Biological influences on development may actually begin in utero. If a mother smokes, drinks alcohol, or is a drug user, this could have implications on the development of her child. Biological factors can be both physical and mental.
Genetics
The moment a child is conceived, their development begins. Genetic information is passed from both parents, and sometimes this information can be faulty. Downs Syndrome is an example of a faulty gene pool. Babies and children with Downs Syndrome will experience difficulties in most aspects of development, particularly speech and cognitive development, but they will reach the same milestones as other children, just at different rates of progression. Although Cerebral Palsy is due to brain damage suffered during or soon after birth, it is believed that there may be some genetic factors involved. Although children with Cerebral Palsy may grow physically, in terms of size, at the same rate as their peers, other delays may be evident such as speech, and cognitive development, there may be physical limitations due to lack of mobility. This may also have an impact on social development as many friendships are form in a playground setting.

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