Behind every faculty and each trainer is a hard and fast of related beliefs a philosophy of education that influences what and the way college students are taught. A philosophy of schooling represents solutions to questions about the motive of education, a teacher’s position, and what have to gain knowledge of and via what strategies. (Anon., 2018)
Teacher-centered philosophies tend to be more authoritarian and conservative, and emphasize the values and knowledge that have survived through time. The major teacher-centered philosophies of education are essentialism and perennialism. Student-centered philosophies are more focused on individual needs, contemporary relevance, and preparing students for a changing future. School is seen as an institution that works with youth to improve society or help students realize their individuality. Progressivism, social reconstructionism, and existentialism place the learner at the middle of the educational process. Students and teachers work together on defining what should be learned and how best to learn it These schooling philosophies focus closely on what we have to educate within the curriculum issue. (Anon., 2018)
Essentialism refers to the “traditional” or “again to the fundamentals” method to schooling. It’s so named because it strives to instill college students with the “essentials” of educational understanding and individual improvement. The time period essentialism as an academic philosophy turned into firstly popularized within the Nineteen Thirties with the aid of the american educator William Bagley. The philosophy itself, but, had been the dominant method to training in the usa from the beginnings of american history. Early in the 20th century, essentialism changed into criticized as being too rigid to prepare college students thoroughly for grownup existence. However with the launching of Sputnik in 1957, hobby in essentialism revived. Among modern supporters of this function are contributors of the President’s fee on Excellence in training. In both Finland and Maldives curriculum, working towards of essentialism is declined because they agree with that schooling is extra than the academic information and individual improvement. Now students have been gaining knowledge of the abilties for the betterment of their destiny. (Anon., n.d.)
John Watson is known as the founder of the behavioral movement. His belief was that any human being could be reprogrammed to acquire any skill. This theory was backed up by the experiments of both Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner. Pavlov trained dogs to respond to different stimuli. Skinner created a learning machine that would use operant conditioning to train students to learn. Through experimentation, these psychologists realized that they could both recondition and condition the responses of their subjects. (Anon., n.d.)
According to behaviorism we can teach our students by reprogramming them. It is possible to change students behavior by reconditioning them. This may be done by taking the negative behavior away from the student. In time the student learns to control the behavior. It is highly implemented philosophy in Maldives education system. The behaviorism approach also states that the student can be condition to learn or perform anything taught to them. This can be done by using rewards for an appropriate response. Both of these methods can be effective when used over a long period of time.
In today’s society behaviorism approaches can be found in all forms of education. It may be used to change negative behavior. The student may not earn a point for that day if they use an inappropriate manner. However, a teacher can reward the class with stickers for doing an activity very well. In our present school systems this method is used very often for behavioral amendments and motivating children who are in special needs and care. Genuinely, a teacher cannot totally reprogram a student. This would be a perfectionistic world if we could reprogram the students to grow up to be perfect individuals. (Anon., n.d.)
We may discover certain common principles within the variety of progressive schools now present. To annoyance from above is opposed communication and improvement of individuality, to external discipline is opposed free activity. To learn from texts and teachers, learning through experience, to acquirement of’ skills and techniques by drill is opposed acquisition of them as means of attaining ends which make direct vital appeal for the preparation for a more or less distant future is opposed making the most of the opportunities of present life. (Morgan, 2014)

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