CHAPTER -1
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the introductory framework of the research. This chapter talks about the concept of E Banking services of banking industry in India, profiles of banks under the study, and also about the objectives, scope, research methodology and the hypotheses framed and adopted for the research study.

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Overview:
The Indian banking sector has emerged as one of the strongest drivers of India’s economic growth. The Indian banking industry (US$ 1.22 trillion) has made outstanding advancement in last few years, even during the times when the rest of the world was struggling with financial meltdown. State Bank Of India is the largest nationalized Bank in the country in terms of Branch Network, Total Business, Advances, Operating Profit and Low Cost CASA Deposits. The ICICI is amongst the first to receive an ‘in principle’ approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to set up a bank in the private sector, as part of the RBI’s liberalization of the Indian Banking Industry in 1994.
This chapter provides brief information about the E Banking services of the SBI and ICICI bank .Along with it, the chapter includes the objectives and methodology which will be used in this study.
E-banking:-

Internet banking (or E-banking) means any user with a personal computer and a browser can get connected to his banks website to perform any of the virtual banking functions. In Internet banking system the bank has a centralized database that is web-enabled. Internet banking is the term used for new age banking system. Internet banking is also called as online banking and it is an outgrowth of PC banking. Internet banking uses the internet as the delivery channel by which to conduct banking activity, for example, transferring funds, paying bills, viewing checking and savings account balances, paying mortgages and purchasing financial instruments and certificates of deposits. Internet banking is a result of explored possibility to use internet application in one of the various domains of commerce. It is difficult to infer whether the internet tool has been applied for convenience of bankers or for the customers’ convenience. But ultimately it contributes in increasing the efficiency of the banking operation as well providing more convenience to customers. Without even interacting with the bankers, customers transact from one corner of the country to another corner. There are many advantages of online Banking. It is convenient, it isn’t bound by operational timings, there are no geographical barriers and the services can be offered at a minuscule cost (IAMAI’s, 2006). Electronic banking has experienced explosive growth and has transformed traditional practices in banking.
In its very basic form, e-banking can mea mean the provision of information about a bank and its services via a home page on the World Wide Web (WWW). More sophisticated e-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts, and making payments or applying for loans via e-Channels. The term e-banking will be used in this book to describe the latter type of provision of services by an organization to its customers. Such customers may be either an individual or another business. To understand the electronic distribution of goods and services, the work of Report and Sviokla (1994; 1995) is a good starting point. They highlight the differences between the physical market place and the virtual market place, which they describe as an information-defined arena. In the context of e-banking, electronic delivery of services means a customer conducting transactions using online electronic channels such as the Internet? Many banks and other organizations are eager to use this channel to deliver their services because of its relatively lower delivery cost, higher sales and potential for offering greater convenience for customers. But this medium offers many more benefits, which will be discussed in the next section. A large number of organizations from within and outside the financial sector are currently offering e-banking which include delivering services using Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) phones and Interactive Television. Many people see the development of e-Banking as a revolutionary development, but, broadly speaking, e-banking could be seen as another step in banking evolution. Just like ATMs, it gives consumers another medium for conducting their banking. The fears that this channel will completely replace existing channels may not be realistic, and experience so far shows that the future is a mixture of ?clicks (e-banking) and mortar (branches)?. Although start up costs for an internet banking channel can be high, it can quickly become profitable once a critical mass is achieved.
Online Banking

PC Banking

Telephone Banking

Internet Banking

E-Banking
Mobile Banking

Other Channels

E-Banking Services

EVOLUTION OF E-BANKING

There have been significant developments in the e-financial services sector in the past 30 years. According to Devlin (1995), until the early 1970s functional demarcation was predominant with many regulatory restrictions imposed. One main consequence of this was limited competition both domestically and internationally. As a result there was heavy reliance on traditional branch based delivery of financial services and little pressure for change. This changed gradually with deregulation of the in-E-Banking Management IGI Global, distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited industry during 1980s and 1990s, whilst during this time, the increasingly important role of information and communication technologies brought stiffer competition and pressure for a faster pace of change. The Internet is a relatively new channel for delivering banking services.
INTERNET BANKING VS. TRADITIONAL BANKING

The basic difference between Internet banking and traditional banking is that in traditional banking the customer has to visit the branch in person for the basic banking needs viz. withdrawal or deposit of cash, transfer of funds, statement of accounts, etc. In Internet banking, on the other hand, these operations can be performed through the PCs without physically visiting the bank branch. It is a win-win solution both for customer and the bank. The customer is not put to inconvenience of traveling, and the time so saved can be effectively utilized in other productive ways, whereas the bank earns by having lower overheads, establishments, premises and maintenance costs, in turn resulting into reduced per transaction cost. The greatest advantage of Internet banking is that it enables a customer to perform basic banking transactions through PC or Laptop, located anywhere in the world. Through the internet, customer accesses the banks website for viewing the account details or performing the basic banking transactions.
The other major advantages emerging out of Internet banking are as follows:
1. The customer can perform basic banking transactions, round the clock.
2. No personal visit to the branch is required.
3. One can access and operate one’s account from anywhere in the world.
4. The extensive, geographically divergent, traditional brick and mortar structure of the branch need not be there
5. The requirement of staff at branches gets optimized.
6. Easy, convenient, efficient and speedy banking services both for the bank and the customer. 7

7. Transaction is automatically reconciled and posted in all required data tables, thus reducing the workload.
MECHANICS OF INTERNET BANKING

The basic steps involved in completing transactions through Internet banking are extremely simple and are available in a user-friendly environment. One does not necessarily need to possess detailed computer knowledge to complete transactions through internet banking. The availability of a user-friendly demo version of the site as well as on-line help means that even first time users are able to use the facility. The entire mechanism involved in Internet banking is outlined below:
1. Access the Bank’s website
2. Click on the option which provides Internet Banking
3. Enter the User-ID, Password/PIN
4. Perform the requisite transactions
5. Logout
SERVICES

