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Safety and Health at WorkModule Code: 5N1794Student Name: Christopher Raymond BazandoStudent NO: HCS(Q)2018/07/210/OC
Tutor Name: Helen Nolan
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Safety and Health at WorkModule Code: 5N1794Student Name: Christopher Raymond BazandoStudent NO: HCS(Q)2018/07/210/OC
Tutor Name: Helen Nolan

Care Setting
Introduction and background
A healthy nation they say is a wealthy nation. Healthcare is important to the society because people get ill, accidents and emergencies do arise and the hospitals are needed to diagnose, treat and manage different types of ailments and diseases. Many of people’s aspirations and desires cannot be met without longer, healthier, happy lives. The healthcare industry is divided into several areas in order to meet the health needs of individuals and the population at large. All over the world, the healthcare industry would continue to thrive and grow as long as man exists hence forming an enormous part of any country’s economy.

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Healthcare is defined as the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and management of disease, illness, injury, and the preservation of physical and mental well-being in humans (Shepherd, R. J.).

Specify the plan for assignment and safety audit step by step
The plan for this assignment is to investigate and understand the cause and effect of noise sound, stress, diet, exercise lifestyle, dangerous chemicals, fumes, dust, occupational related illness and manual handling amongst others in healthcare setting and the correct measures to take in order to minimum and prevent the risk in short and long times. In order to achieve this, will have to firstly do;
Reading the Health, Safety at Work Module Units 1 to 6 take some notes while reading it.

Do more research take notes again
Brainstorm the assignment
Talk with other staff members
Type the assignment down and make some recommendation and evaluate the assignment.

Noise and sound
According to Healthy Authority Safety (HAS), defined noise as meaning unwanted sound or loud discordant or disagreeable sound or sounds. The most well-known effect of noise is loss of hearing. However, noise can also interfere with communications and so increase the risk of accidents. It can also cause adverse health effects including stress. Engine rooms or machinery spaces can be particularly noisy (90-114 dBA). Consequences of exposure to noise levels above 80 dBa include;
Irreversible loss of hearing or noise induced hearing loss (pain or ringing in the ears).

New members with hearing difficulties may not understand verbal instructions.

General adverse health effects impacting on blood pressure, increase in breathing rate, poor digestion, increase fatigue and irritability.

Where possible noise measure should replace noise machines
Install noise absorbent screens.

Insulate the noise from the workers. Appropriate warning signs should be put in noisy areas and ear protection should be made available and worn.

Provide your employees with hearing protection if you cannot reduce the noise
exposure enough by other methods.

Stress
There ae many definitions of stress. Just as there are many definitions of fatigue, of mental health and upset. These forms describe a wide range of experiences and not entirely clear out. Stress is not a disease or injury but it can lead to mental and physical ill health. Every job includes some built-in difficulties that worker is paid to adjust to. Job difficulties alone do not cause burnout. Rather, it is the worker’s lack of control over his or her work situation that leads to uncertainty, frustration, reduced motivation, fatigue, reduced productivity, and eventually burnout. Here are some other factors that can lead to work burnout:
Chronic work overload
Unfair treatment
Impossible expectations of your boss
Inadequate training
Unpleasant work environment
Your values conflict with those of your company, boss, or co-workers (Strank, J).
Work-stress management is effective in increasing your sense of control in the workplace. Increasing feelings of personal control can improve job-related symptoms of guilty, irritability, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem, job-stress management can also reduce job-related psychosomatic symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, upset stomach, headaches, eating disorders, and lowered immunity to infection.

Diet, exercise and lifestyle
Eating is one of the natural joys in life, as well as a wonderful strategy you can use to reduce stress. Preparing and eating well-balanced meals is a delightful way to give yourself pleasure as well as providing good care of your body. Unfortunately, the foods that people eat for pleasurer are not always nutritionally sound. Eating right is a learned skill and not something that “just comes naturally”. A balanced diet must contain carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, mineral salts and fibre. It must contain these things in the correct proportions:
Carbohydrates: are the most important source of energy. In all carbohydrate the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms is 2:1 just like water.

Protein: are required for growth and repair. Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. Our cells get their amino-acids from the blood.

Fats: like carbohydrates, fats contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Fat are used as a sources of energy; they are also stored beneath the skin helping to install us against cold.

Vitamins: vitamins allow your body to grow and develop. They also play important roles in bodily functions such as metabolism, immunity and digestion. There are 13 essential vitamins, including vitamins A, C, D, E and K and B vitamins such as riboflavin and folate.

Minerals: just like vitamins, minerals helps our body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The body uses minerals to perform many different functions from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses.

