Community based watershed management practices in Dewa Cheffa district can be effective strategy for sustainable managements of degraded catchments for improving the productivity rate of the farmlands, to improve the micro climate of the area, to protect the downstream community’s farmland, residential area and other properties, to improve the biodiversity of the watershed etc.
This study discovered that the respondent’s knowledge of CBWSM have a positive relationship with the level of farmer’s attitude towards community based watershed management. The overall farmer’s knowledge of WSM in the study area was relatively low. Thus, more effort is required for WSM practices to deliver information on WSM to promote communities participation. The widely used WSM practices in the study area were the champagne form of WS management system. However, due to different reason many farmers do not show voluntary to accept the system to participate actively. Around 74% of the respondents replied their participation were without the willingness of the community. Beside to this in the study area there are different challenges that are affected the sustainability of the WS like free grazing, illegal farmland expansion, deforestation, lack of community participation in different WS development phases, lack of equal distribution of the natural resources that are produced in the WS etc. In general, the existing watershed development practices in the district were the top down approach.
5.3. Recommendations
Watershed development has a vital role for managing different natural resources like the soil, water, vegetation, animals and the likes. In addition to this proper management of watershed helps to improve the micro and macroclimate conditions, soil fertility rate, increase production, reduced flood hazards etc. However, now a day due to a rapid incremental of the demographic rates many areas become degraded and many useful and endemic plant and animals become disappeared from our world. The soil fertility rate of most farmland also decreased as the same time the amount of production per hectare also severely decreased time to time. So, for this big problems integrated watershed management is one of the best and feasible strategies to achieve well-developed and rehabilitated WS. Therefore, the researcher recommended that all communities should participate in all phases of the WS development procedures. Because this helps to build sense of ownerships of the farmers on the WS and the communities initiated to implement the watershed development practices. The annual implementation plan must be prepared from the grass root level or prepared by the sub-watershed committees and discussed with the total communities. Even though champagne form of watershed development programs helps to cover a large areas of the WS and to mobilize many people the concerned body should be convinced the communities by making deep discussion with the local people concerning the importance of champagne and their results. Besides, to this the champagne leads by good coordination system.
To ensuring sustainable WS the district agricultural office and other governmental and NGOs, provide different training, workshop, field visit for the farmers representatives. Both the district and kebele’s development agents should be disseminate different scientific and wildly accepted technology through effective extension system. In addition to this, all stockholders make strong effort to improve the educational background of the WS communities. Because as the survey result indicates 65% of the watershed community’s were illiterate. The other thing is ensuring of equitable share of natural resources that are found in the WS. Most of the time those who are poor farmers they did not participate in dividing of resources rather than participating in WS development champagne.

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