CHAPTER – I
INTRODUCTION AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Education in broad sense refers to ways in which people learn skills, knowledge and develop understanding about the world and themselves. It is an integral part of the whole process of development in a person. The aim of educational endeavor is to develop one’s potentialities and innate capacities of both body and mind. At the social level the major concern of education is to enable a man to become a good and useful citizen and fulfill his rights and duties for the betterment of a nation. It is also concerned about wellness of a person by building character and inculcating values in life.
Education illuminates our minds and hearts and transforms us. It is a continuous development of physical, intellectual and spiritual potentialities. According to Pestalozzi (1994), education is natural, harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers. Education is not only imparting knowledge to the students but shaping and moulding the behaviour of the students too.
Today in the modern world due to globalization and technological advancement education has become a necessity for every person. The recent developments in the area of information and communication technology have widely influenced the methods to impart education. In this changing scenario a student has to regulate his or her learning. In this process friendship could be of great help to the students as they turn back to their friends and companions in the times of difficulties. A friend likes to consult and take help from his friends when he has problems related to academics and life. If friends help one another in study matters in study groups the difficult concepts become easy to learn. Friendship can give a new direction to learning habits of friends. It can shape, regulate and upgrade the study habits of friends. Friendship helps the students to adopt a healthy study habits which can help the students in their cognitive self-management and better academic achievement.
1.2 FRIENDSHIP
Human beings have innate need to belong. Friendship is one of the ways through which individual fulfills this need. Despite the fact that people use the term friendship in everyday context with relative ease, there are many different understandings and ideas about friendship. Individuals of all ages report being happier when they are with friends than when they are alone or with family members (Larson and Bradney 1988), and friendships are viewed as the most common source of joy (Argyle 1987). There is also considerable variation in the quality and features of relationships that people classify as friendships. This phenomenon leads to a wide range of friendships that vary in contact frequency, length, intimacy, and many other dimensions.
Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between two people. Friendship is a stronger form of interpersonal bond than an association. In the friendship two individuals share a unique bond of relationship sprouted out of mutual liking for each other, understanding, trust and commitment. Friendship is commonly referred as the voluntary and experience of mutual relationship (Bukowski & Hoza, 1989). There are many forms of friendships found which may vary depending upon age, place and situation. Certain characteristics are present in most of the types of friendships such as affection, sympathy, honesty, altruism, mutual understanding, compassion, enjoyment of each other’s company, trust, ability to be oneself, express one’s feelings, and make mistakes without fear of judgement from the friend. At the core, friendship is an interaction between two people. If people are physically close and relate with one another after sometimes they become friends. The increased likelihood of becoming friends over mere chance alone due to physical closeness of two people is called the “Proximity” principle (Verbrugge, 1977). In today’s context this may not be that much applicable due to the advancement of communication technology. Today we witness people becoming friends through social networking sites also like facebook etc. where physical proximity is not a barrier.
Several aspects of friendship have been examined in psychosocial literature (a) having friends versus not having friends,(b) the identity of one’s friends, and (c) friendship quality.(Hartup,1996) Newcomb and Bagwell (1995) reported that friendships compared with non friendly relations are characterized by more intense social activity, more frequent conflict resolution and more effective task performance. The friendship will last if it has the quality. Friendship quality refers to the values such as satisfaction, construction, intimacy, symmetry and emotional substrates in a dyadic relation (Hartup, 1996). If peer acceptance is high friendship bond will be strong but if peer acceptance is weak it results in loneliness and dissatisfaction. Sometimes it can be disastrous for a person.
1.2.1 Friendship in different stages of life
In a person’s life both physical as well as psychological development is very important. A child not only grows physically but emotionally too. Apart from parents, he starts relating with his or her peers and friends. These interactions may develop in friendship as the time passes.
I. Childhood:
In early childhood friendship is often based on the sharing of toys and enjoyment in performing activities together. These friendships will depend on the mutual sharing of things and creative play time. At this stage children are reluctant to share the toys but they may share to whom they consider a friend. As the children grow individual feeling for oneself weakens and they become aware of others. At childhood stage they become self centered but as they grow this feeling slowly gets weakened. They begin to see their friends’ point of view, and enjoy playing in groups. They also experience peer rejection as they move through the middle childhood years. Establishing good friendship at a young age helps a child to be better acclimated in society later on in his or her life. According to Bernt (2002) children prize friendships that are high in pro-social behaviour, intimacy and other positive features. If there are domination, rivalry and conflicts in the friendship children are annoyed by it. According to Bigelow and La Gaipa (1975) in the first stage children emphasized on the shared activities and importance to geographical closeness. They also emphasized sharing, loyalty and commitment.
II. Adolescence
During the adolescence the friendship relations are relatively conflict free. They can be characterized by three main elements: trust, communication and intimacy. Friendships evolve in adolescence from common interest in activities to a sharing of opinions, emotions and feelings.(Claes M, Poirier L.,1993) Different findings of the studies indicate that adolescents were less likely to engage in problem behaviour when their friends did well in school, participated in school activities, avoided drinking, and had good mental health. The opposite was found regarding adolescents who did engage in more problem behaviour. Whether adolescents were influenced by their friends to engage in problem behaviour depend on how much close relationship they have and whether they fit in the school set up.
Adulthood
Friendship at the adult stage gets more matured. According to Duarte and Souza (2010) some of the characteristics of friendship at this stage are trust, shared intimacy, respect and acceptance, and also negative aspects, such as conflicts and submission. Adults may find it particularly difficult to maintain meaningful friendships in the workplace. The workplace can crackle with competition, so people learn to hide vulnerabilities and quirks from colleagues. Work friendships often take on a transactional feel; it is difficult to say where networking ends and real friendship begins. Most adults value the financial security of their jobs more than friendship with coworkers.
III. Old age
As individuals grow older, many lose their spouses through either death or divorce, particularly women, and this creates greater ties with friends and acquaintances (Ferraro, Mutran, and Barresi 1984; Lopata 1988). Nevertheless aging may bring with its constraints that make the development and preservation of close bonds challenging. For some, there are likely to be fewer interaction opportunities after leaving the workforce, as well as in cases in which children, who provide links to a variety of social institution (Chown 1981), depart home permanently. Furthermore, older individuals may be prone to serious health problems, and some have minimal incomes and reduced transportation, which can limit their social activities (Allen 1989; Lopata 1979; Rook 1989). People also may selectively choose to maintain relatively fewer, but high quality, close relationships as they advance in years by letting casual ties lapse while retaining more meaningful ones(Isaacowitz, and Charles 1999). Having close friends positively affects the psychological well being of older adults. Frequent interactions and emotionally close friendship influence the well being of friends which eventually increases the friendship activities among them.
1.2.2 Types of Friendship
i) Agentic friendship-In an agentic friendship, both the persons involved expect each other to help achieve practical goals in their personal as well as professional lives. Agentic friends may help one another in preparation for an exam, completing projects or helping move houses. They cherish sharing time together, but that is only when they have time available to help each other. These relationships usually do not include the sharing of emotions or personal information.
ii) Best friend- Best friends share extremely strong interpersonal ties with each other. They share almost everything with each other and most comfortable in each other’s presence. The bond between two best friends is perhaps the strongest of all the different bonds.
iii) Blood brother or sister- This term can either denote people related by birth or to friends who swear their loyalty by mixing their blood together. The latter has been practiced and through history. However, it is rarely continued today due to the different dangers of blood-borne disease.
iv) Buddy- Generally used as a synonym for friend “buddy” can refer to a specific friend or partner with whom one can engage in a particular activity, such as a ” study buddy.”
v) Communal friendship- This is a relationship in which friends often gather to provide emotional support and encouragement in times of great need. This type of friendship lasts only when the parties involved fulfil the expectations of the ones in need of support.
vi) Family friend- This term denotes the friend of a family member or the family member of a friend.
vii) Frenemy- A fusion of words “friend” and “enemy” the term “frenemy” refers to either an enemy who is disguised as a friend (wolf in sheep’s clothing) or a person who is both a rival and a friend. This may take the form of a strange bond and a love hate relationship.
viii) Imaginary friend- An imaginary friend is a friend who is not physically present. It is usually associated with a child. These friends may either be a human or an animal. Creation of an imaginary friend may be seen as bad behaviour or even taboo.
ix) Internet friendship- An internet friendship is a form of friendship or sometimes romance which takes place exclusively over internet. This can mature into a proper and lasting friendship. Internet friendships are similar to pen pals, but it is strengthened through chatting online while the latter through letters. People in these friendships may or may not use their true identities.
x) Opposite gender friendship- Opposite gender friendships may not always be socially accepted. Although complications arise in such relationships, male and female friendships can be really strong and emotionally rewarding if maintained without incident.
xi) Pen pal- Pen pals are primarily people who communicate and maintain their relationship through mail correspondence. They may not have necessarily met each other in person. This type of friendship is encouraged in many elementary school children. It is fathomed than an outside source of information or perhaps a different person’s experience would help a child become wiser. In modern time internet relationships have largely reduced pen pals, though the practice still ensues.