Calcium: is the top macro-mineral when it comes to your bones. It also helps build strong, healthy teeth, for chomping on tasty food.
Fibre: fibre is a carbohydrate used by plants to make their cell walls it is also called roughage.

A healthy body responds to the inevitable stresses of life better than an unhealthy one and good nutrition is an essential building block of good health. Eating well can help prevent or control high blood pressure, heart disease, indigestion, constipation, hypoglycaemia, diabetes, and obesity. Good diet balance may also reduce irritability, headaches, and fatigue.

Regular physical activity that is performed on most days of the week reduces the risk of developing or dying from some of the leading causes of illness and death in Ireland. The benefits of regular exercise and good nutrition are popular topics of conversation todays’ because they help in rallying troops inside our bodies the importance of exercise and nutrition in the prevention of illness and enhancement of health has brought to the fore the need for a review of the scientific literature on the benefits associated with types of physical activity.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), lifestyle is a way of living based on identifiable patterns of behaviour which are determined by the interplay between an individual’s personal characteristics, social interactions, and socioeconomic and environmental living conditions. These patterns of behaviour are continually interpreted and tested out in different social situations and are therefore not fixed, but subject to change. Individual lifestyles, characterised by identifiable patterns of behaviour, can have a profound effect on an individual’s health and on the health of others.

It is important to recognise, however, that there is no “optimal” lifestyle to be prescribed for all people. Culture, income, family structure, age, physical ability, home and work environment will make certain ways and conditions of living more attractive, feasible and appropriate (Shepherd, R. J.).

Dangerous chemicals, fumes and dust
Today, almost every business uses chemicals. Even in the cleanest, most modern office, employees are exposed routinely to inks, toners and adhesives not to mention a wide range of materials used in cleaning and maintenance. Exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause many different types of harm, ranging from mild irritations to cancer. Managing chemicals and their associated hazards in the workplace will bring real benefits to a business. In addition to improved employee safety and health, cost savings can be achieved by limiting economic losses through effective work practices such as correct storage, handling, use and disposal procedures. Potential harm to the environment will also be reduced. Any substance, in gas, liquid or solid form, which has the potential to cause harm, is referred to as a hazardous or dangerous substance. Such substances include those:
Brought directly into the workplace and handled, stored and used for processing (e.g. solvents, cleaning agents, glues, resins, paints).
Generated by a process or work activity (e.g. fumes from welding/soldering, dust from machining of wood, flour dust, solvents).
Generated as waste or residue (e.g. fumes from soldering irons, carbon monoxide from exhausts).

Substances can be considered hazardous not only because of what they contain (i.e. their chemical ingredients) but because of the form or way in which they are used at the workplace. The following control hierarchy should be followed:
Enclosure/isolation of hazard: design work processes and controls, and use adequate equipment and materials, to reduce the release of dangerous substances (e.g. total or partial enclosure).
Ventilation of area: use, for example, extraction equipment and/or general ventilation.

Use personal protective equipment (PPE): where exposure cannot be prevented by other means, use PPE including respirators, safety glasses, disposal gloves, overalls, aprons and protective creams and lotions.

Occupational Related Illness
An occupational illness is a chronic ailment caused by exposure – typically over a prolonged period – to workplace hazards or work activities. … Occupational illness is a serious problem for businesses. In fact, more legal claims result from occupational ill-health issues than any other work-related safety issue. Occupational related illness, is the illnesses or physical or mental disorder triggered by workplace activities. Sometimes the lead-time is short (e.g. Asthma) or long (e.g. cancer, deafness). Every place of work is kept in a clean state and accumulations of dirt, refuse, trade refuse and waste are removed by a suitable method as frequently as necessary, to maintain an appropriate level of safety and health. The floor of every workroom is cleaned by a suitable method as frequently as necessary, to maintain an appropriate level of safety and health to prevent infection spread and also contaminate.
Manual Handling
According to the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Regulation 2007 manual handling is a physical activity that takes place in every workplace, and in some eases the activity does not pose problem. However, it can be a potential workplace hazard when an employee is required to handle very heavy loads, which could result in back injury. It is our view that manual handling training needs to be carried out in line with these requirements to ensure that employees have adequate and appropriate knowledge or training as a Healthcare assistant you need to have a proper training in order to know how to move patients and handle the equipment regarding in Healthcare setting.

Occupational Related Illness
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) is permanent and irreversible. But sounds can be harmful when they are too loud, even for a brief time, or when they are both loud and long-lasting. These sounds can damage sensitive structures in the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).To the Health and Safety Executive, an estimated 2 million people are exposed to dangerous levels of noise at work, and NIHL accounts for the second highest percentage of occupational health insurance: 75%.