Internet banking service offers banking services on-line with the same personal effort that is received at the branch. On-line request are processed by a proactive team of personal bankers adhering to service quality standards.
Services offered include the following:
1. Sending in request for a cheque book from the convenience of home
2. Viewing accounting statements on-line
3. Notification of change of address so as to update the records
4. Requesting for a draft on-line to be couriered at the mailing address specified by the customer
5. Transferring funds between one accounts of the customer to another account of the same customer.
6. Viewing details of past 3 months transactions Customer
7. Updating of foreign exchange currency rates
8. Intimating on-line about a stop payment
9. Notification of lost/stolen ATM card
The internet banking service adds more value to NRIs who can view their balances online and also effect fund transfer, just at the click of a mouse. Moreover, Internet banking has no time zones and is accessible round the clock without restricting it to any geographical boundary.
DRAWBACKS OF INTERNET BANKING

Despite the fact Internet banking has come to revolutionize the whole way the banking is transacted in modern times, it is not free from criticism. Following are some of the drawbacks of Internet banking:

1. Needs a Computer

In order to use the Internet banking services, the user needs a computer and time to log on to the website of the bank. This means that the target clientele is restricted to those who have a home PC or can access the net through the office or cyber cafes. The customer has to pay every time to check the balance. This can be done free at an ATM.
2. Restricted Use

Another drawback of Internet banking is that it is not possible that all transactions can be carried out electronically. Many deposits and some withdrawals require the use of postal services, which can be slow and reliable even in developed economies.

3. Unreliable Communication Facility

The use of Internet banking requires the use of uninterrupted telecommunication facility. Where phone connections are not perfect and where on a home PC the modem often gets disconnected, frequent and tedious log-on becomes necessary.

4. Slow Browsing

Often it becomes frustrating to browse the Internet to be able to access he host of financial products that are made available in the website of the bank. Navigating around websites on home computers is often slow and frustrating. Pages take inordinately long time to load and, as Internet users have a particularly low irritation threshold; a few frustrated attempts could put the user off, quite seriously.
5. Lack of Trust

The use of Internet banking services depend much on the trust reposed by the customers of a bank on the Internet banking initiative of the bank. It therefore becomes an imperative that Internet start-ups gain the trust of depositors before they will make deposits. Customers may get less protection that with established banks.

6. Absence of Validity

Absence of necessary legal framework for recognizing the validity of banking transactions is another impediment for the Internet banking.
7. Safety Problem

Security threats on the Internet leads to perception of Internet banking as an unsafe channel. This dissuades the customers in making popular use of the Internet banking It is to be noted that most of the problems mentioned above are in the nature of teething problems and bankers are quite alive to them and it is expected that these would be eliminated over period of time.

INTERNET BANKING – MAJOR ISSUES

There is a fear that in banking and in any other industry, the Internet may destroy basic business pricing models. At the same time, it also opens up abundant opportunities. The major issues relating to the use of Internet in the realm of banking and financial services are discussed below:

1. Sustainability

The internet banking creates perfect market conditions where customers have access to more information and can more readily compare rates and financial products offerings. This would pose considerable problems for banks as it would be difficult for them to differentiate quality of customer service pricing and reliability through internet channels. This would ultimately affect the banks sustainability as regards profit margins.
2. No Entry Barriers

Internet banking has no entry barriers. This encourages even new banks to establish a physical distribution channel to successfully compete with current banking majors. This way, Internet banking makes possible new start-up players to launch retail banking services more economically.
3. Cost Factor

Many a time, Internet banking has resulted in pushing up the cost of bank operations. This may be due to fact that banks that start Internet banking operations, although automate their front-end process for the customers, still largely depend upon manual processes at the backend. A case in point is that the Internet customers receive their statement on-line but paper – statements are also sent. Similarly, customers complete account opening application on-line which is sent electronically to the bank. Many banks print the account application and enter the application data into another system, thereby increasing the operational overheads. Similarly, mail and distribution costs are still necessary as the statement, cheques etc. are still mailed.
4. Dominant Traditional Banking

The development of Internet banking allows for the efficient delivery of a wide variety of web based banking products. It simply adds to proliferation of technology based delivering channels such as ATMs, phone banking, on-line banking etc. However, customers, by and large, support traditional branch banking. Moreover, Internet based transactions are generally not fully automated, as the same may require additional telephone calls, paper work, data entry etc.

5. No Float Benefit

For quite a long time, banks are traditionally taken benefits of income from floats, the short term us of funds during the period the funds are allowed to reach the destination. The revenue from these resources will reduce since electronic channel like Internet banking, speedup settlement processes.
6. Marketing Challenges

The proliferation of Internet Banking throws a challenge to the banking sector in that it warrants banks to undertake changes in current structure and functional processes so as to allow for the provision of efficient banking service. It often becomes difficult for the banks to deliver information quickly as they are trapped by unaligned organizational structure and costly legacy systems.

7. Marketing Advantage

Internet banking facilitates easy marketing of banking and financial products and services. For instance, it allows customers to easily compare all the products and sign-up for all the products irrespective of location.
8. Advantage for New Players

New players in the realm of Internet banking would find the going advantageous to them. They command cost advantage over the older banks. This would prompt the new banks to indulge in undercutting of prices, thus paving the way for greater competition to old banks.

9. Higher Ratings

Generally, stock markets tend to form a conservative opinion about old banks because of their slow rate in adoption of technology. On the other hand, the internet advantage would enable the new entrants to secure higher ratings. This would help them raise money needed for business cheaply. This way, the new banks would attack the old banks either organically or through acquisitions.

E banking support services:

WEB LINKING

A large no. of financial institution maintains sites on the websites are strictly informational while others also offers to customers the ability to perform financial transactions such as paying bills transferring funds etc.