1.2.3 Importance of Friends in life
A person is a social being. One cannot remain in isolation cutting oneself away from the society. The moment a person is exposed to the world after his birth, he/she has to relate with various people of different age group, character, and temperament. A person has to learn to adjust with people in life as he/she grows. In course of time he experiences close affinity with some who understand better and support him. In the times of problems and difficulties he/she clings on to them for solution and help. In fact without friends life will be very difficult to live. Below are some of the reasons why friends are important in life.
1. Understanding: In life a person wants that he should be understood. One feels that his ideas, feelings, attitudes and deeds should be understood by others. Every person goes through joy and sorrows in life. Friends are the ones who are always there to help in those moments. There are moments of success, frustration and failure also. A friend can’t remain indifferent in these conditions rather he/she is moved by the emotional state of a person (Vellman1990). This happens because a friend understands his/her friend and helps him/her to feel comfortable in different phases of life.
2. Encouragement and support: The presence of a friend brings confidence in a person’s life. In the times of crisis and turbulence friends are the ones who standby and encourage. When there are difficult moments a person requires somebody to support and encourage him. With the help of a friend transition of crisis become easier.
3. Self-Esteem: A good friend can boost a person’s self esteem. If somebody doesn’t have a friend he may end up in depression. A friend can raise the level of confidence in a person. According to Rawl (1971) self-respect is probably the most important primary good, where primary goods are things every rational person wants. Without self esteem nothing may seem worth doing. The core elements of friendship – liking, sharing, altruistic caring and trust all foster self esteem (Annis 1987). A person becomes enthusiastic and optimistic about life in the company of good friends as he enjoys the support of the friends.
4. Keeping you active: Friends make a person more active and make life livelier. Many people lose interest in pursuing a difficult task but if there is a person who constantly inspires and boosts the morale a person may consider to persevere. In friendship there is shared activity which keeps a person active. Thomas (1997,1989,1993,2013) who argues for a weak conception of intimacy in terms of mutual self disclosure, has little place for shared activity in his account of friendship where as Sherman(1987) strongly argues in terms of shared values, deliberations, and thought, provides within friendship a central place not just to isolated share but more significantly, to a shared life.
5. Positive influence: Good friends have positive influence in life. There are negative peer influences which are disastrous in the life of a person. Yet there are friends who come in these difficult moments and help their friends to be positive in life and dream for success. Friendship evolves over a period of time. The development of friendship goes through the reconstruction process and eventually it becomes a voluntary pledge of showing concern, comfort, sympathy, support, honesty trust and helping one another.
1.2.4 The nature of friendship
In friendship there is an inherent concern for the friend. It may be considered as love. Some call it as, attraction, liking, etc. The Greek philosophers distinguished three notions in the love agape, eros and philia. Agape is “the highest form of love, charity” and “the love of God for man and of man for God”. Philia originally meant affectionate regard or friendly feeling towards not just one’s friends but also towards family members, business partners, and one’s country at large (Liddell et. al., 1940; Cooper, 1977a). Eros is a kind of passionate desire for an object, typically sexual in nature. According to Aristotle there are three kinds of friendship based on pleasure, utility and virtue. These are the reasons for friendship as well. (Nicomachean Ethics, Book VIII)
1. The mutual Caring: The mutual caring is the necessary condition in friendship. In friendship there is a concern for the other. A friend is affected by the situation of the friend and he/she wants the well being of the other. Thomas(1987,1989,1993;
Friedman1993, 1989; Whiting1991; Hoffman1997; Cocking and kennet 1998; and white 1999a, 1999b, 2001) have the view that the friends care about the other and do for his/her sake; in effect, this is to say that the friends must each love the other. A friend finds value in the friend and therefore he/she goes ahead in caring the other.
2. Intimacy:
Normally friendships are deeper and intimate more than caring relationships. We also come across acquaintance friendships which are not that deep in nature. According to Thomas (1987; 1989; 1993; 2013) intimacy of friendship means mutual self-disclosure. For this trust is necessary between the friends. The more intimate the friendship, the more secrets about oneself is revealed. In this kind of intimate friendship a friend wants the well being of his friend. The friend’s success becomes a matter of joy and failure a matter of sorrow. A friend who knows the secrets of the other will not reveal to any other stranger rather he/she will be honest to the friend.
3. Shared Activity:
In the friendship there is a ‘shared’ element. There is sharing of joys, sorrows, success and failure in friendship. Friendship is also a feeling of togetherness and being connected with one another in that activities and feelings are shared. Sherman (1987) argues for a strong conception of intimacy in terms of shared values, deliberation, and thought which provides within friendship a central place not just to isolated shared activities but more significantly to a shared life whereas Thomas (1987,1989,1993,2013) argues for weak conception of mutual self-disclosure and little place for shared activity. Helm (2008) argues that shared activity is not the sort of shared intention and plural subject hood discussed in literature on shared intention within social philosophy. For such sharing of intentions do not involve the requisite intimacy of friendship.
1.2.5 The value of friendship
Friendship has a significant value in life. It would be difficult to live a happy and satisfied life without friends. In life a person has to interact with many people. There are close friends who support a person in the times of difficulties and share happy and sorrowful moments. Apart from this there are other friends who would be required for different activities and work. Through their support things become easier in life. According to Annis (1987) lives would be significantly less full given the universal demise of friendship. Telfer (1970-71) Claims that friendship is life enhancing and makes us feel more alive and enhances our activities by intensifying our absorption in them and hence the pleasure we get out of them. He further says that friendship promotes the general good by providing kind consideration of others welfare which can’t exist outside. Bloom (1980) looks at it as a source of moral excellence as it essentially involves acting for the sake of a friend, a kind of action that can have consideration for moral worth. According to Aristotle friendship is indispensable for human life and happiness.
From the utilitarian point of view friendship promotes mutual liking, sharing, concern, trust and intimacy which enrich our lives and make it livelier. So friendship is not only concerned about individual well being but the well being of the society and life enhancement of friends. The value of friendship can be understood from the perspective of virtues also. According to Annis (1987) in virtue model living well or flourishing for human life is different from living well for other creatures. In life there are varieties of activities. For any trait to be a virtue it needs to foster human life in extensive and fundamental ways. From the moral point of view people need to be respected and treated in end in themselves, not because of the impact respect has, but because people are special and hence deserve respect.
Thus friendship affirms and recognizes value in others. Friendship not only enlivens the life but it also brings positive influence in others. It makes people better and happier.
1.3 STUDY HABITS
Study habits is the complex of reading behaviour of a person, resulting from the varying degrees of interaction, of a number of variable factors, when he seeks graphic records for acquiring information or knowledge. In the words of William A. Kelley (1998), “Study habits is the application of mental capacity to the acquisition, understanding and organization of knowledge; it often involves some form of formal learning. If the study is done on regular basis on accustomed pattern then it is a study habit. Crede and Kuncel (2008) defines study habits as study routines, including, but not restricted to , frequency of studying sessions, review of material, self-testing, rehearsal of learnt material, and studying in a conducive environment. Adeymo(2005) opined that study habit was a pattern of activity that went beyond reading for pleasure. It is a well planned and deliberate form of consistency on the part of students towards the understanding of academic subjects.
Today due to advent of internet, hypertext and multimedia the meaning of study habits has become broad. Students perceive study habits differently than the conventional notion. Instead of relying fully on the teacher’s note students make use of the other sources available like internet and social media for their enrichment of knowledge. Apart from this they also combine study attitude, method and skills. This has been observed that attitude is a mental and natural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Attitude towards good study habits has a great contribution in academic achievement and good study pattern. According to Crow and Crow (1979) a child’s attitude towards his work affects his worthwhileness in his activity. Therefore a child should be stimulated toward desirable activity through the arousal of interest in worthwhile projects. Successful learners adopt positive attitude towards study and do not waste time or energy over what they have to do. If learning experience is pleasant the learner’s attitude and motivation usually is positive and if the learning experience is not pleasant he tends to avoid it. According to Good (1973) study habits is the student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient.
1.3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDY HABITS
i. They are performed every time in the same way.
ii. Habits are not innate and inherited.
iii. Habitual actions are performed with great ease and facility.
iv. Habit brings accuracy in the action.
v. Habitual acts are performed with least attention or no attention.
vi. Nervous system is the principle factor in formation of habits.
For the students, study habits have strong impact in learning. Habits of critical thinking, proper reasoning, punctuality, etc., help the pupils in their proper adjustments in learning and achieving all the essential knowledge and skills in a short time.
1.3.2 STUDY HABITS – A LONG TERM PROCESS
Learning how to study is a long-term process. During the course of study,
one may find more techniques and methods that offer new information leading to an interesting and successful direction. So, learning how to study or to develop good study habits is a long process, and one should be ready to modify one’s method of study according to the need of the time. The behaviorists tell that in shaping the behaviour social support in necessary. A student needs reinforcements in the process of shaping his study habits. According to skinner (1938) through operant conditioning a person makes an association between particular behaviour and consequences. Positive reinforcements over a period of time will certainly strengthen the study habit of a student. Study habits should be adopted based on the learning style of the students. According to Griggs (1991), “Students who discover and understand their personal learning styles can often apply such information with great success and enthusiasm.” The development of study habits is an ongoing process. A student develops his own study habits based on his successful experiences of learning and study.
1.3.3 FORMATION OF STUDY HABITS
Habit formation is a process by which behaviour, through regular repetition, becomes automatic or habitual. This is modeled as an increase in automaticity with number of repetitions up to an asymptote (Hull 1943). This happens to study habits too. An individual may perform poorly in school, in spite of putting in a reasonable amount of study time, due to poor study habits. Not only bad habits can be broken, but they can also be replaced by good habits with relative ease. The steps by which good study habits can be formed are given below:
i. There should be a deliberate attempt to substitute poor study habits with the suitable and good study habits for oneself.
ii. A strong motivation and determination should be there at the back of the mind. This should enable a student to work on his study habits.
iii. There should be regular practice of what is learnt.
iv. The creation of conducive environment is necessary for good study habits.
v. Study habits should be goal oriented. Once it is formed it needs to be
strengthened and enjoyed.
1.3.4 THE TEACHER’S ROLE IN DEVELOPING STUDY HABITS
The teachers are instrumental in shaping the study habits of their students. The teacher’s emphasis will change the way of one’s study. Effective teaching with its four components – knowledge, understanding, application and skill, can definitely elevate one’s study habits. Some teachers encourage the students to memorize and some others emphasize the need for learning by understanding, avoiding memorization. Hence, in developing a study habit, it’s not only a student who performs, but also a teacher. Bhatnagar and Gupta (1999) are of the opinion that for better achievement, it is necessary to help pupils for progress in their education by removing their difficulties and developing good study skills. Hence guidance programs must be included in this aspect of student aid. Guidance plays a vital role in removing the educational, personal, social, mental, emotional and other similar problems of the students. A teacher can help the students to improve their performance by monitoring their study habits. Based on the performance of the students a teacher can suggest study patterns for the students which suit them.
1.3.5 THE PARENT’S ROLE IN DEVELOPING STUDY HABITS
The guidance, cooperation and encouragement of parents are necessary for nurturing study habits among children. Fry (2000) says, “The parent’s involvement is absolutely essential to a child’s eventual success. A parent, not even for a minute, underestimates the importance of his commitment to his child’s success.” Weishew (1993) points out, “Parents can help to improve their children’s behavior in school by getting more involved in their education, monitoring their actions, and helping to increase their achievement, educational expectations, and positive self-perceptions.” It is clear that parents have a major role in developing children’s study habits.
1.3.6 GOOD STUDY HABITS
A student needs to adopt carefully a suitable and regular pattern of study for better learning and achievement. Learning can be immensely gratifying, but studying usually involves hard work. The sincere follow up of study schedule will yield rich fruit in the area of learning. Once an individual accepts the premise that studying doesn’t come naturally, it should be apparent that one needs to set up an organized programme which includes the following criteria.
i. Set up a schedule for studying. It is important to allocate definite time for studying. One needs to be wide-awake and alert when allotting certain time for studying.
ii. Note-taking is the important aspect of study habits. Effective note-taking enhances the achievement.
iii. Break major assignments down into smaller component tasks that can be scheduled individually.
iv. Find a place to study where one can concentrate. The key is to find a place where distractions are likely to be minimal.
v. Self- discipline is important aspect of the study habit. Abstaining from petty pleasures which distract the learning is helpful.
vi. The emphasis during course of study should be on comprehension. Once a student understands he should be able to retain it also for longer period of time. The mnemonic devices can be used for long term memory.
vii. Organisation of the matter is important. The students should learn in such a way that they are able to explain the concepts with examples.
viii. Reinforcement for the study is needed for making a good study habits. The ultimate reward for studying may be months away or years away. To combat this problem, it helps to give oneself immediate, tangible rewards for studying, such as a snack, a T.V show, or a phone call to a friend. (Weyen, 1992).
ix. Reading efforts must be active. One of the more worthwhile strategies for improving reading is the SQ3R method. SO3R is a study system designed to promote effective reading, and it includes five steps: Survey, Question, and Read, Recite and Review.
x. One should study the material and the text in the same day after the class. The careful and contemplative study helps in better understanding and retention.
xi. Review of the study on regular basis is required. This helps in eradication of problems and increases the confidence.
xii. If help is required, teacher or the person who knows should be approached immediately. Delay may worsen the matter.
xiii. Learning together from one another helps. Thus joining study group may help. Sharing and discussion helps in removing the doubts.
1.4 COGNITIVE SELF-MANAGEMENT
1.4.1 COGNITIVE LEARNING
Cognitive learning is based on the cognitive model of human behaviour. It emphasizes on the free will and positive aspects of human behaviour. Cognition refers to the individual’s thoughts, feelings, ideas, knowledge and understanding about himself and the environment. Thus, an organism applies this condition in learning which results in not merely the response to a stimulus, but application of internal image of the external environment and attaining the goal.
Jean Piaget (1972) a genetic epistemologist was mainly interested in the biological influences on “how we come to know”. He believed that what distinguishes human beings from other animals is our ability to do “abstract symbolic reasoning”. Piaget’s views are often compared with those of Vygotsky (1978), who looked more to social interaction as the primary source of cognition and behavior. This is somewhat similar to the distinctions made between Freud and Erikson, in terms of the development of personality. The writings of Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner form the basis of the constructivist theory of learning and instruction. There are two major aspects to this theory; the process of coming to know and the stages we move through as we gradually acquire this ability.
1.4.2 PROCESS OF COGNITIVE STURCTURE
As a biologist, Piaget was interested in how an organism adapts to its environment. Behavior is controlled through mental organizations called schemes that the individual uses to represent the world and designate action. This adaptation is driven by a biological drive to obtain balance between schemes and the environment.
Piaget described two processes used by an individual in its attempt to adapt assimilation and accommodation. Both of these processes are used throughout life as the person increasingly adapts to the environment, in a more complex manner. Assimilation induces an individual to incorporate new experiences into the old experiences. This causes the individual to develop new outlooks, rethink what were once misunderstandings, and evaluate what is important, ultimately altering their perceptions. Accommodation, on the other hand, is reframing the world and new experiences into the mental capacity already present. Individuals conceive a particular fashion in which the world operates. When things do not operate within that context, they must accommodate and reframe the expectations with the outcomes.
1.4.3 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING
Piaget identified formal operational stage (adolescence and adulthood) of cognitive development at higher secondary school level. In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period, there is a return to egocentric thought. Discovery learning and supporting the developing interests of a child are two primary instructional techniques. It is recommended that parents and teachers challenge the child’s abilities, but not present material or information that is too far beyond the child’s level. It is also recommended that teachers use a wide variety of concrete experiences to help the child learn (e.g., use of manipulative skills, working in groups to get experience seeing from another’s perspective, field trips, etc.)
1.4.4 LEARNING AS A COGNITIVE PROCESS
During the dynamic years, age one to five, children develop a sense of themselves in relation to family and community; they are exploring the world through play and seemingly endless questions, which require caregivers’ validating responses; and they are ready to learn a healthy life-style from the powerful adult role models with whom they identify strongly. The quality of nurturing and stimulation that a child receives in the first few years of life can have effects on development that lasts lifetime. Early childhood experiences have powerful effects on the development of children in physical and emotional abilities and influence their intellectual development in many areas.
The brain develops according to the quantity and quality of the stimuli it receives. There are eight neural pathways; touch, sight, sound, taste, smell, temperature, pain and positioning. Daily exercise increases nerve connections in the brain. This makes it easier for children to learn. The brain develops most strongly when all pathways are being stimulated.
There are periods of time known as “windows of opportunity” in the child’s brain development, when it is especially open to certain kinds of learning; up to 18 months of age for the capacity to establish a secure attachment; from the latter part of the first year to the end of the second year, for the capacity to inhibit and regulate intense feelings and up to the end of the fourth year, for optimal vocabulary will grow. Toddlers taught simple mathematical ideas, like bigger or smaller, and more or less, do better in mathematics when they are older.
Children’s physical development includes learning large muscle skills like jumping, running, throwing and small muscle skills like cutting, pasting and drawing. Cognitive development, involves children’s increasing ability to think and solve problems, using such toys as puzzles, number and matching games and blocks. Social/emotional development is about learning to experience, identify, express and control feelings; and about how to relate with others through dramatic play, co-operative games and helping.
Today social learning theories are closely interwoven with a cognitive perspective of learning. Long (1990) is just one of many educators who has suggested that learning is predominantly a cognitive process; such learning, he believes, is influenced by a number of factors, including the state of the learner, existing or prior knowledge and the attitudes and beliefs held by the learner toward the source, content, topic and mode of presentation. The understanding that learning involves the activation of specific cognitive processes, has led practitioners and researchers, to explore the concept of cognitive engagement. It has been suggested that students can develop facilitative or debilitative styles of engagement (Marx and Walsh. 1988). Self-regulated learning is, by definition, a facilitative style of cognitive engagement.
1.4.5 THE CONCEPT OF COGNITIVE MANAGEMENT STYLE
Each individual has his own way of learning. The management of learning style which consists of one’s way of perceiving, thinking, decision making and problem solving can be referred to as cognitive management style. This is similar to self- regulated learning. Schunk and Zimmerman(1998) define self regulated learning as learning that occurs largely from the influence of student’s self generated thoughts, feeling, strategies, and behaviours, which are oriented toward the attainment of goals. Though much of the research on self-regulated learning has been conducted with children, the literature on adult education is cited to provide evidence, which would support the idea that the self-regulated learning, which represents the highest form of cognitive engagement, is epitomized by the task, appropriate use of information acquisition and transformation skills, but meta-cognitive control processes are also important components of this concept (Corno, 1986). The acquisition processes can be seen as meta-cognitive to the extent that they regulate the transformation processes. The transformation processes have both meta-cognitive and cognitive aspects, for they can call forth other schemata that may be relevant to the task.
1.4.6 META-COGNITIVE CONTROL PROCESSES
Metacognition is the process of thinking about thinking. Flavell (1976) describes it as follows: “Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them, e.g., the learning-relevant properties of information or data. Metacognition has to do with the active monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes. It represents the “executive control” system that many cognitive theorists have included Miller (1956), NeMiller (1956), Newell ; Simon (1969), Schoenfeld (1985). Metacognitive processes are central to planning, problem-solving, evaluation and many aspects of language learning. Corno (1986) asserts that a number of volitional strategies described by Kuhl (1983), correspond to the control or meta-cognitive components of self-regulated learning. She suggests that, the successful learners invoke volitional or self-imposed processes to protect themselves from internal or external distractions in the learning environment, thus maximizing the likelihood of goal accomplishment. Corno and Kuhl’s theory suggests that these volitional strategies are subject to the influence of two motivational factors: first, is the perception of the task as one that is difficult to complete, this perception can be influenced by competing interests, social and peer pressure and stage orientation: second, motivation is influenced by the perception that task accomplishment is within the ability range of the learner. Corno describes the volitional or Meta – cognitive strategies, as defined by Kuhl, to include the following:
i) Attention and encoding control : the ability to maintain task focus despite competing distractions;
ii) Selective encoding : attending to the important features of the task;
iii) Information procession control : the ability to allocate appropriate amount of time and mental energy to the pertinent aspects of a task;
iv) Motivation control : these strategies involve “self-reinforcement and self-imposed penance” (Corno, 1986) behavior that are linked to the anticipation of potential consequences regarding task outcome;
v) Emotion control: self-task strategies aimed at controlling performance anxiety.
vi) Environmental control: self-help strategies that are invoked for the purpose of assuring successful task completion. A complete definition of self-regulated learning therefore includes not only the information acquisition and transformational processes; it must also encompass these volitional or Meta – cognitive processes.

