Mining invention in South Africa increased by 2, 4 % every year. Climate change which is one of the main challenges that South Africa is facing is as a result of mining. Bad mining in South Africa discharge fly ash and smoke loaded with greenhouse gases and toxic chemicals. Furthermore, greenhouse gases are twenty times influential than carbon dioxide. Air and water pollution as a result of mining, acid drainage, toxic waste and unrestrained mines continues to have a serious risk to South Africa`s communities and it`s environment. Mine waste is still the major source of pollution in South Africa. Water sources are contaminated; the water turn to be below the standard in addition mining also pose a challenge on human`s health. Palabora Mining Company is the only mine which produce copper, the company operates a mine, smelter and refinery in Limpopo Province. Dust breathing causes black lung diseases among those who live nearby, copper mining displaces whole communities, forced off their land by expanding mine.
2. Statement of the problem
The impurity of ground and surface water from acid mine drainage as well as toxic dust and soil from mine dumps have exposed residents living around the mine and on the waste dumps to high concentrations of heavy metals and radiation such as combination of threats, it contributes to immediate and long-term medical problems ranging from asthma and skin rashes to cancer and organ damage. Makhushane residents depend on groundwater and this is due to the shortage of municipal water supply, the residents are more vulnerable to diseases such as cholera and diarrhoea.
3. Area of the study
Makhushane Village is located directly adjacent to the world-renowned eco-tourism attraction on the Kruger National Park. The village comprise of 12 499 of people living in. The temperature is very high due to the cooper mining activity that is happening around. There is a shortage of water supply in the area, people depend on groundwater and some depend on Selati river and dams for water collection.
4. Aim of the study
The overall aim of the study is to review how Palaborwa mining company impact the neighbouring residents.
5. Objectives of the study
• To highlight the impact of Palabora Mining Company on Makhushane Village
• To review the operation of Palabora Mining Company
• To develop strategies which will minimize the causes
• To get response from the residents
• To highlight the national government about the impacts of the mining company
• To came up with recommendations
6. Research questions
• What are the impact of Palabora Mining Company on Makhushane Village?
• How does the mining company contribute to the development of the community?
• What are the causes ………..
• What can be done to alleviate the impacts?
7. Significance of the study
The study will provide in detail the insight impact of the mining company in Makhushane Village and review extent to which the mine contributes to the social, economic, environmental and cultural impact on the livelihoods of Makhushane residents. The government officials should act immediately to address the current threats of copper mine on the livelihoods of Makhushane residents and it should also develop more complete solution to prevent future harm. Department of Minerals and Energy should monitor, oversee and regulate the industry as the existing in capacity is leading to the systematic destruction of the environment in general and both around and surface water resource in large parts. The mining company should ensure that its environmental management system is documented, applied, sustained, audited and that certification is retained. It should seek continuing improvement through setting and appraising environmental objectives, targets, assessing and reporting environmental performance. Programmes should be recognized to conserve resources, minimize and recycle waste and protect the environment. There must be open communication with community and government on environmental issues and contribute to the development of sound legislation and regulations. (Marshall, K)
8. Literature review
The sources of noise and vibration in the area comprise mobile equipment, air blast and vibration from blasting and other machinery damage the auditory system and cracks in building and causes stress even discomfort (Akabzaa, 2001). The noise terrify the neighbouring community. Palabora Mining Company poses health problems, according to World Health Organisation, Health is defined as a state of complete physical, metal and social well-being of an individual and not merely the absence of diseases and infirmity. However health problems arise from Palabora Mining Company. According to Stephen and Abem (2001) mining has a long-term impacts on the neighbouring Makhushane Village the impacts include cancer and respiratory conditions such as silicosis, asbestosis and pneumonia.
Mining operation require a vast quantities of water, often in water stressed region which puts further pressure on a scarce resource and negatively impact Makhushane`s residents ability to use water for consumption. Access to water has become a human right issue, creating stress, strains and conflicts between the residents. Extreme weather events as a result of mine are impacting the residents, people with high blood pressure and sugar diabetes are more vulnerable. Palabora Mining Company pose an environmental impact on the neighbouring Makushane village the impact includes contamination of Selati River by the chemicals and waste products from the mine, this comprise the health and safety of the residents. Palabora allowing heavy minerals to seep into the environment. High of concentration Uranium and arsenic in ground water have been linked to high incidences of haematological abnormalities and leukaemia in Makhushane. Poor quality water not limits its utilization value but also places an added economic burden on society through both primary treatment costs and the secondary impacts. Poor water quality result in waterborne diseases such as cholera and bacterial infections
9. Theoretical framework
The study belong to sustainable development paradigm because sustainable development is defined by the Brutland as a process of meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for the people to enjoy long and healthy live, more secure livelihoods and free from fear and environmental threats. Sustainability is often used while referring to the environment. Environment sustainability implies achieving developmental results without jeopardizing the natural resource base and of the region and without affecting the resource base for future generation. Sustainable development implies minimizing the use of exhaustible resources or at least ensuring that revenues obtained from them are used to create a constant flow of income cross generations and making an appropriate use of renewable resources. This applies to energy, minerals, water, land, environmental, and air pollution. Good mining operations based on reduced use of energy and chemicals, waste management, waste water treatment and wise use of non-renewable resources.
The company actively identified and addresses legislation relevant to the company`s operations and provides employees and contractors with extensive training on relevant environmental standards and compliance issues. Palabora Mining Company (PMC) is certified for the environmental management system and maintains a plan for the eventual closure of its operations, which includes the management of social and environmental impacts on the surrounding community, Makhushane Village.
10. Research methodology
The study will be qualitative in nature as it will involve the analysis of data such as words, interviews and survey questionnaires.
10.1 Sampling procedure
The researcher will use quota sampling whereby the participant’s quotas are pre-set prior to sampling. The researcher will be attempting to gather data from a certain number of participants that meet certain characteristics that include things such as age, sex and class.
10.2 Data collection
Primary data will be collected from the sample of the study by means of questionnaire which will be administered to the mining officials. Community members will be interviewed using face-to-face interviews.
10.3 Data analysis
Data will be interpreted for the purpose of drawing conclusions that will reflect on the interests, ideas and theories that will be initiated (Babbie,1998). According to Welman, Kruger and Mitchell (2005) the researcher should consult other reports or information on the same topic that is being analysed. The researcher will group the data using thematic analysis.
10.4 Validity and Reliability
The researcher should be honest and trustworthy about the information which will be received from the respondents. The researcher should not add or reduce upon the information which will be obtained from the interviewees. In addition, the study must be representative, the researcher must interview all types of race and people of different ages that live in an area of the study.
11. Ethical considerations
Research participants should not be subjected to harm in any ways of any kind. Respect for the dignity of research participants should be prioritised, full consent should be obtained from the participants prior to the study. The protection of the privacy of research participants has to be ensured. Adequate level of confidentiality of the research data should be ensured and anonymity of individuals and organisations participating in the research has to be ensured. Any dishonesty or exaggeration about the aims and objectives of the research must be avoided. Affiliations in any forms, sources of funding as well as any possible conflicts of interests have to be declared. Any type of communication in relation to the research should be done with righteousness and clearness. Any type of ambiguous information as well as representation of primary data findings in a biased way must be avoided. Bryman and Bell (2007)