Basic mental states. Properties of mental states
The most common and typical mental states, inherent in most people in their daily and professional life, are the following states:
Optimum working condition – ensures maximum efficiency of the activity, passing at the average rate and intensity.
State properties: increased concentration , activity of thinking, memory aggravation and the presence of a target .
The state of strenuous labor activity – arises with labor under extreme conditions.
Properties of the state: mental stress caused by the presence of a goal of increased importance or increased demands, strong motivation to achieve the desired result, increased activity of the entire nervous system.
The state of professional interest – plays a crucial role in the effectiveness of labor.
Properties of the state: the realized importance of professional activity, the desire and desire to learn as much information about the work as possible, focus on the objects that are associated with the activity. In a number of cases, there is an increase in creative potential , an aggravation of perception, an increased ability to repeat what has already been learned, and an increased power of imagination.
Monotonia is a condition that develops with long-term and regularly repeated loads of medium or low intensity, as well as repeated monotonous information.
Properties of the state: indifference, reduced concentration of attention, boredom, impaired perception of the information received.
Fatigue is a state of temporary decline in performance that occurs with prolonged and high loads. Mated with the exhaustion of the body.
Properties of the state: decreased motivation to work, memory and attention dysfunction , enhanced CNS inhibition processes.
Stress is a condition of prolonged and increased stress, which is due to the person’s inability to adapt to the requirements of the environment. Here, an important role is played by environmental factors that exceed the ability of the human body to adapt.
Properties of the state: mental tension, feelings of anxiety, trouble, often – apathy and indifference. In addition, there is a depletion of adrenaline stores, which the body needs.
The state of relaxation is the state of recovery, relaxation, and calm that occurs during autogenous training or, for example, praying or reading mantras, etc. The main reason for this condition is the cessation of a person’s intense activity in general.
Properties of the state: a feeling of warmth spreading through the body, a sense of peace and relaxation at the physiological level.
The state of sleep is a special mental state characterized by the disconnection of a person’s consciousness from external reality. It is interesting that the state of sleep has two distinct phases, which are constantly alternating – it is a slow dream and a quick sleep. Both of them can often be regarded as independent mental states. And the process of sleep is connected with the need to systematize the information flows that were received during wakefulness, as well as the body’s need to restore its resources.
Properties of the state: disconnection of consciousness, immobility, temporal activity of various parts of the nervous system.
The state of wakefulness is a state opposed to the state of sleep. In a calm form can manifest itself in such activity, as, for example, watching a movie, reading a book, listening to music. In a more active form manifested in physical exercises, work, walks, etc.
Properties of the state: the average activity of the nervous system, the absence of pronounced emotions (in a calm state) or, conversely, violent emotions (in the active state).
Let us repeat that the above-mentioned mental states are characteristic of most people. Any relationship between these states, as well as the dynamics of their development process, are of paramount importance, both in the ordinary life of a person and in his professional activities.
Proceeding from this, mental states can be safely called one of the subjects of study in various fields of psychological science, such as general psychology , age psychology , personality psychology , psychology of motivation or labor psychology.
Throughout time, people have tried to understand the essence of mental states, and these attempts do not stop even in our time. The reason for this is, perhaps, that the person and the characteristics of his personality are a great mystery both for ordinary people and for scholarly minds. And we can not say that today, in the study of the person’s personality, great progress has been made, which boldly continues its way forward. But it is likely that this mystery will not be solved once and for all, because nature in any form is truly incomprehensible.