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Task-focused Learning
Task-focused learning, exemplified by the successful implementation of test taking skills and problem solving strategies, involves the predominant use of transformational, rather than information acquisition cognitive processes (Coma and Mandinach, 1983). Linn and Corno (1983), suggest that particular cognitive transformations such as careful attention to specific detail, comparative analysis of prominent characteristics and the ability to isolate relevant from irrelevant information, are typical strategies used by task-focused learners. Corno has suggested some methods of instructional delivery and Mandinach was promoting a task-focused approach to learning. Such approaches are characterized by guided practice, the use of analogies, models and taxonomies as systems for organizing information.
Problem Solving Model
The problem solving model includes following steps:
a) Identify problem : if multiple parties, two sub stages
i) Each party identifies problem as he or she sees it.
ii) Agree on description of problem to be solved.
b) Brain storm
i) Generate as many solutions as possible
ii) Do not evaluate solutions at this point, just generate as many as possible,
good, bad, silly, pro-social and antisocial.
c) Discuss positive and negative consequences of each possible solution.
d) Select a solution to try.
e) Decide how to determine if solution has succeeded.
f) Specify next step if solution does not work.
Problem Solving Skills: Training
a) Alternative solution thinking (generate alternatives)
b) Means-end thinking (plan intermediate steps)
c) Consequential thinking (identify likely consequences of choosing a particular course of action)
d) Causal thinking (linking an event to the next over time and understand why one led to other)
e) Sensitivity to interpersonal problems (perceives existence of problem and accurately identifies interpersonal issues involved)