WIRELESS E BANKING

Wireless banking is the delivery channel that can extend the reach and enhance the convenience of Internet banking products and services. Wireless banking occurs when customers access a financial institution’s network(s) using cellular phones, pagers, and personal digital assistants (or similar devices) through telecommunication companies’ wireless networks. Wireless banking services in the United States typically supplement a financial institution’s e-banking products and services.
PERSON-TO-PERSON

Payments Electronic person-to-person payments, also known as e-mail money, permit consumers to send ?money? to any person or business with an e-mail address. Under this scenario, a consumer electronically instructs the person-to-person payment service to transfer funds to another Individual. The payment service then sends an e-mail notifying the individual that the funds are available and informs him or her of the methods available to access the funds including requesting a check, transferring the funds to an account at an insured financial institution, transmitting the funds to someone else. Person-to-person payments are typically funded by credit card charges transfer from the consumer’s account at a financial institution. Since neither the payee nor the payer in the transaction has to have an account with the payment service, such services may be offered by an insured financial institution, but are frequently offered by other businesses as well. Banking Services through Internet:
There are four types of plastic cards being used as media for making payments. These are:
1. Credit Card
2. Debit Card
3. Smart Card
4. ATM Card

1. CREDIT CARDS: –
The credit card enables the cardholders to: Purchase any item like clothes, jewellery , railway/air tickets, etc. Pay bills for dining in a restaurant or boarding and lodging in hotel Avail of any service like car rental, etc.
2. DEBIT CARDS: –
A debit card is issued on payment of a specified amount by the issuing company like a telephone company to a customer on cash payment or on debiting his account by a bank. Thus it is like an electronic purse, which can be read and debited by the required amount .It may be noted that while through a credit card, the customer first makes a purchase or avails service and pays later on, but forgetting the debit card, a customer has to first pay the due amount and then make a purchase or avail the service. For this reason, debit card are not as popular as credit cards.

3. SMART CARDS: –
Smart Cards have a built-in microcomputer chip, which can be used for storing and processing information. For example, a person can have a smart card from a bank with the specified amount stored electronically on it. As he goes on making transactions with the help of the card, the balance keeps on reducing electronically. When the specified amount is utilized by the customer, he can approach the bank to get his card validated for a further specified amount. Such cards are used for paying small amounts like telephone calls, petrol bills, etc.

4. ATM CARDS: –
The card contains a PIN (Personal Identification Number) which is selected by the customer or conveyed to the customer and enables him to withdraw cash up to the transaction limit for the day. He can also deposit cash or cheque.
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COMPANY PROFILE:

SBI

State Bank of India (SBI) is a multinational banking and financial services company based in India. It is a state-owned corporation with its headquarters in Mumbai, Maharashtra. Bank of Madras merged into the other two presidency banks—Bank of Calcutta and Bank of Bombay to form the Imperial Bank of India, which in turn became the State Bank of India. The Government of Indianationalised the Imperial Bank of India in 1955, with the Reserve Bank of India taking a 60% stake, and renamed it the State Bank of India The State Bank of India was named the 29th most reputed company in the world according to Forbes 2009 rankings and was the only bank featured in the “top 10 brands of India” list in an annual survey conducted by Brand Finance .
The roots of the State Bank of India lie in the first decade of 19th century, when the Bank of Calcutta, later renamed the Bank of Bengal was established on 2 June 1806. The Bank of Bengal was one of three Presidency banks, the other two being the Bank of Bombay (incorporated on 15 April 1840) and the Bank of Madras (incorporated on 1 July 1843). All three Presidency banks were incorporated as joint stock companies and were the result of the royal charters. These three banks received the exclusive right to issue paper currency till 1861 when with the Paper Currency Act; the right was taken over by the Government of India. The Presidency banks amalgamated on 27 January 1921, and the re-organized banking entity took as its name Imperial Bank of India. The Imperial Bank of India remained a joint stock company but without Government participation.
Pursuant to the provisions of the State Bank of India Act of 1955, the Reserve Bank of India, which is India’s central bank, acquired a controlling interest in the Imperial Bank of India. On 30 April 1955, the Imperial Bank of India became the State Bank of India. The government of India recently acquired the Reserve Bank of India’s stake in SBI so as to remove any conflict of interest because the RBI is the country’s banking regulatory authority.
In 1959, the government passed the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act, which made eight state banks associates of SBI. A process of consolidation began on 13 September 2008, when the State Bank of Saurashtra merged with SBI.
SBI has acquired local banks in rescues. The first was the Bank of Behar (est. 1911), which SBI acquired in 1969, together with its 28 branches. The next year SBI acquired National Bank of Lahore (est. 1942), which had 24 branches. Five years later, in 1975, SBI acquired Krishnaram Baldeo Bank, which had been established in 1916 in Gwalior State, under the patronage of Maharaja Madho Rao Scindia. The bank had been the Dukan Pichadi, a small moneylender, owned by the Maharaja. The new banks first manager was Jall N. Broacha, a Paris. In 1985, SBI acquired the Bank of Cochin in Kerala, which had 120 branches. SBI was the acquirer as its affiliate, the State Bank of Travancore, already had an extensive network in Kerala.

WHERE SBI WAS?

? In early 1990?s more than 7000 branches were using traditional manual procedures.
? These manual procedures were inherited from the Imperial Bank.
? Traditional procedures were evolved over decades
? Very few changes were brought in those procedures as per the need of time.
? In that time, mainframe or mini computers were used for MIS, RECONCILLATION & FUND SETTLEMENT PROCESS, or we can say that for backhand operations purpose.