Cause
If a sound reaches above 85 decibels prolonged exposure will cause permanent hearing loss. Working in an environment where you are exposed to activities with, say, and electric hand tools (which emit around 95 decibels) without sufficient measures or the use of personal protective equipment, your chances of getting NIHL increase.

Symptoms
Someone with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss may struggle to hear people talking three feet away, experience a sensation of “fullness” in their ears after leaving a noisy area, or suffer from tinnitus: a continuous or intermittent ringing or buzzing that varies in volume.

Impact on the worker
Exposure to noise at work can harm workers’ health. However, it can also exacerbate stress and increase the risk of accidents. Noise can lead to accidents by making it harder for workers to hear and correctly understand speech and signals, masking the sound of approaching danger or warning signals (e.g. reversing signal on vehicles), distracting workers such as drivers and contributing to work-related stress that increases the cognitive bad, increasing the likelihood of errors.

Preventative measures
NIHL happens gradually, so it’s difficult to catch before the damage has already been done and the sufferer may not even notice it happening. So, be prepared, and wear PPE – such as noise-reducing earmuffs – if you work in an environment with high noise levels. Cooperate with your employer by using any noise control devices installed and follow the work methods taught to you.

Bedroom
Biological Agents: risk of Infection e.g. Legionnaires’ disease, blood borne virus.

Causes:
Direct contact with infected blood or body fluids via needle stick or sharps injury, broken skin or splashes to mucous membranes. Inhalation of airborne droplets of respiratory secretions spread by coughing, sneezing etc. Contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment. Failure to use standard precautions. Stagnation of water system or failure to maintain water system.

Recommendations
The risk of workplace injury or illness or disorder varies both across and within occupation and industry, and workers’ exposure to such risks varies across the course of their lives. Therefore, analyses that attempt to explain life course health outcomes or that use health characteristics as variables to help explain major life course transitions such as retirement should have good information on these health and safety risks.

Outcomes that might be studied include longevity and mortality, changes in disease and illness or disorder severity, changes in physical functional status, social effects on the individual and families, interactions with the health care system, and overall quality of life. Chronic conditions that are high priority for consideration in such investigations include cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders.

Recommendation: Substantial research is needed on the physiological, pathological, and functional effects of common and potentially harmful worksite exposures—physiochemical, biological, biomechanical, and psychosocial—on older workers. This research should include determining how these environmental exposures may affect the trajectory of normal age-related human and organ function, including the cumulative effects of various prior workplace exposures, and the net impact on the pathogenesis of age-related chronic illnesses or disorders. It is vital for healthcare workers to wear disposal gloves whenever handling a patients to avoid any contact with infections and also making sure to wash hands whenever removed the disposal glove to prevent infections from spreading.

Evaluation
From undertaking this investigation regarding the care setting regarding the associated risks in the workplace I have learned that it’s very vital to employer to protect their employees and also to facilities them with appropriate PPE and good working environment in order for them to perform well and also to protect them against the illness that occurs in the workplace or later in life. I learned the importance of good diet, exercising, manual handling, stress management and how dangerous exposure in the workplace can lead to occupational related illness. In order to prevent all those workplace hazards we need to cooperate with our employers and to use PPE and not to perform any duties that may endanger your health and safety in the workplace.

A good health practice for infection prevention in the healthcare setting is vital and will help to protect the staffs and invulnerable elderlies from spreading the infections and also keeps the organisations safe and save money from shareholders. This will be achieved by good hygiene practice, and also good training to be provide by the employer to facility the employees for the smooth running of the organisation.

Reference and Bibliography
Arden, J. B. 2002. Surviving Job Stress: How to Overcome Workday Pressure. Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press.

Dolan, S. L. 2006. Stress, Self-Esteem, Health and Work. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Strank, J. 2005. Stress at Work: Management and Prevention. Oxford: Elsevier Butterwork-Heinemann Publication.

Shepherd, R. J. 1997. Exercise and relation in health promotion. Journal of Sports Medicine 23(4):211-217
Safety and Health at Work Units 1-6
https://www.hsa.ie/eng/Publications_and_Forms/Publications/Safety_and_Health_Management/Section%207%20Chemicals.pdfhttps://www.hsa.ie/Search.aspx?cx=000825887272978772436%3Ainif9i4s4tq;ie=UTF-8;addsearch=fumeshttps://www.hsa.ie/eng/Publications_and_Forms/Publications/Latest_Publications/?=,,;pageNumber=13https://www.hsa.ie/eng/Workplace_Health/Workplace_Stress/Overview/Workplace_Stress_FAQs.htmlhttps://www.hsa.ie

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