ASSESSMENT OF SCHOOLS’ CORE VALUES
A Thesis Proposal
The Faculty of the Graduate School
Saint Columban College
In Partial FulfillmentOf the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts in Education
Major in Educational Management
ANNA CYREL P. CABO
“Values form the shared conceptions of what is most desirable in social life; in effect, values are the “glue” that binds people together into organizations. When a group of people shares a set of beliefs about the goals that need to be achieved and the means to be used to attain those goals, there is a basis for organization”. (Buchko ,2007:37)
A school is an institution where people such as learners, teachers, and parents that gathered to work together, which means there are variety of characters that are gathered in one place. Learners who practice different believe and culture and these differences may lead to some problems. Learners are misbehaving like harassing classmates, verbal insults, and rudeness to teacher. This is the reason why the teachers are having difficulties in understanding and disciplining their learners.
In South Africa, misbehaving learners and disciplinary problems are not easily managed or solved in every teacher’s experience of teaching, since the passage of legislation banning corporal punishment as a disciplinary action. (Marais, P. & Meier, C., 2010)
Teachers in Pagadian City especially private schools are also alarmed about the disciplinary problems in schools based on the increase of learners misbehavior in the classroom and inside the campus that distract the lesson and other learners. There are instances that the learner didn’t listen and sometimes talk back to the teacher. There was a scenario before that the learner spread rumours to other learners that their teacher in a particular subject kicks the learner that makes the learner to roll down to the last step of the stairs. The rumours stop when the teacher denied the incident and there are witnesses that voice out and tell the truth.
To eradicate these problems the school implemented core values to be followed by everyone. Buchko (2007:37) posits that “without some common beliefs or values, organizations could not exist; people need a common set of beliefs to come together and create social organizations”. Values guide a person thoughts and actions. Prilleltensky (2000:144) suggests three sets of values that guide individual and organizational behaviour: “values for personal wellness, values for collective wellness and values for relational wellness”
School’s core values and practices will help the teachers to mold the learners to become a good Filipino citizen based on their behaviour at school. Saint Columban College Elementary Department, a catholic school motivates the learners to practice the SCC ACTS as a core values. This institution let individuals to get involve in Achieving excellence, Cultivating peaceful environment, Taking good care of mother earth and Serving humanity with love and compassion.
In this study, the researcher was well motivated to find out the assessment of schools core values towards the pupils and as well as the teachers perceptions to justify if there are changes to learner’s behavior or habit as they apply and practice the schools core values.
Perspective of the Researcher
The researcher is the daughter of Mr. Cyreneen P. Cabo and Mrs. Maria Rosita P. Cabo. She was born on September 23, 1990 and a resident of Barangay San Francisco, Pagadian City, Zambuanga del Sur. She is a graduate of Saint Columban College, Pagadian City with the degree of Bachelor of Elementary Education last March 2013. She took and passed the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) last September 2013 at SMC, Pagadian City. She started her teaching career as a grade six adviser at Saint Columban College Elementary Department last June 2014.
She is now in her fifth year of teaching in the same school. During her three years of service, she is been a teacher for Science and HELE subject then now she is teaching Religion and MAPEH. Aside from being a teacher of the said school, she is also the CIP coordinator as well as one of the advisers of their choir group, The Tinig Kolumbano and one of the facilitator of the drum corps of the said school.
The researcher uses the Pragmatic as a paradigm. The best method that is one to solve problems to know does this intervention improve learning. This kind of paradigm help to know the truth, that is useful to assess the schools core values towards the learner.
The conceptual framework of this study is presented in figure 1, through a schematic diagram that illustrated the relationship of the theory, variable and the indicators included in this investigation.
As depicted in the schema, the study somewhat related the theory of Shalom H. Schwartz which is the Theory of Basic Human Values. The Values Theory defines values as desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance that serves as guiding principles in people’s lives.
The study treated this main variable: namely; school’s core values. The variable of school’s core values, it is the values that the school practices it is composed of the four major values of Saint Columban College which is Achieve excellence, Cultivate peaceful environment, Takes good care of mother earth and Serves humanity with love and compassion.
School’s Core Values
Cultivates Peaceful Environment
Takes Care of Mother Earth
Action Plan to strengthen the influence of the core values to the learners.