CHANGES BROUGHT IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY SBI

? In the next decade internet facility was provided for individuals.
? All SBI branches were connected and ATM’S were launch
? 2001 – KMPG appointed consultant for preparing IT Plan for the Bank.
? Later on Core banking proposed by the IT consultancy company.
? 2002 – All branches computerized but on decentralized systems, there the initiative of core banking took place.
? 2008- more than 6500 branches (95% of business) on Core Banking Solution (CBS).
? Internet Banking facility for Corporate customers were also launched in early 2008.
? More Interfaces developed with e-Commerce ; other sites through alternate channels like ATM ; Online Banking.
? All Foreign Offices were brought on Centralized Solution.
? Large network is playing the role of backbone for connectivity across the country.
ATM
SBI provides easy access to money to its customers through more than 8500 ATMs in India. The Bank also facilitates the free transaction of money at the ATMs of State Bank Group, which includes the ATMs of State Bank of India as well as the Associate Banks – State Bank of Bikaner ; Jaipur, State Bank of Hyderabad, State Bank of Indore, etc. You may also transact money through SBI Commercial and International Bank Ltd by using the State Bank ATM-cum-Debit (Cash Plus) card.
Products and Services

Personal Banking

o SBI Term Deposits SBI Loan For Pensioners
o SBI Recurring Deposits Loan Against Mortgage Of Property
o SBI Housing Loan Against Shares ; Debentures
o SBI Car Loan Rent Plus Scheme
o SBI Educational Loan Medi-Plus Scheme
Other Services
o Agriculture/Rural Banking
o NRI Services
o ATM Services
o De mat Services
o Corporate Banking
o Internet Banking
o Mobile Banking
o International Banking
o Safe Deposit Locker
o RBIEFT
o E-Pay
o E-Rail
o SBI Vishwa Yatra Foreign Travel Card
o Broking Services
o Gift Cheques

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ICICI

It is an Indian financial services company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is the second largest bank in India by assets and third largest by market capitalization. It offers a wide range of banking products and financial services to corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery channels and through its specialized subsidiaries in the areas of investment banking, life and non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management. The Bank has a network of 2,883 branches and 10021 ATM’s in India, and has a presence in 19 countries, including India.
The bank has subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, Russia, and Canada; branches in United States, Singapore, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Qatar and Dubai International Finance Centre; and representative offices in United Arab Emirates, China, South Africa, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. The company’s UK subsidiary has established branches in Belgium and Germany.
ICICI Bank is one of the big four banks of India, along with State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank and Canara Bank.
ICICI Bank is India’s second-largest bank with total assets of 3,997.95 billion (US$ 100 billion) at March 31, 2012 and profit after tax of Rs. 41.58 billion for the year ended March 31, 2012 ICICI Bank is the most valuable bank in India in terms of market capitalization and is ranked second amongst all the companies listed on the Indian stock exchanges. In terms of free float market capitalization. The Bank has a network of about 1308 branches
And 3,950 ATMs in India and presence in 18 countries. ICICI Bank offers a wide range of banking products and financial services to corporate and retail customer through a variety of delivery channels and through its specialized subsidiaries and affiliates in the areas of investment banking, life and non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management. Equity shares are listed in India on Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India Limited and its American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).

HISTORY

ICICI bank was originally promoted in 1994 by ICICI limited an Indian financial institution and was its wholly owned subsidy of ICICI.
In the 1990s, ICICI transformed its business from development financial institution offering only project finance to a diversified financial services group offering a wide variety of products and services, both directly and through a number of subsidiaries and affiliates like ICICI Bank. In1999, ICICI become the first Indian company and the first bank or financial institution from non-Japan Asia to be listed on the NYSE .After consideration of various corporate structuring alternatives in the context of the emerging competitive scenario in the Indian banking industry, and the move towards universal banking for the ICICI group’s universal banking strategy.
In October 2001, the Boards of Directors of ICICI and ICICI Bank approved the merger of ICICI and two of its wholly-owned retail finance subsidiaries, ICICI Personal Financial Services Limited and ICICI Capital Services Limited, with ICICI Bank. The merger was approved by shareholders of ICICI and ICICI Bank in January 2002, by the High Court of Gujarat at Ahmadabad in March2002, and by the High Court of Judicature at Mumbai and the Reserve Bank of India in April 2002. Consequent to the merger, the ICICI group’s financing and banking operations, both wholesale and retail, have been integrated in a single entity. ICICI Bank has formulated a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for its directors and employees.

MOBILE BANKING
Bank on the move with ICICI bank mobile banking. With ICICI banking is no longer what is used to be. ICICI bank offers mobile facility.

ALERT FACILITY

ICICI Bank Mobile Banking Alerts facility keeps you informed about the significant transactions in its Accounts. It keeps you updated wherever you go.

REQUEST FACILITY

ICICI Bank Mobile Banking Requests facility enables you to query for its account balance
ICICI Bank Online:
Banking Services provide the largest private bank in India right here at your desktops. Banking becomes pleasure as the transactions and services become instant with ICICI Bank online Internet banking. The services provided are totally secure and unique. These cover online account transactions and operations, credit card and account applications and payments, share trading and investments through mutual funds, bill payments, statement generation and a virtual demo of each service. See in brief in final report.
Features offered by ICICI bank for internet banking:
• Balance enquiry and statement
• Transfer fund online
• Card to card fund transfer
• Use debit card online
• Prepaid mobile recharge
• Subscribe for mobile banking
• Link bank account to ATM
• Lock / activate debit cards /ATM

• Request a cheque book
• Stop payment

OBJECTIVE:

? To study the various E-Banking services provided by the Indian banks to the customers.
? To study the perception of E-Banking among the customers of Public (SBI) and private (ICICI) bank.
? To study the adoption of E Banking by the customers of ICICI and SBI bank.
? To compare the perception and adoption of E-Banking services in ICICI and SBI bank.

SCOPE:

Scope of the study is to get an overview of the E- Banking services in India with special reference to public(SBI)and private(ICICI) Bank and to compare the adoption of E Banking among the public and private sector bank customers. The study mainly focuses on the customers of three branches of ICICI and SBI bank of Delhi region.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

The study employs primary data as well as secondary data. Secondary data was collected from different published sources. Primary data was collected by structured survey. The survey was created online and link sent to the respondents using convenience sampling. In the questionnaire, various internet banking applications were included from previous research. Later, structured questionnaire containing 15 items was developed (8 for general perception and 7 for internet banking features) for the purpose of data collection.

DATA COLLECTION:

Both the primary and secondary data collection method has been employed to conduct the research work the survey has been carried out by the means of structured questionnaire which consist of 15 questions.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:

Sampling units of the study consist of customers of SBI and ICICI banks. The technique used in selecting the sample is non probability sampling i.e. Random sampling and Convenience sampling.