1.4.7 COGNITIVE MODIFIABILITY IN SELF-REGULATED LEARNING
For many years, student’s ability, motivation and quality of instructions have been investigated as important variables, related to student’s achievement. In general students can be described as self regulated to the degree they are metacognitively, motivationally and behaviourally active participants in their own learning process (Zimmerman, 1986, 1989). This also assumes three elements: students’ self regulated learning strategies, self efficacy, perception of performance skill and commitment to academic goals. (Zimmerman ;Martinez- Pons, 1986) Recently, there has been a growing interest in self-regulated learning, as an important variable that interacts with achievement (Zimmerman, 1986). A study by Zimmerman and pons indicated that the use of meta-cognitive strategies was highly correlated with academic achievement. As well, motivational issues have been linked to self-regulated learning and academic achievement. The effective use of self-control and these self-perceptions are assumed to be the motivational basis for self-regulation during learning. According to Gage (1977) many classroom researchers believe that motivation is a more readily influenced variable than general academic ability. Such views may reflect the notion that intelligence is a rather stable mental trait. The work of Feuerstein (1980) and others such as Schunk (1990) would suggest that cognitive abilities could be enhanced through learning.
1.4.8 PERSPECTIVE OF COGNITIVE SELF-MANAGEMENT
Knowing how to learn is more important than acquiring a lot of knowledge. One has to manage ones process of getting knowledge. Regular self evaluation is required in this process in order to be aware of inner dynamics and its external influences. The emphasis here is on internal development and self-regulation. For this a student plans, organizes and monitors the cognitive development after combining all his skills along with external expectations. There are a few steps to guide the self- management. They are as follow.
i) Allow the students to have a choice in the selection of tasks and activities whenever possible.
ii) Help students to learn to set realistic goals.
iii) Ensure students participation in group-work, especially co-operative learning, in order to develop social and affective skills.
iv) Act as a facilitator for group discussions when appropriate.
v) Be a role model for the attitudes, beliefs and habits you wish to foster, constantly work on becoming better and then share with students.
1.4.9 CONCEPT OF COGNITIVE SELF-MANAGEMENT
The cognitive self-management is the ability to regulate ones cognitive faculty. It is the highest stage of intellectual functioning where a person displays ability to think in abstract terms. It is the way of controlling one’s self or the ability of individual to control one’s self in a systematic problem solving. It includes different dimensions which are as follows:
i. Positive focus
ii. Systematic problem solving and task-efficacy
iii. Self-blame
iv. Reasonable goal setting
i) Positive focus: It is a positive outlook to the environment. If a person remains optimistic and friendly towards his companions he gets positive feedback as reinforcement. This helps him to concentrate on the set goal. The factors which distract in accomplishing the goal that is removed. By focusing on the process and the action undertaken, the accomplishment of goal becomes easier.
ii) Systematic Problem solving and task efficacy: It is a systematic approach to solve the problem. For this proper planning, organising and execution is needed. This is also related to time and effort management and continuous follow up of the process of task. Task efficacy is successful and creative implementation of problem solving skills. It is not only related to information acquisition rather transformation of a person.
iii) Self-blame: This is taking responsibility on oneself for failure. Often unrealistic goals have been set by a person and failure to achieve the goal may develop depressive disorder in a person. When situations are beyond control and desired results are not achieved a person may blame himself for the failure. Taking responsibility for the failure paves the way for higher achievement.
iv) Reasonable goal setting: A person should set a goal which is realistic, reasonable and achievable. The systematic and step by step action should be taken in order to achieve the goal. For this proper long term and short term goals should be set. Challenges will be there on the way to achieve the goal but with proper guidance and motivation goal can be achieved. A person needs to work hard and ready to adapt to the changing situation in order to achieve the objective.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In today’s context when students go out to study in different schools and colleges they need friends who would help them in studies and with whom they can share their problems and difficulties. After completing matriculation when students go to higher secondary schools and intermediate colleges, they look for some close friends. Those students who do not have friends go through tremendous pressure and sometimes feel isolated. This affects their mental health as well as academic performance. Therefore it is imperative to understand the dynamics of friendship among the students for better guidance.
Students need guidance of parents and teachers but it is the students who help their friends most in personal and academic adjustments. In order to adjust the learning activities students need to regulate themselves. Friends’ guidance and support becomes very crucial in their enhanced performance. Friends play a major role in Group and co-operative learning. For better learning a student should make his study regime and regulate that. The good study habits not only help the students to understand the subjects properly but also attain mastery over the subjects. This is reflected in better academic achievement.
The involvement of the students in their study enables them in their cognitive self management. It is good for the teachers to know the process of cognitive self-management which is higher level mental activity. This deepens the learnt material and makes the students more serious in their study. If relationship among friendship, study habits and cognitive self-management is known to the teachers then students can be guided in a better way. The students can benefit immensely and performance can be enhanced if they know about the relationship of these variables and the implications.
The knowledge about the relationship among friendship, study habits and cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students is helpful for the administrators as they are able to understand the problems and difficulties of the students faced at this age regarding relationships and intellectual development. They can adopt better methods to guide them.
The counselors will also be able to understand the students and their problems if they are well acquainted with the relationships among these variables. The better guidance will be of immense help to the higher secondary school students to cop up with their problems and manage the intellectual growth.
The parents need to understand their children who are growing up and studying. If children share with their parents their difficulties they can be helped more in their studies. The direction and cooperation of parents is very crucial in the overall development of the children.
The teachers play a great role in shaping the study habits of the students. The teachers can be of great help in sorting out the difficulties with regard to study as well as personal matters. Students themselves can help one another in their studies. The cooperative learning among friends can be of great help in their cognitive management.
1.6 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