Theory of Basic
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the study
This research is anchored to the theory of Shalom H. Schwartz which is the Theory of Basic Human Values. The Values Theory defines values as desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance that serves as guiding principles in people’s lives. This theory introduce the ten basic values that needs of the individuals as biological organism, requisites of coordinated social interaction, and survival and welfare needs of groups (Schwart, 2006)
Statement of the ProblemThe study determined to assess if the learners at Saint Columban College Elementary Department apply what they have learned about the schools core values. The study will be conducted during the school year 2018-2019. Specifically; this study addressed the following questions after the data have been gathered, analyzed and interpreted:
1.To what extent do the following Core Values of Saint Columban College Elementary Department influence the behaviour of the pupils?
2.1Achieve Execllence2.2Cultivates Peaceful Environment
2.3Takes Care of Mother Earth
2.What are the teachers’ perceptions on the influence of the core values to the students?
3. What plan of activities can be designed in order to strengthen the influence of the core values to the learners at Saint Columban College Elementary Department?
Scope and Limitations of the Study
The scope and limitation of the study are anchored on the following aspects, such as the focused of the study, its research environment and time, the participants, its research design and methods. To which would define the salient features of the study and find its rightful place in the vast and varied field of educational research.
Subject Matter. This study focused only to assess if the learners from grades 4,5&6 at Saint Columban College Elementary Department, practice to apply what they have learned about the schools core values. This study measures to what extent does the learners practice good habit in achieving excellence, in cultivating peaceful environment, in taking good care the mother earth and in serving humanity as they apply the schools core values as well as to justify if there are changes to learners behavior or habit as they apply and practice the schools core values.
Research Environment and Timeline. This study was to be conducted in Saint Columban College Elementary Department. This school is located at P.L Urro Street, Sto.Nino District, Pagadian City and is adjacent to the Saint Columban College Junior High Department. It has a one three- story building and one two story building for the library and for the canteen, and a covered court for sports and other activities. The school’s population is composed of 414 pupils. There were two sections each Pre-school level and two sections for grades 1to 6. The study will be conducted during the school year 2018-2019
Research Participants. The participants of this study are the intermediate learners who are the grades 4, 5 ; 6 at Saint Columban College Elementary Department as well as the higher grade teacher who encounter the learner all the time to justify if there are changes to learner’s behavior or habit as they apply and practice the schools core values. Since grades 4, 5 & 6 classes uses the departmental way of teaching. Each subject is assigned to different teachers; they will serve as the respondent of the research
Research Design. The study employed the descriptive approach which uses the combination of quantitative and qualitative method. Descriptive research according to Burns and Grove (2003) “is designed to provide a picture of a situation as it naturally happens”. The task of the researcher was to assess the school’s core values towards learners and teachers perception to justify if there were changes to learner’s behavior or habit as they apply and practice the schools core values.
Research Methods. The study made use of the descriptive type of research, as it assessed the statues of the existing variable and its indicators. The study uses the Pragmatic as a paradigm. The best method that is one to solve problems to know does this intervention improve learning. This kind of paradigm help to know the truth, that is useful to assess the schools core values towards the learner.
Significance of the Study
This study is important because it shall treat the school’s core values in order the learners practice the good habit in achieving excellence, in cultivating peaceful environment, in taking good care the mother earth and in serving humanity as they apply the schools core values. The following individuals will benefit from the study:
Pupils. The study will greatly help the pupils to understand themselves and to look up what core values that the pupil will poses to become a better person and to experience better life.
Teachers. The study will provide teachers with more learning about their learners’ behavior as they always involve the school core values in the learner’s daily activity for them to know what to do and to understand their pupils.
Administrators. The study will help the administrators to determine activities that will be implement to strengthen the achievements of the school’s core values so that learners are discipline and will behave in a good way.
Other researchers. Influences generated in this study shall serve as benchmark information for their group when they conduct similar studies in other areas involving the interrelationships of the variables treated in this study.
Definition of TermsThe following terms will be used extensively in this study and shall be taken according to the definition given below:
Core Values means the fundamental beliefs of an organization. Principles that guides an organization’s internal conduct as well as its relationship with the external world. It is usually summarized in the mission statement or in a statement of core values.
