2.1.4 Socioeconomic factors that influences domestic violence
Domestic violence is influenced by a variety of factors. The factors that influence gender-based violence are many and varied depending on the types of violence. Traditional attitudes towards women around the world help perpetuate the violence. Stereotypical roles in which women are seen as subordinate to men constrain a woman’s ability to exercise choices that would enable her end the abuse. Njenga (1999) opined that poverty and financial insecurity are factors that influences of gender-based violence. If a man cannot establish his authority intellectually or economically, he would tend to do so physically. Another cause is the image created by the society which portrays a man to be viewed as being strong, educated, creative, and clever while a woman is the opposite of all these traits and also a source of gender-based violence in later life. Bitangaro (1999) had summarised the causes of violence against women as being deeply rooted in the way society is set up: cultural beliefs, power relations, economic power imbalances, and the masculine idea of male dominance. Olasunkanmi (2012) opined that the attitude of women as regards their dressing and their dependability on men for living make men have the opportunity to humiliate them.
Empirical studies have been carried out to examine the socioeconomic determinant of domestic violence. In one of the pioneering works on domestic violence in Ghana, Offei-Aboagye (1994) observed that marital violence was mainly a consequence of the subordinate position of women, their passivity, and economic dependence on their male partners. Ezeah (2013) study focused on Socio-economic and Cultural Processes Associated with Domestic Violence in Rural Nigeria. The sample size for the study was 490 respondents. Questionnaire and in-depth interview were the instruments for data collection. The questionnaire was administered to 450 married women of reproductive age while 40 women who were not part of the survey were interviewed. The findings show that 56% of the 450 women surveyed had experienced domestic violence, while 42% did not in the past one year. According to the qualitative data, women with more education and income are less vulnerable to domestic violence. The findings further show that early marriage and low income made women less vulnerable to violence in marriage.
Oladepo, Yusuf and Arulogun (2011) study determined the factors associated with gender based violence among 3000 men and women in selected states in Nigeria. Respondents who had experienced physical violence were 806(26.9%), comprising 353(11.8%) males and 453(15.1%) females Married female respondents were more likely to experience physical violence than single respondents (OR= 1.71, 95% CI: 1.15-2.53 p=0.008). In addition, lower risk of experiencing sexual violence among males was observed among those who do not drink alcohol. Bhuiya, Sharmin, and Hanifi (2003) described in their study was done in a rural area of Bangladesh in December 2000. In their study 19 key informants helped to find out 10 closest neighbouring ever married women. From their study it was found that 50.5% women were battered by husbands and 2.1% by other family members. They found that women’s position of being related with micro credit societies are closely related to violence. The paper also focuses on community based steps by increasing awareness on human rights.
2.1.5 Unemployment and domestic violence
Gap between household income and expenditure levels could make many husbands to behave violently. In other words, women who entirely depend on their husbands and make no financial contribution to their r