FRIENDSHIP, STUDY HABITS AND COGNITIVE SELF-MANAGEMENT OF HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF THE PROBLEM

Friendship
Friendship is a relationship between two or more persons in which they feel comfortable with one another and experience emotional safety. They enjoy the company of one another and have respect, trust, confidence, understanding, mutual assistance and spontaneity.

Study habits
Study habits are the techniques a student employs to go about his or her studies which are consistent and have become stereotyped as a result of long application or practice. These are learning tendencies that enable students work privately.

Cognitive self-management
Cognitive self-management is the awareness of one’s metacognition leading to knowledge by better planning, controlling, monitoring and evaluating ones process of getting knowledge.

Higher secondary school students
Students studying in XI and XII grades in higher secondary schools and intermediate colleges in first and second year.

1.8 OBJECTIVES
1.8.1 General Objectives
1. To find the level of friendship of higher secondary school students.
2. To find the level of study habits of higher secondary school students.
3. To find the level of cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students.
4. To study the relationship between a) friendship b) study habits and c) cognitive self-
management of the higher secondary school students.
5. To study the influence of friendship and study habits on the cognitive self-
management of higher secondary school students.

1.8.2 Specific Objectives
1. Friendship of higher secondary school students
1.1 To find whether there is any significant difference between boys and girls higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.2 To find whether there is any significant difference between XI and XII grade higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.3 To find whether there is any significant difference between rural and urban higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.4 To find whether there is any significant difference between hostel and day scholar higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.5 To find whether there is any significant difference between English and Hindi medium higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.6 To find whether there is any significant difference between higher secondary school students who use internet and those who do not use internet in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.7 To find whether there is any significant difference among co-education and girls higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.8 To find whether there is any significant difference among arts, science and commerce higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.9 To find whether there is any significant difference among SC, ST, OBC and General category higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.10 To find whether there is any significant difference among government, aided and unaided higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.11 To find whether there is any significant association between father’s education and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school students.
1.12 To find whether there is any significant association between mother’s education and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school students.
1.13 To find whether there is any significant association between family income and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school students.
2. Study habits of higher secondary school students
2.1 To find whether there is any significant difference between boys and girls higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.2 To find whether there is any significant difference between XI and XII grade higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.3 To find whether there is any significant difference between rural and urban higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.4 To find whether there is any significant difference between hostel and day scholar higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.5 To find whether there is any significant difference between English and Hindi medium higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.6 To find whether there is any significant difference between higher secondary school students who use internet and those who do not use internet in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.7 To find whether there is any significant difference among co-education and girls higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.8 To find whether there is any significant difference among arts, science and commerce higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.9 To find whether there is any significant difference among SC, ST, OBC and General category higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.10 To find whether there is any significant difference among government, aided and unaided higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.11 To find whether there is any significant association between father’s education and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school students.
2.12 To find whether there is any significant association between mother’s education and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school students.
2.13 To find whether there is any significant association between family income and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school students.
3. Cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students.
3.1 To find whether there is any significant difference between boys and girls higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.2 To find whether there is any significant difference between XI and XII grade higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.3 To find whether there is any significant difference between rural and urban higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.4 To find whether there is any significant difference between hostel and day scholar higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.5 To find whether there is any significant difference between English and Hindi medium higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.6 To find whether there is any significant difference between higher secondary school students who use internet and those who do not use internet in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.7 To find whether there is any significant difference among co-education and girls higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.8 To find whether there is any significant difference among arts, science and commerce higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.9 To find whether there is any significant difference among SC, ST, OBC and General category higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.10 To find whether there is any significant difference among government, aided and unaided higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.11 To find whether there is any significant association between father’s education and positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students.
3.12 To find whether there is any significant association between mother’s education and positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students.
3.13 To find whether there is any significant association between family income and positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students.
4. Relationship between a) cognitive self-management b) friendship and c) study habits
4 a. Relationship between cognitive self-management and friendship
4a.1 To find whether there is any significant relationship between cognitive self-management and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school students.
4a.2 To find whether there is any significant relationship between cognitive self-management and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school boys.
4a.3 To find whether there is any significant relationship between cognitive self-management and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school girls.
4a.4 To find whether there is any significant relationship between cognitive self-management and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school rural students.
4a.5 To find whether there is any significant relationship between cognitive self-management and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school urban students.