Misbehaving means a bad, improper or rude behavior. Behavior that fail to conduct oneself in an acceptable way.Theory of Basic Human Values the values theory that defines values as desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance that serves as guiding principles in people’s lives. This theory introduce the ten basic values that needs of the individuals as biological organism, requisites of coordinated social interaction, and survival and welfare needs of groups.
Learners they are also known as pupils, they are considered as the “ultimate producers” of leaning outcomes since competencies have to be acquired by them. They are considered as the benefactor of the educational system in our country.
Structure of the Thesis
The study will consist five chapters: Chapter 1 The Problem, Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature, Chapter 3 Research Methodology, Chapter 4 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data, and Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations.
Chapter 1 includes the introduction, rationale of the study, statement of the problem, aims and objectives, significant of the study and its structure.
Chapter 2 discusses the review of related literature, relevant information connected to this study is presented in this chapter.
Chapter 3 covers the research methodology. This chapter will show the research design. It will emphasize the advantages and disadvantages of the design. It is concerned with the research method to be used that is appropriate to the design, research environment, research participants and types of techniques in gathering the data.
Chapter 4 presents the analysis and interprets the data generated on the relationship of the school’s core values and learner’s disruptive behavior.
Chapter 5 presents the summary of findings, the conclusions reached by the researcher and the recommendations forwarded relative to the results of the study.
Chapter 2Review of Related LiteratureThis chapter reviews the related literature used by the researchers as background information about the variables treated in this investigation which will provide bases for the interpretation of the data that shall be gathered later.
Theory of Basic Human Values, Shalom H. Schwart in his theory of basic human values identifies ten basic personal values that are recognized through cultures and clarify where they come from. The main point of the theory is the idea that values form a circular structure that shows the motivations each value expresses. Value theory defines a value that serves as guiding principles in people’s lives. (Sharlom H. Schwart, 2012)
The ten basic values can be characterized by describing its central motivational goal:
1. Self-Direction. Independent thought and action; choosing, creating, exploring.
It is an ability to succeed in goal-directed behavior or ability of having self determination. (e.g., Bandura, 1977;Deci, 1975)
2. Stimulation. Excitement, novelty, and challenge in life.
3. Hedonism. Pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself.4. Achievement. Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards.5. Power. Social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources.3
6. Security. Safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self.7. Conformity. Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms.8. Tradition. Respect, commitment, and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide the self.4
9. Benevolence. Preserving and enhancing the welfare of those with whom one is in frequent personal contact
10. Universalism. Understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature.Schwart (Schwart ,1992, 2005a) point out the derivations of the ten basic values According to him the value theory delineate ten broad values base on the motivations that underlies each of them. These values are likely to be universal because they are grounded in one or more of three universal requirements; the need for biological survival; the demand for social interaction; and social and institutional demands for group welfare of human existence with which they cope. The concept of values used to express social interaction.
According to Krueger(1996) values are: “a set of beliefs that influence the way people and groups behave; they are the “soul” of the organization; effective values are deep rooted; and core values help form a social psychology that can support or overcome individual psychology.” It is guiding principles that help the individual to behave properly according to norms or culture of a particular institution. If a certain person handles a business company then setting a core value is very important, it provides moral foundations which attract the people who want to work. (Muzyka, D., 2014) According to Karen, E, (2012) the core values are important because;”These are the characteristics we believe are important in how we do our work”.
Achieve Excellence. Knowledge is very important because with higher mind-brain development our skills become more useful in every aspect in life. The relationship towards others become well and enhance. The actions become more effective because the knowledge that are gain and practice. (Harung, H. S. ; Travis, F, 2016)
Cultivate Peaceful Environment. Schools are considered as one of the safest place where children are free to play, to learn and to interact with other people. Children are the primary victims of all kinds of abuse, punishment, neglect, discrimination and ill-treatment. If the learners that are enrolled in school know how to value respect and love, then it can prevent bullying and abuse. The learner must possess positive culture. (Thomas, S., Jose, K.A, ; Kumar P.A, 2018)
Takes Care of Mother Earth. The earth is the only place where the people live in.