DATA ANALYSIS:
? Mean,
? Standard Deviation,
? T-test.

TOOLS USED:
? M S Excel
? SPSS
The research methodology can be summarized as under:

Sampling Unit Bank Customers
Sampling Size 100
Sampling Technique Random and Convenience sampling.
Project Instrument Standardized questionnaire

HYPOTHESIS:

H01: There is no equal preference of the various e banking services among SBI bank.
HA1: There is equal preference of the various e banking services among SBI bank.
H02: There is no equal preference of the various e banking services among ICICI bank.
HA2: There is equal preference of the various e banking services among ICICI bank.
H03: There is no equal preference of usage of the e banking services among SBI bank.
HA3: There is equal preference of usage of the e banking services among SBI bank.
H04: There is no equal preference of usage of the e banking services among ICICI bank.
HA4: There is equal preference of usage of the e banking services among ICICI bank.
H05: There is no significant difference in the perception of E banking services of customers of SBI and ICICI bank.
HA5: There is a significant difference in the perception of E banking services of customers of SBI and ICICI bank.
H06: There is no significant difference in the usage of E banking services by the customers of SBI and ICICI bank.
HA6: There is a significant difference in the usage of E banking services by the customers of SBI and ICICI bank.

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CHAPTER – 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter deals with the various research studies related to the customer perception towards E banking. The relationship between the Internet banking and the traditional banking activity is also reviewed.

A critic on various studies on customer perception:
Rajesh Kumar Srivastava (2011) investigated that Internet banking is still at infancy stage in the world. Many studies focused on usage of internet banking but many factors on non-usage were overlooked. This research was carried out to validate the conceptual model of internet banking. The causes were identified and researched through correcting the causative factors so that internet banking can be used by more people. The research is focused on what are the customer’s perceptions about internet banking and what are the drivers that drive consumers. How consumers have accepted internet banking and how to improve the usage rate were the focus of research area in this study. Qualitative exploratory research using questionnaire was applied. 500 respondents were selected for study after initial screening. They were all bank customers. The study revealed that education, gender, income plays an important role in usage of internet banking. Not much research has been done on these areas as they were focused more on the acceptance of technology rather than on people. The research corroborated the conceptual framework stating that if skills can be upgraded there will be greater will to use internet banking by consumers. Inhibitory factors like trust, gender, education, culture, religion, security, and price can have minimal effect on consumer mindset towards internet banking.
Rao et al. (2011) identified a theoretical framework of Internet banking in India and found that as compared to banks abroad, Indian banks offering online services still have a long way to go. For online banking to reach a critical mass, there has to be sufficient number of users and the sufficient infrastructure in place. I.T. has introduced new business paradigms and is increasingly playing a significant role in improving the services in the banking industry. Internet banking is becoming more and more popular today, as is banking via digital television. Beyond doubt, a substantial part of the future of banking business lies in a banking environment that is less and less branch-based and where customers are able to access banking services remotely. The automated service quality research has been limited to relationship management rather than service quality or its acceptance by consumer.
Corrocher (2011) investigated the determinants of the Internet technology adoption for the provision of banking services in the Italian context and also studied the relationship between the Internet banking and the traditional banking activity, in order to understand if these two systems of financial services delivery are perceived as substitutes or complements by the banks. According to the results of the empirical analysis, banks seem to perceive Internet banking as a substitute for the existing branching structure, although there is also some evidence that banks providing innovative financial services are more inclined to adopt the innovation than traditional banks. Technology has had a remarkable influence on the growth of service delivery portions.
Prof. K.T. Geetha1 ; V.Malarvizhi (2011) had investigated that the factors which are affecting the acceptance of e-banking services among the customers and also indicates level of concern regarding security and privacy issues in Indian context. Primary data was collected from 200 respondents through a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to explain demographic profile of respondents and Factor and Regression analyses were used to know the factors affecting e-banking services among customer in India. The finding depicts many factors like security and privacy and awareness level increased the acceptance of e-banking services among Indian customers. The finding shows that if banks provide them necessary guidance and ensure safety of their accounts, customers are willing to adopt e-banking.
Arne Floh (2011) examined the importance of online loyalty such as trust, quality of the Web site, quality of the service and overall satisfaction. Rather than investigating which factors drive customers to use online banking instead of offline banking, this paper addresses the problem of how to keep customers online and loyal to a specific supplier. A survey among more than 2,000 customers of an Austrian online bank was conducted and a structural equation modeling approach was used to gain important insights into how customer retention in the online banking business can be ensured. Satisfaction and trust were identified as important antecedents of loyalty. Additionally, the moderating role of consumer characteristics (gender, age, involvement, perceived risk and technophobia) was supported by the data.
R.GEETHA(2011) had explained that the Online banking or Internet banking allows the customers to conduct banking, financial and insurance transactions on a secure and protected website operated by their retail or virtual bank. Normally the customer would have to make a trip to the bank to do these transactions, but with the advent of internet banking the ease of account operation for customers has gone up. All the customer requires is a PC with an internet connection and internet banking login id and password to use this facility.

Sankaran, Vidya (2010) aim was to find out the customers perception to internet banking and also tries to examine whether there is any relation between various demographic variables and customers perception about internet banking. The sample consisted of 200 bank customers, 54 from State Bank of India, 44 from ICICI, 27 from HDFC, 19 from other private sector banks, and 56 from other public sector banks. The convenience sampling technique was adopted for selecting the respondents. Tool for measuring the variables was developed by the researcher with the help of previous studies. A questionnaire was developed on a five point likert scale. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was assessed and found to be 0.7501.