4b. Relationship between cognitive self-management and study habits
4b.1 To find whether there is any significant relationship between cognitive self- management and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school students.
4b.2 To find whether there is any significant relationship between cognitive self-management and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school boys.
4b.3 To find whether there is any significant relationship between cognitive self-management and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school girls.
4b.4 To find whether there is any significant relationship between cognitive self-management and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school rural students.
4b.5 To find whether there is any significant relationship between cognitive self-management and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school urban students.
4c. Relationship between friendship and study habits
4c.1 To find whether there is any significant relationship between friendship and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school students.
4c.2 To find whether there is any significant relationship between friendship and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school boys.
4c.3 To find whether there is any significant relationship between friendship and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school girls.
4c.4 To find whether there is any significant relationship between friendship and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school rural students.
4c.5 To find whether there is any significant relationship between friendship and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school urban students.
5. Influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management of
higher secondary school students
5.1 To find whether there is any significant influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students.
5.2 To find whether there is any significant influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management of higher secondary school boys.
5.3. To find whether there is any significant influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management of higher secondary school girls.
5.4 To find whether there is any significant influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management higher secondary school rural students.
5.6 To find whether there is any significant influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management higher secondary school urban students.
5.7 To find whether there is any significant factor with positive factor loading of the variables namely friendship, study habits and cognitive self-management.
1.9 NULL HYPOTHESES
Friendship of higher secondary school students.
1.1 There is no significant difference between boys and girls higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.2 There is no significant difference between XI and XII grade higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.3 There is no significant difference between rural and urban higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.4 There is no significant difference between hostel and day scholar higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.5 There is no significant difference between English and Hindi medium higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.6 There is no significant difference between higher secondary school students who use internet and those who do not use internet in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.7 There is no significant difference among co-education and girls higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.8 There is no significant difference among arts, science and commerce higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.9 There is no significant difference among SC, ST, OBC and General category higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.10 There is no significant difference among government, aided and unaided higher secondary school students in their enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship.
1.11 There is no significant association between father’s education and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school students.
1.12 To find whether there is any significant association between mother’s education and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school students.
1.13 There is no significant association between family income and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school students.

2 Study habits of higher secondary school students.
2.1 There is no significant difference between boys and girls higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.2 There is no significant difference between XI and XII grade higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.3 There is no significant difference between rural and urban higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.4 There is no significant difference between hostel and day scholar higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.5 There is no significant difference between English and Hindi medium higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.6 There is no significant difference between higher secondary school students who use internet and those who do not use internet in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.7 There is no significant difference among co-education and girls higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.8 There is no significant difference among arts, science and commerce higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.9 There is no significant difference among SC, ST, OBC and General category higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.10 There is no significant difference among government, aided and unaided higher secondary school students in their comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits.
2.11 There is no significant association between father’s education and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school students.
2.12 There is no significant association between mother’s education and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school students.
2.13 There is no significant association between family income and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school students.
3. Cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students
3.1 There is no significant difference between boys and girls higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.2 There is no significant difference between XI and XII grade higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.3 There is no significant difference between rural and urban higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.4 There is no significant difference between hostel and day scholar higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.5 There is no significant difference between English and Hindi medium higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.6 There is no significant difference between higher secondary school students who use internet and those who do not use internet in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.7 There is no significant difference among co-education and girls higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.8 There is no significant difference among arts, science and commerce higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.9 There is no significant difference among SC, ST, OBC and General category higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.10 There is no significant difference among government, aided and unaided higher secondary school students in their positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management.
3.11 There is no significant association between father’s education and positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students.
3.12 There is no significant association between mother’s education and positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students.
3.13 There is no significant association between family income and positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame, reasonable goal setting and cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students.
4. Relationship between a) cognitive self-management b) friendship and c) study
habits
4 a. Relationship between cognitive self-management and friendship
4a.1 There is no significant relationship between cognitive self-management and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school students.
4a.2 There is no significant relationship between cognitive self-management and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school boys.
4a.3 There is no significant relationship between cognitive self-management and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school girls.
4a.4 There is no significant relationship between cognitive self-management and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school rural students.
4a.5 There is no significant relationship between cognitive self-management and enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity, conflict resolution and friendship of higher secondary school urban students.
4b. Relationship between cognitive self-management and study habits
4b.1 There is no significant relationship between cognitive self- management and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school students.
4b.2 There is no significant relationship between cognitive self-management and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habit of higher secondary school boys.
4b.3 There is no significant relationship between cognitive self-management and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school girls.
4b.4 There is no significant relationship between cognitive self-management and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school rural students.
4b.5 There is no significant relationship between cognitive self-management and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school urban students.
4c. Relationship between friendship and study habits
4c.1 There is no significant relationship between friendship and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school students.
4c.2 There is no significant relationship between friendship and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school boys.
4c.3 There is no significant relationship between friendship and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school girls.
4c.4 There is no significant relationship between friendship and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school rural students.
4c.5 There is no significant relationship between friendship and comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording, test anxiety and study habits of higher secondary school urban students.
5. Influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management of higher
secondary school students
5.1 There is no significance influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management of higher secondary school students.
5.2 There is no significant influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management of higher secondary school boys.
5.3. There is no significant influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management of higher secondary school girls.
5.4 There is no significant influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management of higher secondary school rural students.
5.6 There is no significant influence of friendship and study habits on cognitive self-management of higher secondary school urban students.
5.7 There is no significant factor with positive factor loading of the variables namely friendship, study habits and cognitive self-management.

1.10 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Limitations are the boundaries of the study (Best, 1992). Any piece of research work has its own merits and demerits, limitations and draw backs. The following are the limitations for the present study:
i. Data were collected from Ranchi, Khunti and Gumla Districts of Jharkhand only.
ii. The study is restricted to higher secondary school and intermediate college students only.
iii. Only the higher secondary school students from government, aided and unaided higher secondary schools and intermediate colleges affiliated to Jharkhand Academic council are taken in the sample.
iv. In this study nine dimensions of friendship have been taken. They are acceptance, trust, respect, enjoyment, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, and spontaneity and conflict resolution. Study habits have nine dimensions. These are comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, supports, recording and test anxiety. Cognitive self-management has four dimensions. These are positive focus, systematic problem solving and task efficacy, self blame and reasonable goal setting.

CHAPTER – II
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES
2.1 INTRODUCTION
According to Kaul (1984) the knowledge of related literature, makes the researcher up to date on the work which others have done and thus to stage the objectives clearly and concisely. Review of related literature presents the comprehensive development of the background of the present research problem. It indicates what has already been studied by others and which has a bearing upon the present study. The review of related literature stresses two aspects. The first is the consideration of the subject matter and the second is related to methodology and design. The review chapter is devoted to the development of the problem statement or the object of inquiry. The review is utilized to retain a direct relevance to the study in hand.
It is a brief summary of previous research and writings of recognized experts. It provides evidence that the researcher is familiar with what is already known and with what is still unknown and untested. Thus it helps in avoiding duplication and provides helpful suggestions for future investigation. It also helps in the formulation of hypothesis and in the selection of methods and tools to be employed. They are used in the interpretation of obtained results.
2.2 DEFINITIONS
According to Aggarwal (2007), “The study of related literature implies locating, reading and evaluating reports of research as well as reports of observation and opinion that are related to the individual’s planned research project”.
In the words of Best (2009) it is “A brief summary of previous research and the writings of recognized experts which provide evidence that the researcher is familiar with what is already known and with what is still unknown and untested”.