Almost all the people feel the responsible for being part of a family to be a parent to their children and other way around but do not have the feeling of being responsible enough to take good care the environment. People are less committed to the environment, to nature. This absolute care is love. Without this love there can be no change in society. (Krishnamurti, 1981)
Serves Humanity. In South Africa there is a law called Ubuntu, where it is a law of equity characterized by sharing, compassion, responsibility, trust and harmony. Ubuntu means suggesting making consistent relationship between people. According to Ramose (2006), “a person is a person through other people”. In other words the existence of a person is through the existence of others in close relationship with itself.
Based on the review of related literature, it has been found that there is a dearth of materials related to the relationships of the variable.
Chapter 3Research MethodsThis chapter presents the research methods of the study. It includes discussion on the research design and research methods covering the research environment, research subjects, sampling techniques, instrumentation, data gathering techniques, and statistical treatment.
Research DesignThe study will use the descriptive approach utilizing quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative research provides the fundamental connection between empirical and observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships of the variable and its indicators. Qualitative research allows the participants to give much meaningful answers to questions given them by the researcher through observation, interviews and surveys.
Research EnvironmentThis study is to be conducted in Saint Columban College Elementary Department. This school is located at P.L Urro Street, Sto.Nino District, Pagadian City and is adjacent to the Saint Columban College Junior High Department. It has a one three- story building and one two story building for the library and for the canteen, and a covered court for sports and other activities. The school’s population is composed of 414 pupils with 17 teachers, the principal and the 2 maintenance personal. There were two sections each Pre-school level and two sections for grades 1to 6. The study will be conducted during the school year 2018-2019
Figure 2. Map of the Pagadian City
Figure 3. Map of the location of Saint Columban College Elementary School
Research ParticipantsTable SEQ Table * ARABIC 1
The Research Subjects of the Study
Number of learners in each grade Number of participants in each grade level
4 62 38
5 71 43
6 66 40
Total 200 122
As shown in the table 1 the participants of this study are the randomly selected intermediate pupils of Saint Columban College Elementary Department. Another set of participants are the 5 teachers teaching Grades 4, 5 and 6 pupils.
InstrumentsThere are two research instruments used in this study. The first instrument is a self-made questionnaire use to find out the extent of the influence of the schools core values of Saint Columban College Elementary Department’s to the learners. The questionnaire is adapted from WHO,UNICEF, EDC, UNESCO WORLD BANK PDC and EL, 2003, as well as Tiny Arora “My Life in School” and is set on four-point scales as follows: 4- Always, 3- Sometimes, 2- Seldom and 1- Never. The hypothetical mean range used to interpret data is as follows: 4.00 – 3.26 = Very High, 3.25-2.51= High, 2.50- 1.76= Low and 1.75-1.00 = Very Low. Another instrument is an interview guide intended to collect data from the teacher participants.
Data Gathering TechniquesThe researcher will ask permission from the school to conduct the study. Upon approval, the researcher will inform the school principal and the participants about the nature and purpose of the study. Survey questionnaires will then be administered to the selected participants and a series of classroom observations will also be conducted. After gathering data from the pupil participants, the researcher will conduct a focus group interview with the teacher participants.
For interpreting the quantitative data that includes learners’ answers about the survey questionnaire given were analyzed by using descriptive statistics such as mean, mode, sum value and percentages. The data analysis summarizes variables statistically. To helps the data to be analyzed and interpreted to get the meaning, as well as to gain understanding about the study.(Corbin and Strauss, 2008)
To find out to what extent does the Saint Columban College Elementary Department Core Values affect learners as they apply what they have learned about the schools core values with the use of the following indicators; Acheive Excellence, Cultivates Peaceful Environment, Takes care of Mother Earth and Serves Humanity. The data being gathered will interpreted through the hypothetical mean range used to interpret data is as follows: 4.00 – 3.26 = Very High, 3.25-2.51= High, 2.50- 1.76= Low and 1.75-1.00 = Very Low.
Data Analysis The data assess if the grade six learners that stays at Saint Columban College Elementary Department for 3 years, practice to apply what they have learned about the schools core values through perception of the teachers to justify if there are changes to learner’s behavior or habits as they apply and practice the schools core values.
The answers of the participants during the interview will be analyzed. In other words, one of the factors in the data analysis is the researcher. The researcher has to be careful in interpreting the ideas of the respondents to avoid any confusion and secure the validity of the data being gathered.
