2. Methodology
2.1. Materials
Jatropha seed at a storage moisture content was used for the drying experiment. The detailed materials used during the drying experiments was described in the study of the effects of temperature and pretreatment of seeds on the drying process and physical appearance of different collections of Jatropha seeds and has been presented elsewhere ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Keneni</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>350</RecNum><DisplayText>(Keneni and Marchetti, 2018)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>350</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rd5swrswvdtrwnepv5exs5pg9dr009ardewv” timestamp=”1521285163″>350</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author> Keneni, YG </author><author>Marchetti, JM </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Temperature and pretreatment effects on the drying of different collections of Jatropha curcas L. seeds from Ethiopia</title><secondary-title>Submitted</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2018</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Keneni and Marchetti, 2018). A bowl-shaped mortar and pestle made from stone were used for the crushing pretreatment of Jatropha seeds. Three different sieves with openings of 500µm, 1mm and 2mm woven cloth (Control Group, 15-D2245/J, 15-D2215/J and 15-D2185/J) were used to estimate the particle sizes of the crushed seeds. The seed samples were weighed on a digital balance machine having 0.01 mg accuracy (Mettler-Toledo, PG 5002 Delta Range, Switzerland). The samples were placed on pyrex glass petri plates for drying. The drying experiments and determination of initial and residual moisture contents of the seed samples were performed using a heating furnace (Narbetherm P300, Germany).
2.2. Seed drying experiments
The seed drying experiments were perfumed in the Laboratory of Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Science and Technology. The initial moisture contents of the Jatropha seed samples used for this experiment has been determined prior to this experiment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Keneni</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>350</RecNum><DisplayText>(Keneni and Marchetti, 2018)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>350</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rd5swrswvdtrwnepv5exs5pg9dr009ardewv” timestamp=”1521285163″>350</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author> Keneni, YG </author><author>Marchetti, JM </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Temperature and pretreatment effects on the drying of different collections of Jatropha curcas L. seeds from Ethiopia</title><secondary-title>Submitted</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2018</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Keneni and Marchetti, 2018) by drying 15g of the seed samples at 105oC for 24h PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5HYXJuYXlhazwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDg8L1llYXI+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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5HYXJuYXlhazwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDg8L1llYXI+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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Bamgboye and Adebayo, 2012; Garnayak et al., 2008; Siqueira et al., 2012; Subroto, 2015). Accordingly, the moisture content of the seeds was found to be 6.811%, and thus, the moisture content of the seed samples utilized for the experiment was in the range of the storage moisture content (6-10%) reported for seeds of Jatropha ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Brittaine</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>299</RecNum><DisplayText>(Brittaine and Lutaladio, 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>299</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rd5swrswvdtrwnepv5exs5pg9dr009ardewv” timestamp=”1504773345″>299</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Brittaine, Richard</author><author>Lutaladio, NeBambi</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Jatropha: a smallholder bioenergy crop: the potential for pro-poor development</title></titles><volume>8</volume><dates><year>2010</year></dates><publisher>Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)</publisher><isbn>9251064385</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Brittaine and Lutaladio, 2010).

The pretreated (crushed seeds, CS) and non-pretreated (the whole seeds, WS) were used for the drying experiments. For the crushing pretreatment process of Jatropha seeds, a bowl-shaped mortar and pestle made from stone were used. After crushing, the particle sizes of the pulverized seeds were estimated by three different stainless steel sieves with openings of 500µm, 1mm and 2mm woven cloth (Control Group, 15-D2245/J, 15-D2215/J and 15-D2185/J). For every drying experiment, ca. 15g of Jatropha seeds were used and both treatments were duplicated. Thus, the crushed seeds used in the drying experiment was a mixture of four particles sizes. The average proportions (%) of the particle size of crushed seeds (PSCS): PSCS >2mm, 2mm > PSCS >1mm, 1mm > PSCS >500µm and PSCS<500µm were 14.95±8.2, 29.96±4.38, 35.32±10.5 and 19.77±4.74, respectively.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