2.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE REVIEW
It is of great significance to have a review of related literature as it gives a linking into the mind of the researchers treading on familiar grounds and then launching ahead towards the unknown and untested knowledge. Neglecting the past knowledge and not knowing what to do with the present is like ‘Throwing the baby in the bath tub’. Therefore, it is important to know all about the researches done in the past as it helps eliminating duplication and provides useful hypotheses and helpful suggestions or significant investigation into the whole new world of knowledge.
Review of related literature, provides information regarding factors that could have acted as limitation.
(i). Helps in designing the study, the procedure that is employed, and the data gathering instrument that is used.
(ii). Simulates the investigator to an organized programme of reading.
(iii). Provides chances to discover several problems and defines them.
(iv). Provides recommendation for further research.
(v). Helps in the improvement of the design of the present study and to avoid mistakes committed and avoid the rest of duplication.
(vi). Provides insights into closely related problem.
(vii). Improves the knowledge of the investigator on the related field.
(viii). Provides a ground for the development of the present study.
Since effective research must be based upon past knowledge these steps help to
eliminate the duplication of what has been done and provide useful hypothesis and helpful suggestion for significant investigation.

2.4 STUDIES REVIEWED
The investigator reviewed the related studies and divided them into two following categories:
A. Indian studies.
B. Foreign studies.

A. INDIAN STUDIES
STUDIES ON FRIENDSHIP

Falki and Khatoon (2016) conducted a study on Friendship and Psychological Well being.
The aim of the current study was to find what role friendship plays in psychological well being. The study was conducted on the sample of 200 individuals all aged from 17 to 35. The results indicated that there is a significant positive correlation (r=.723) between friendship and psychological well being.
Ghosh, et. al. (2015) conducted a study on the Construction of a scale for assessing the Quality of Friendship.
The present study purported to construct a scale for assessing the Quality of Friendship. 370 healthy adult participants of either sex aged between 18-25 years were included in the study. The total sample was split into 3 sections- A (N= 100) on which Quality of Friendship Questionnaire (QFQ) was constructed; Sample B(N=200) the data of which was utilized for reliability assessment and factor analysis; sample (N==70) on which the relationship profile Test (Bornstein and Languirnad,2001) and The UCLA loneliness Scale based on the scores of Sample B and Sample C. Five factors emerged from the factor analysis namely- ‘Intimacy’, ‘Distress reaction’ ‘Negative behaviour,’ ‘Doubt’ and ‘telling lie’ and the final scale comprised of 87 items with a high reliability (Cronbach=0.96). Further significant negative correlation between ‘Quality of Friendship’ and loneliness was obtained, along with a significant positive correlation between ‘Quality of Friendship’ and healthy dependence.
Kalra (2014) conducted a study on Workplace Friendship, Employee Engagement and Job Burnout: A case of relationship study in BPO Sector of Delhi, NCR.
The purpose of this study was to find the relationship between Workplace Friendship, Employee Engagement and Job Burnout: A case of relationship study in BPO Sector. For this study data was collected from 100 employees working in BPO in Delhi NCR. For the Data analysis correlation and regression techniques were used. The research showed a positive correlation between workplace friendship and employee engagement. There was a significant impact of employee engagement on job burnout and there was no relationship between workplace friendship and job burnout among employees of BPOs. The research also suggested the direction for future recommendation on the relationship between workplace friendship and employee engagement.
Hasan and Bagde (2013) conducted a study on the Mechanics of Social capital and Academic performance in an Indian college.
This study examined how social capital affects the creation of human capital. The major findings of the study showed that students benefit equally from same and different caste roommates, suggesting that social similarity does not strengthen peer effects. Secondly peer effects are consequential determinant of academic achievement.
David, et. al. (2012) conducted a study on Social Inclusion: Teachers as facilitators in peer acceptance of students with disabilities in regular classrooms in tamilnadu.
The study examined the impact of classroom teachers’ attitude towards inclusive education, teachers’ self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Findings showed that in the context of inter-group Contact Theory, teachers’ classroom practices influenced the social status of students with disabilities in regular classrooms. The study’s findings also showed that the social status of the students with disabilities was similar to that of their peers without disabilities.
Bowker, et. al. (2011) conducted a study on Relational and overt aggression in urban India: Association with peer relations and best friends’ aggression.
This study explored the association between relational and overt aggression and social status and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends’ aggression during early adolescence in urban India. The sample taken for the study was 144. Analysis revealed associations between both forms of aggression and perceived popularity and between relational aggression and social preference. The consideration of best friend aggression explained some variability in the associations between both forms of aggression and peer correlates.
Pauriayal, et. al. (2011) conducted a study on Friendship pattern as a Correlate of Age and Gender differences among Urban Adolescents.
The study was conducted to assess the gender differences in the pattern of friendship among urban adolescents. The results revealed that the female showed significantly more intense friendship as compared to their male counterparts. Friendship patterns in males were better in younger years whereas females showed almost similar patterns of friendship in both the age-groups.
Khatri and Kupersmidt (2010) conducted a study on Aggression, Peer victimization, and Social relationships among Indian youth.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the peer aggression, victimization, and social relationships in children and adolescents in semi-rural India. Aggression and victimization were expected to be related to concurrent social problems such as peer rejection, perceived lack of social support, and perceived conflict in significant relationships. The main finding of the study showed that there was no significant developmental difference emerged with regard to peer aggression and victimization.
Kanekar, et.al. (2010) conducted a study on Perception of an Aggressor and His victim as a function of Friendship and Retaliation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of an aggressor (Study II) and his victim (Study I) as affected by their friendly of unfriendly relationship and the victim’s retaliation. For this two experiments were conducted. The findings suggest that aggression against a friend or liked person is perceived as less reprehensible and more justifiable than aggression against a disliked person.
Pauriyal, et. al. (2010) conducted a study on Impact of friendship patterns on Self-concept of Urban adolescents.
The study was conducted to assess the impact of friendship patterns on self-concept of urban adolescents (14-17) years. For this 200 students were taken as sample from Ludhiana city. The results revealed that in males the dimensions of friendship like acceptance and respect were positively and significantly correlated to the social domain of self-concept as well as the total self-concept. But, overall friendship was not significantly related to self-concept. In females, overall friendship indicated significant positive correlation with total self-concept.
.

STUDY HABITS

Chawla (2016) conducted a study on Achievement in Chemistry of IX graders in Relation to Study Habits.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the significance of relationship between Achievement in Chemistry and Study Habits. Sample of the study consisted of 151 IX class students selected randomly from two Government schools of Ludhiana city. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the two variables of the study.

Sherafat and Venkatesh (2016) conducted a study on Government and Private School Students in their Critical thinking and Study Habits.
In this study there is an attempt to understand whether Government and Private school students of Mysore differ on Critical thinking and Study Habits. In this study 625 students were taken as sample from Mysore city. Results showed significant difference between Government and Private school students in their critical thinking and study habits. The private school students had better critical thinking and study habits than government school students. It means critical thinking abilities and study habits of private school students are better than government school students.

Verma (2016) conducted a study on A study of Academic Achievement among High School students in relation to their Study Habits.
The purpose of the study was to study the relationship between Academic Achievement and Study Habits of High school students. For this study 160 students from 9th standard were taken as sample. The significant relationship was found between scores on the variables of Academic Achievement and Study Habits of high school students.

Chamundeswari, et. al. (2014) conducted a study on Self Concept, Study Habit and Academic Achievement of Students.
The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between self-concept, study habit and academic achievement of students. The sample of 381 students was taken from higher secondary schools for this study. Significant correlation was found between self-concept, study habit and academic achievement of students. A significant difference was also found between students of state board matriculation schools and central board schools regarding self-concept, study habit and academic achievement at the higher secondary school level.

Lamar (2014) conducted a study on Study Habits of Higher secondary school students of Shilong in Mathematics.
The study was undertaken to find the study habits of higher secondary school students towards mathematics. The researcher selected 200 higher secondary school students from 5 higher secondary schools in Shilong. The findings of the study were (i) majority of the higher secondary school students were average in their study habits.(ii) there was a significant difference between the study habits of male vs. female higher secondary school students and tribal and non-tribal higher secondary school students in mathematics.

Naaz (2014) conducted a study on a study of Undergraduate college students’ Study Habits in relation to their academic achievement.
The present study aims to study undergraduate college students’ study habits in relation to their academic achievement. The sample consisted of a total of 150 students of Noida city. The results revealed (i) study habits and academic achievement of undergraduate students have a significant relationship and the study habits and academic achievement of undergraduate students of arts stream do not differ significantly with respect to undergraduate students of science stream. (ii) the male undergraduate students do not differ significantly from the female undergraduate students with respect to their study habits and academic achievement.