Malhotra, Pooja ; Singh, B. (2010) investigates present status of Internet banking in India and the extent of Internet banking services offered by Internet banks. In addition, it seeks to examine the factors affecting the extent of Internet banking services. The data for this study are based on a survey of bank websites explored during July 2009. The sample consists of 82 banks operating in India. Multiple regression technique is employed to explore the determinants of the extent of Internet banking services. The results show that the private and foreign Internet banks have performed well in offering a wider range and more advanced services of Internet banking in comparison with public sector banks. Among the determinants affecting the extent of Internet banking services, size of the bank, experience of the bank in offering Internet banking financing pattern and ownership of the bank are found to be significant. The primary limitation of the study is the scope and size of its sample as well as other variables (e.g. market, environmental, regulatory etc) which may have an effect on the decision of the banks to offer a wide range of Internet banking services. The purpose of the study is to help fill significant gaps in knowledge about the Internet banking landscape in India. The findings are expected to be of great use to the government, regulators, commercial banks, and other financial institutions, e.g. co-operative banks planning to offer Internet banking bank customers and researchers. An understanding of the factors affecting the extent of Internet banking services is essential both for economists studying the determinants of growth and for the creators and producers of such technologies. Moreover, this paper contributes to the empirical literature on diffusion of financial innovations, particularly Internet banking in a developing country, i.e. India.

Dr. Saroj K. Datta (2010) concluded that the factors which are affecting the acceptance of e-banking services among adult customers and also indicates level of concern regarding security and privacy issues in Indian context. Primary data was collected from 200 respondents, above the age of 35, through a structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis, descriptive statistics was used to explain demographic profile of respondents and also Factor and Regression analyses were used to know trend of internet use and factors affecting e-banking services among adult customer in India. The finding depicts many factors like security ; privacy, trust, innovativeness, familiarity, awareness level increase the acceptance of E Banking services among Indian customers. The finding shows that in spite of their security and privacy concern, adult customers are willing to adopt online banking if banks provide him necessary guidance. Based on the results of current study, Bank’s managers would segment the market on the basis of age group and take their opinion and will provide them necessary guidance regarding use of online banking.

Polaris Software Lab (2010) had this study Polaris Software Lab Limited (POLS.BO),a leading Financial Technology Company, launched Intellect(TM) PRIVACY based on state-of-the-art technology and four patents filed by the Indian Institute of Technology Madras. IndusInd Bank has become the first bank in India to implement Intellect(TM) PRIVACY, an online and internet banking security card, for its internet banking customers. The technology will protect customers and banks from practically all kinds of phishing attacks, viz. deceptive e-mail, key/screen logger, brute force/dictionary attacks and Trojans, etc .Intellect PRIVACY uses multi factor ,dynamic authentication technology providing for authorizing online banking transactions, in a completely secure platform. Commenting on the innovation, Professor L S Ganesh, Coordinator of the programmer, said, “At IIT Madras, the Department of Computer Science and Engineering and the Department of Management Studies got particularly interested in designing an internet security technology that is cost efficient and easy to use in a rapidly growing e-commerce scenario, and transferring it commercially.

Azouzi, D. (2009) this paper aims to check if the current and prompt technological revolution altering the whole world has crucial impacts on the Tunisian banking sector. Particularly, this study seeks some clues on which we can rely in order to understand the customers’ behavior regarding the adoption of electronic banking. To achieve this purpose, an empirical research is carried out in Tunisia and it reveals that panoply of factors is affecting the customers-attitude toward e-banking. For instance; age, gender and educational qualifications seem to be important and they split up the group into electronic banking adopters and traditional banking defenders and so, they have significant influence on the customers’ adoption of e-banking. Furthermore, this study shows that despite the presidential incentives and in spite of being fully aware of the e-baking’s benefits, numerous respondents are still using the conventional banking. It is worthy to mention that the fear of loss because of transactions errors or hackers plays a significant role in alienating Tunisian customers from online banking.

Elizabeth Daniel (2009) concluded that the newest delivery channel to be offered by the retail banks in many developed countries and there is wide agreement that this channel will have a significant impact on the market. Aims to quantify the current provision of electronic services by major retail banking organizations in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Additional in- sight into the banks’ adoption of this new channel is gained by exploring two areas important in the analysis of new offerings, that is: an organization’s approach to innovation; and their view of the current and future markets. By use of a mailed questionnaire, it was found that 25 per cent of the banks in the UK and the Republic of Ireland which responded to this survey are already offering online transactional services to consumers in their homes. The largest group of respondents (50 per cent) is those that are currently testing or developing such ser- vices, while just 25 per cent of the respondents were in organizations not providing or developing such services. It is also found that the organization’s vision of the future, their prediction of customer acceptance, which tends to be very low, and their organizational culture of innovation are the most important of the suggested factors in their adoption of electronic delivery.

Hill (2009) conducted a study concerned with identifying the characteristics of online banking users. She mentioned that it is commonly assumed that demographics do influence the acceptance of electronic self-service tools, such as online banking. The result of the study was that people who use such services are young, trendy and high earning. They actively seek out online banking tools, and they want to conduct all transactions through the same channel.

B. Dizon, J.A. (2009) have founded that “E- Baking’s appeal is primarily its convenience. Clients now a day’s want instant results; they don’t want to wait anymore,” said Francisco M. Caparros, Jr., senior vice-president of Asia United Bank and president of Banc Net. It’s also turned out to be a more efficient way to process transactions, as e-banking does away with most of the paperwork that clients have to accomplish. “A lot of people don’t like filling forms,” Mr. Caparros added. “Online banking, in particular, relies on usernames and passwords which need to be protected,” said Ferdinand G. La Chica, first vice- president and marketing group head for Sterling Bank of Asia. These anti- theft barriers are at times supplemented by transaction passwords and “tokens”, often a key chain-like device that is issued to the client and generates random, one-time passwords to enable him to log into his account online. Last year, the Rural Bank Association of the Philippines announced that its members are looking to appoint local merchants like sari-sari stores as third party agents where consumers can open new accounts and make large payments. Such informal outlets will enable banks to reach out to small-income businesses and individuals, particularly those in the agrarian sector, most of who are based outside the city center.