The pretreated (crushed seeds) and non-pretreated (whole seeds) kept in separate Pyrex-glass petri plates were dried at five different air temperatures (313, 323, 333, 343, and 353 K). The drying experiments of the seed samples were performed in a heating furnace (Narbetherm P300,Germany). The seed samples were weighted on a digital balance machine having 0.01 g accuracy (Mettler-Toledo, PG 5002 DeltaRange, Switzerland). For the drying experiments, the temperature of the heating furnace was first raised to the set point, and was maintained for an hour before inserting the samples to ensure that there is no fluctuation in the surrounding air temperature ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Avhad</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>351</RecNum><DisplayText>(Avhad and Marchetti, 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>351</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rd5swrswvdtrwnepv5exs5pg9dr009ardewv” timestamp=”1521288144″>351</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Avhad, MR</author><author>Marchetti, JM</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Mathematical modelling of the drying kinetics of Hass avocado seeds</title><secondary-title>Industrial Crops and Products</secondary-title></titles><pages>76-87</pages><volume>91</volume><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>0926-6690</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Avhad and Marchetti, 2016). The weight of the seed samples during the experiments were measured at a predetermined time interval taking less than 15 seconds to weigh the samples and put them back into the oven so they will not be contaminated with moisture from the air. The drying experiments were performed until no change in weight had been recorded for three successive weight measurements for the respective five air temperatures, which was assumed as the stage of equilibrium. Accordingly, the drying experiment was carried out for a maximum of 5760 minutes in order to ensure the achievement of the critical moisture level at which no more moisture loss occurred. Every experiments were replicated twice to obtain reproducibility in the experimental findings and the average values were used in data analysis and reporting.

Drying data obtained from the weight measurements of the seed samples at different temperature and drying times were changed to moisture content data in order to use it in the drying kinetics.
2.3. Mathematical modeling for the drying kinetics
Mathematical modeling of seed drying is important for optimum management of the operating parameters and prediction performance of the drying process. It is essential to set out accurate models to simulate the drying curves under different conditions ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Fudholi</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>268</RecNum><DisplayText>(Fudholi et al., 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>268</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rd5swrswvdtrwnepv5exs5pg9dr009ardewv” timestamp=”1500386999″>268</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”>10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fudholi, Ahmad</author><author>Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz</author><author>Haw, Lim Chin</author><author>Mat, Sohif</author><author>Othman, Mohd Yusof</author><author>Zaharim, Azami</author><author>Sopian, Kamaruzzaman</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Mathematical modeling of brown seaweed drying curves</title><secondary-title>Proceedings of the WSEAS International Conference on Applied Mathematics in Electrical and Computer Engineering</secondary-title></titles><pages>207-211</pages><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Fudholi et al., 2012). In order to predict the kinetics of Jatropha seeds, it is foremost importance to accurately model its behavior during the removal of water. Therefore, in the present study the experimental drying data of the five applied temperatures were fitted with the three most frequently used semi-theoretical mathematical models to represent the drying process of agricultural products: Lewis model, Henderson and Pabis model and Page model. The experimental data was also fitted to the drying mathematical model that is a combination of Page model and Henderson and Pabis model and found to be best fitted to the drying data of Hass avocado seeds ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Avhad</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>351</RecNum><DisplayText>(Avhad and Marchetti, 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>351</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rd5swrswvdtrwnepv5exs5pg9dr009ardewv” timestamp=”1521288144″>351</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Avhad, MR</author><author>Marchetti, JM</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Mathematical modelling of the drying kinetics of Hass avocado seeds</title><secondary-title>Industrial Crops and Products</secondary-title></titles><pages>76-87</pages><volume>91</volume><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>0926-6690</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Avhad and Marchetti, 2016).
The moisture contents at each time interval were calculated from both weight loss data and initial weight of the samples. The moisture content data at different temperatures were converted to moisture ratio (MR), which is a dimensionless expression and fitted as a function of drying time. The dimensionless MR of Jatropha seeds during the drying experiments was calculated using the equation 1.

x

Hi!
I'm Katy

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out