Ethical Considerations in Research
The participation in the study is fairly and voluntary. The participants have the right to stop in answering the questionnaire whenever they wanted too. They are not forced to answer the questionnaire if they refused to do so. The identity of the participants will not be revealed and will be kept as confidential to other.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
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Buchko AA (2007). The effect of leadership on values-based management. Leadersh. Organ. Dev. J. 28(1):36-50.
Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum.
Harung, H.S.; Travis, F (2016.). Excellence through Mind-Brain Development, 153-168.
Karen E. Hinton,( 2012), A Practical Guide to Strategic Planning in Higher Education, by the Society for College and University Planning, p 9.
Krishnamurti, (1981), Learning Care for the Earth with Krishnamurti.Krueger, C. (1996). Core values. On-Line. Available: http://www.ppc.uwstout.edu/ ppcteaching.html.
Marais, P., ; Meier, C. (2010) Disruptive behaviour in the Foundation Phase of schooling, Vol (30),41-57.
Muzyka, D., 2014. The Importance of Core Values: Doug Muzyka, Research-Technology Management 57(2),64.
Prilleltensky I (2000). Value-based leadership in organizations: balancing values, interests, and power among citizens, workers and leaders. Ethics Behav. 10(2):139-158.
Ramose, M. B. 2003a. “The Ethics of Ubuntu.” Pp. 324-330 in The African Philosophy Reader, 2nd ed., edited by P. H. Coetee and A. P. J. Roux. London: Routledge.
Rachel C. F. Sun1 and Daniel T. L. Shek2,(2012). Student ClassroomMisbehavior: An Exploratory Study Based on Teachers’ Perceptions. Volume 2012, The Scientific World Journal, 8 pages doi:10.1100/2012/208907
Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25) (pp. 1-65). New York: Academic Press.
Schwartz, S. H. (2005a). Basic human values: Their content and structure across countries. In A. Tamayo & J. B. Porto (Eds.), Valores e comportamento nas organizações Values and behavior in organizations pp. 21-55. Petrópolis, Brazil: Vozes.
Schwartz, S. H. (2006a). Les valeurs de base de la personne: Théorie, mesures et applications Basic human values: Theory, measurement, and applications. Revue Française de Sociologie, 47, 249-288.
Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1116Thomas, S., Jose, K.A, & Kumar P.A, (2018) Child Friendly Schools: Challenges and Issues in Creating a Positive and Protective School Environment. Positive Schooling and Child Development, 233-248.
Permission to conduct the study. Insert the Scanned approved permission letter. For thesis 2 only
Insert your Instrument A
Instruction: Please encircle the number which that you feel is appropriate to describe how you feel about the following items being asked, using the scoring key given below.
A. Achieving Excellence
1. I listen to the teacher during discussion.4321
2. I finishing an activity on time given by the teacher.4321
3. I answer the teacher politely during an oral recitation.4321
4. I Interact with the classmate during group activity.4321
5. I came late in school every morning.4321
B. Cultivating Peaceful Environment
1. I start the fight in school.4321
2. I shout inside the classroom to get the attention.4321
3. I consider others if they done wrong to me.4321
4. I join the fight in school.4321
5. I easily get angry to my classmates.4321
C. Takes Care of Mother Earth
1. I throw my trash everywhere inside the classroom.4321
2. I do my daily chores during cleaning time.4321
3. I know how to segregate my trash.4321
4. I arrange my things inside my locker all the time.4321
5. I am not wasting my paper.4321
D. Serving Humanity
1. I respect my teachers as well as my classmates.4321
2. I help and support my classmates that are in need.4321
3. I give clothing to the needy.4321
4. I involve myself every community service.4321
5. I do my responsibility as a student of SCC.4321
Insert your Instrument B
Teachers Name:________________________________ Date: ______________
(1) In the classroom, what student problem behaviors are there? Please list out as many as possible and describe.
(2) Since the class started last June until this month, are there any changes in their behavior?
(3)What are those changes? Cite some instances that you observe.
(4)Do those changes happen because the leaner apply the SCC’s Core Values in their daily lives? Support your answer.
Insert other relevant documents (e.g. transcription of interviews, pictures, etc.)