Uppal, R.K. & Chawla, R. (2009) highlights the customer perception regarding e-banking services. A survey of 1,200 respondents was conducted in Ludhiana district, Punjab. The respondents were equally divided among three bank groups namely, public sector, private sector and foreign banks. The present study investigates the perceptions of the bank customers regarding necessity of e-banking services, quality of e-banking services, bank frauds, future of e banking, preference of bank customers regarding banks, comparative study of banking services in various bank groups, preferences regarding use of e-channels and problems faced by e-bank customers. The major finding of this study is that customers of all bank groups are interested in e-banking services, but at the same time are facing problems like, inadequate knowledge, poor network, lack of infrastructure, unsuitable location, misuse of ATM cards and difficulty to open an account. Keeping in mind these problems faced by bank customers, this paper frames some strategies like customer education, seminars/meetings, proper network and infrastructure facilities, online shopping facilities, proper working and installation of ATM machines, etc., to enhance e-banking services. Majority of professionals and business class customers as well as highly educated and less educated customers also feel that e-banking has improved the quality of customer services in banks.

Tero pikkarainin (2008) concluded that advances in electronic banking technology have created novel ways of handling daily banking affairs especially via the online banking channel. The acceptance of online banking services has been rapid in many parts of the world and in the leading e banking countries the number of e banking contracts has exceeded 50 percent. Investigates online banking acceptance in the light of traditional technology acceptance model (TAM), which is leveraged into the online environment. On the basis of the focus group interviewed with banking professionals, TAM literature and banking studies we develop a model indicating online banking acceptance among private banking customers in Finland. The model was tested with the survey sample of 268 respondents. The finding of the study indicates that perceived usefulness and information on online banking on the web site were the main factors influencing online banking acceptance.

Reeti, Sanjay, and Malhotra, A. (2008) examined about the Customers’ perspectives regarding e-banking in an emerging economy. So that, the author determining various factors affecting customer perception and attitude towards and satisfaction with e-banking is an essential part of a bank’s strategy formulation process in an emerging economy like India. To gain this understanding in respect of Indian customers, the study was conducted on respondents taken from the northern part of India. The major findings depict that customers are influenced in their usage of e-banking services by the kind of account they hold, their age and profession, attach highest degree of usefulness to balance enquiry service among e-banking services, consider security &trust most important in affecting their satisfaction level and find slow transaction speed the most frequently faced problem while using e-banking.

Hsun, K.S. (2008), this study considers the coherence of the financial service sector and adopts different observational variables to identify innovation capital (training and R&D density) and process capital (IT system sufficiency). The results show that human capital has a direct impact on both innovation capital and process capital, which in turn affect customer capital; while finally, customer capital affects business performance. In addition, there is a negative relationship between process capital and customer capital in the financial service sector. It suggests that in the financial service sector, customer satisfaction relies on a sufficient degree of training and R&D density. Intemperate investment on the support of e-banking operation systems may not be a good answer.

Malhotra, P. & Singh, B. (2007) stated that the larger banks, banks with younger age, private ownership, and higher expenses for fixed assets, higher deposits and lower branch intensity evidence a higher probability of adoption of this new technology. Banks with lower market share also see the Internet banking technology as a means to increase the market share by attracting more and more customers through this new channel of delivery. Further, the adoption of Internet banking by other banks increases the probability that a decision to adopt will be made .An understanding of the factors affecting this choice is essential both for economists studying the determinants of growth and for the creators and producers of such technologies. From this perspective, understanding the factors determining the adoption of technology becomes highly relevant from the policy point of view. Moreover, the studies on the adoption of financial innovations are related to developed markets, e.g. US or European banking markets. Hence, this paper contributes to the empirical literature on diffusion of financial innovations, particularly Internet banking, in a developing country.

Forrester Research, December (2007) Research from the GfK Group shows that the number of online shoppers in six key European markets has risen to 31.4 percent from 27.7 percent last year. This means that 59 million Europeans use the Internet regularly for shopping purposes. However, not only does the number of online shoppers grow, the volume of their purchases also increases over-proportionally. In the US, online sales are forecasted to exceed $36 billion in 2002, and grow annually by 20.9 percent to reach $81 billion in 2006. Europeans are spending more money online as well. For instance, Europe’s largest discount carrier, easy Jet Airline Co., sold $80 million more tickets online in the six months ended March 31 than it did a year earlier Whereas combined revenues for Amazon.com’s European operations grew at more than 70 percent annually in each of the past three quarters, topping $218 million.

Shah & Braganza (2007) indicates the Critical Success Factors in e-banking and the author suggest in this article that the organizational factors, which are critical to the success of e-banking, are investigated. Different pieces of literature report different factors as key to success and generally based on subjective, perceptual data. A synthesis of existing literature is a basis for survey questions. The data was collected from UK based financial sector organizations who are offering their services on electronic channels, using postal questionnaires. The top factors found to be most critical for the success in e-banking are: quick responsive products/services, organizational flexibility, services expansion, systems integration and enhanced customer service. An important lesson from this research is that organizations need to view the e-banking initiative as a business critical area rather than just a technical issue. They need to give attention to internal integration, which may include channels, technology and business process integration, and improving the overall services to their customers.

Awamleh (2006) analyses the internet banking channels and service preferences of educated banking consumers in the UAE and examines the factors influencing the intention to adopt or to continue the use of internet banking among both users and non users of internet banking. It is shown that although the banking sector in the UAE is a regional leader, internet banking in the UAE is yet to be properly utilized as a real added value tool to improve customer relationship and to attain cost advantages. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used to identify factors influencing the intention to adopt and continued use of internet banking customers. Data was collected from internet banking users and potential users in the United Arab Emirates and factor analyses and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the data. Relative usefulness is introduced as one of the factors and is defined as the degree to which a new technology is better than existing ones. There is a significant difference between users and non-users on six of the seven factors identified. Further, it was revealed that relative usefulness, perceived risk, computer efficacy and image had a significant impact on continued usage of internet banking for IB Users, while relative usefulness and result demonstrability were the only ones significant for Non-users of internet banking. The effects of age, gender, income, and e-commerce users also explored. Result demonstrability is significant for all categories of non-users except for those with income below AED 7,000.Implications of results were discussed, and future research directions outlined.

