. (2001). Curriculum Handbook. Alexandria: VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Johns, D. P. (2002). Changing curriculum policy into practice: the case of physical education in Hong Kong. Curriculum Journal, 13(3), 361–385.
Kranthi, K. (2017). Curriculum Development. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 22(02). https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-2202030105
Marsh, C. J., ; Willis, G. (1995). Curriculum: Alternative approaches, ongoing issues. Englewood Cliffs: NJ: Merrill.
Pearson, L. C., ; Moomaw, W. (2005). The relationship between teacher autonomy and stress, work satisfaction, empowerment, and professionalism. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(1), 37.
Quicke, J. (1999). A curriculum for life: Schools for a democratic learning society. Open University Press.
Skilbeck, M. (1990). School based curriculum development. SAGE.
Webb, P. T. (2002). Teacher power: The exercise of professional autonomy in an era of strict accountability. Teacher Development, 6(1), 47–62.
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Quicke, J. (1999). A curriculum for life: Schools for a democratic learning society. Open University Press.

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