Parveen (2014) conducted a study on A Correlational Study of Intelligence, Study Habits and Academic Achievement of tenth grade students.
The main objective of the study was to find the relationship among intelligence study habits and academic achievement of tenth grade students.100 samples were taken for the study. The findings of the study showed that there was significant relationship found between intelligence and study habits on male sample at tenth grade students. There was significant and positive relationship found between academic achievement and study habits on male sample at tenth grade students. Further no significant difference was found between intelligence and academic achievement on male sample at tenth grade students.

Sandhu (2014) conducted a study on Academic Achievement of Adolescents in relation to Achievement Motivation and Study Habits.
The present study was conducted to investigate the relation between academic achievement of adolescents and their achievement motivation and study habits. The sample comprised of 200, 10+1 class students from senior secondary schools of Ludhiana City. The findings of the study showed significant positive relation between academic achievement and achievement motivation and also between academic achievement and study habits.

Anwar (2013) conducted a study on a Correlational Study on Academic Achievement and Study Habits: Issues and Concerns.
The objective of this study was to study the relationship between study habits and academic achievement of senior secondary school students. 200 senior secondary school students from city of Lucknow (U.P) were selected for this study. The findings of the study were (i) there is positive relationship between academic achievement and study habits and the degree of relationship was high. (ii) academic performance of students having good and poor study habits differ significantly and good study habits result in high academic achievement.
Kumar (2013) conducted a study on a study of Academic Achievement of School Students in relation to their Study Habits, Academic Anxiety and Academic Motivation.
The objective of this study was to find the relation of academic achievement to their study habits, academic anxiety and academic motivation. The total sample comprised of 200 students of 9th class from six different government schools which were selected randomly from the selected blocks. The results revealed that academic achievement is affected by study habits. On the other hand the relationship between academic anxiety and academic achievement is negative. Also there is positive correlation between the academic motivation and academic achievement.

Chaudhary and Das (2012) conducted a study on Influence of Attitude towards Mathematics and Study Habit on Achievement of Mathematics on the Secondary stage.
The present study aims at studying the influence of areas in relation to the attitude towards mathematics and study habit on the achievement in mathematics to the pupils’ at secondary stage. In this study 500 IX standard students from secondary school of south kamrup district Assam were taken as sample. The main findings of the study were (i) attitude towards mathematics and achievement in mathematics are significantly related. (ii) boys have better achievement in mathematics than girls.(iii) English medium students have better performance in mathematics than assamese medium students.
COGNITIVE SELF-MANAGEMENT
Rao and Reddy (2015) conducted a study on The Relationship between Metacognition and Career Maturity among Adolescents.
This study examines the relationship between metacognition and career maturity in adolescents at the age range of 16-18 studying in II year Pre University/ 12th standard (n=60). The findings suggest that metacognition level and career maturity were not significantly related. Though the level of metacognitive awareness was not significantly different between the groups there was a significant difference in self-appraisal component of career maturity.

Manohara and Ramganesh (2009) conducted a study on Creative Problem- Solving Ability of XI standard students.
This study was undertaken with an objective of identifying the performance of XI standard students in creative problem-solving. A sample of 200 students was drawn from randomly selected five higher secondary schools in Pondicherry region. ‘Passi-Usha’ test of creative problem solving was administered in the present study. The study revealed that the performance of the students in creative problem-solving was average.
Karahroudi and Reddy (2013) conducted a study on The Study of Meta-Cognitive Strategy training and its effects on Reading Performance of the 5th Standard Boy and Girl Students of India
The purpose of the present study was to study the effect of metacognitive strategy training and its effect on reading performance of the 5th standard boy and girl students of India. To reach the goal of the study two groups of reading disabilities in the 5th standard students were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group. The experimental group was given instruction on Meta-cognitive strategy for 14 week period. However, only the experimental group received Meta-cognitive strategy training through training during the course of training. The findings indicated that Meta-cognitive strategy training has a significant positive effect on improving reading disabilities in 5th standard students.

Priyadarshini and Alexander (2013) conducted a study on Cognitive Self-Management of the High School Students.
This paper aims at providing analysis of the cognitive self-management of the high school students. The students of 21st century have to empower themselves with the evolving skills to attain success in life. Cognitive self-management is a recent development of cognitive psychology which focuses on core skills required for a person to manage oneself by adopting cognitive strategies. The study has investigated the cognitive self-management of the high school students in three districts viz. Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari. The sample consisted of 1108 IX standard students. The researcher has adapted the cognitive self-management test developed by Stephanie Rude (1980). The major findings include that girls are better in systematic problem solving while boys are better in goal scoring. There is no significant difference with respect to father’s occupation and the role model of the students.

Rani and Govil (2013) conducted a study on Metacognition and its Correlates: A Study.
The present study attempts to investigate correlates of metacognition of undergraduate students. The study explored the relationship of metacognition of undergraduate students with demographic variables like gender, place of living, academic achievement and parent’s education. The study was conducted on the sample of 313 undergraduate students of Aligarh District. The metacognitive inventory (MCI) developed by Punita Govil (I) has been used as the measure of metacognition of students. ‘t’ test and analysis of variance have been employed to analyze the data. The findings of the study reveal that gender has no significant impact on the metacognition of undergraduate students. On the other hand the metacognitive level of urban students differs significantly from their rural counterparts. The high and low achievement undergraduate students differ significantly on their metacognitive level. Moreover, father’s educational qualification has no significant impact on metacognition of the students under study while mother’s education has significant impact on it.
Antonyraj and Amalraj (2011) conducted a study on Cognitive Style and Academic Achievement of Outgoing Undergraduate History Students.
This research attempted to find the relationship between cognitive style and academic achievement of outgoing undergraduate history students in colleges affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli. The investigator randomly selected 760 final year under graduate history students from the colleges affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar university, in Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari districts. After framing the objectives and hypotheses, appropriate analysis was carried out on the collected data. From the analysis, it was found that the outgoing under graduate history students differed in their cognitive style and academic achievement. This study revealed that there was significant relationship between cognitive style and academic achievement of outgoing undergraduate history students with reference to certain background variables.
Sibichen (2010) conducted a study on Critical thinking and Decision making skills in teaching: A paradigm shift.
This study was made to find the level of critical thinking and decision making skills of the secondary teacher education students. Survey method was used in this study. The sample consisted of 75 secondary teacher education students, among them 37 are male and 38 are female. ‘t’ test and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that there was significant difference between graduate and post-graduate secondary teacher education students in their decision making skill.
Puri and Gakhar (2009) was conducted a study on Certain Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Variables as Predictors of Teacher effectiveness of Teacher Educators.
This study was conducted to find the differential and conjoint predictive efficiency of cognitive variables such as general mental ability, emotional intelligence and problem solving ability and non-cognitive variables. Present study was conducted on teachers of colleges of education affiliated to Punjab University, Chandigarh in 5 districts of Punjab. Teachers’ effectiveness scale, general mental ability test, emotional intelligence scale was used for the study. Other cognitive variables i.e. general mental ability, problem solving ability and other non-cognitive variables were not found to be significantly correlated.
Singh and Choubisa (2009) conducted a study on Effectiveness of Self-Focused Intervention for Enhancing Students’ well being.
The study is a direct implication of the usage of a positive psychology based intervention module delivered in a classroom setting where the effects of the various strategies on the students were assessed. Presumably, participants, who have undergone the intervention programme, would be having positive appraisal style. The students, who enrolled themselves for Positive Psychology course, participated in this study. Out of 90 participants, finally, 77 participants’ qualitative and quantitative data were taken into account. The results have been obtained by a pre-test and post-test within group experimental design for checking the significant differences as a way to the measure of effectiveness of the multi-component self-focused intervention programme.
Chattha, et. al. (2008) conducted a study on Effect of Yoga on Cognitive functions in Climactic Syndrome: A randomized control study.
The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of an integrated approach to Yoga therapy on cognitive abilities in climacteric syndrome. A randomized control study wherein the participants were divided into experimental and control groups. One hundred and eight premenopausal women between 40 and 55 years with follicle stimulating hormone level equal to or greater than 15 miu/ml. One hundred and twenty premenopausal women were randomly allotted into the yoga and the control groups. The Yoga group practiced a module comprising breathing practices, sun salutation and cyclic meditation, whereas the control group practiced a set of simple physical exercises, under supervision for 8 weeks. The Wilcoxon test showed significant (P

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