Bauer, Malik & Falk (2006) reviews the measuring the quality of E-Banking portals. In the internet economy, the business model of web portals has spread rapidly over the last few years. Despite this, there have been very few scholarly investigations into the services and characteristics that transform a web site into a portal as well as into the dimensions that determine the customer’s evaluation of the portal’s service quality. Based on an empirical study in the field of e-banking the authors validate a measurement model for the construct of web portal quality based on the following dimensions: security and trust, basic services quality, cross-buying services quality, added value, transaction support and responsiveness. Findings – The identified dimensions can reasonably be classified into three service categories: core services, additional services, and problem-solving services. Originality/value – The knowledge of these dimensions as major determinants of consumer’s quality perception in the internet provides banks a promising starting point for establishing an effective quality management for their e-businesses.

Kamiya (2006) explains that Indian banks are trying to make your life easier. Not just bill payment, you can make investments, shop or buy tickets and plan a holiday at your fingertips. In fact, sources from ICICI Bank tell us, “Our Internet banking base has been growing at an exponential pace over the last few years. Currently around 78 per cent of the bank’s customer base is registered for Internet banking.” To get started, all you need is a computer with a modem or other dial-up device, a checking account with a bank that offers online service and the patience to complete about a one-page application–which can usually be done online. You can avail the following services: Bill payment Services, Fund Transfer, Credit Card, Internet shopping, and Investment though Internet etc. Due to the Internet banking the life of an individual becomes easy and raises the standard of life of the humans.

Veneeva (2006) explains that the world is changing at a staggering rate and technology is considered to be the key driver for these changes around us. Many activities are handled electronically due the acceptance of information technology at home as well as at workplace. Internet can be seen as a truly global phenomenon that has made time and distance irrelevant to many transactions. The evolution of electronic banking started from the use of automatic teller machines (ATM) and has Passed through telephone banking, direct bill payment, electronic fund transfer and the revolutionary online banking .The future of electronic banking according to some is the acceptance of WAP enabled banking and interactive-TV banking (Petrus ; Nelson, 2006). But it has been forecasted that among all the categories, online banking is the future of electronic financial transaction. The rise in the e-commerce and the use of internet in its facilitation along with the enhanced online security of transactions and sensitive information has been the core reasons for the penetration of online banking in everyday life.

T.C. Edwin Cheng,(2006)This study investigates how customers perceive and adopt Internet Banking (IB) in Hong Kong. We developed a theoretical model based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with an added construct Perceived Web Security, and empirically tested its ability in predicting customers? Behavioral intention of adopting IB. We designed a questionnaire and used it to survey a randomly selected sample of customers of IB from the Yellow Pages, and obtained 203 usable responses. We analyzed the data using Structured Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of the hypothesized relationships, if any, among the constructs, which include Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Web Security as independent variables, Perceived Usefulness and Attitude as intervening variables, and Intention to Use as the dependent variable. The results provide support of the extended TAM model and confirm its robustness in predicting customers? Intention of adoption of IB. This study contributes to the literature by formulating and validating TAM to predict IB adoption, and its findings provide useful information for bank management in formulating IB marketing strategies.

Hans H. Bauer 16 September 2006 says that the mobile payment services markets are currently under transition with a history of numerous tried and failed solutions, and a future of promising but yet uncertain possibilities with potential new technology innovations. At this point of the development, we take a look at the current state of the mobile payment services market from a literature review perspective. We review prior literature on mobile payments, analyze the various factors that impact mobile payment services markets, and suggest directions for future research in this still emerging field. To facilitate the analysis of literature, we propose a framework of four contingency and five competitive force factors, and organize the mobile payment research under the proposed framework. Consumer perspective of mobile payments as well as technical security and trust are best covered by contemporary research. The impacts of social and cultural factors on mobile payments, as well as comparisons between mobile and traditional payment services are entirely uninvestigated issues. Most of the factors outlined by the framework have been addressed by exploratory and early phase studies.

SUMMING UP:
Review of literature has analyzed current knowledge including essential findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to the topic. The review of various research studies on customer perception towards E Banking has helped the researcher to examine the research problem more specifically.
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CAPTER -3
DATA PRESENTATION
AND
DATA ANALYSIS

This chapter deals with the statistical analysis of data collected using the research instrument. Analysis of the data was carried out by using both MS Excel and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 20.0 to understand the Adoption of E-Banking by Indian Consumers-A Study of Private and Public Sector Bank

Overview:

In this chapter, the results of the empirical analysis are reported and presented. The presentation proceeds with an analysis of descriptive statistics of the variables under the study. The statistical programme used for the analysis and presentation of data in this research is the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. To facilitate ease in conducting the empirical analyses, the results of the descriptive analyses are presented first, followed by the inferential statistical analysis. All statistical test results were computed at the 2-tailed level of significance accordance with the non-directional hypotheses presented.
Case Processing Summary
N %
Valid 25 25.0
Cases Excludeda 75 75.0
Total 100 100.0

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha N Of Items
.823 23

The reliability coefficient i.e. cronbanch’s alpha value for the customer perception is 0.825 which is more than 0.7 indicating that the reliability of the questionnaire is high. So it can be used for the study.

DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

Questionnaires were distributed to employees of SBI and ICICI bank, with a percentage of 59% and 41% respectively. The respondents, from which data were collected from the customers having different level age. The demographic profile of 100 respondents is summarised in the table 3.3. In SBI bank the total respondents were 59 and in ICICI bank it was 55. The data were collected at different designations which were divided into three levels managers, officers and clerks.
Demographic Profile of Respondents

Basis
Variable
Frequency
Percent

Gender
Gender
66
66 %
Female

Total
34

100 34%

100%
Age
18-25
26-35
36-45
46-60
60+
Total 16
34
29
17
4
100 16%
34%
29%
17%
4%
100%
Qualification
12th
Graduate
Post graduate
Professional
Total 7
22
42
29
100 7
22%
42%
29%
100%
Occupation Student
Service
Business man
Retired individual
Total 28
44
20
8
100 28%
44%
20%
8%
100%
Bank SBI
ICICI
Total 59
41
100 50%
41%
100%

x

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