Bangladesh was one of the richest cultural developed countries all over the world. We were very proud for our Bengali mixed Cultural that came from Islamic & Hinduism Ideology, customs, manners. Ethnically all of the people belong to the homogeneity of their cultural history but as a result increasing of Globalization & Rapid Urbanization& Technological revolution, our socio-cultural has been changed rapidly since the late nineties. Now we are forgetting traditional cultural, we are busy with western mixed cultural as a result we have lost our social values, idea, moral & day after day the social problem is increasing. Bangladesh is a land of homogeneous culture which now is being transformed into hybridization that is confusing.
2. Socio-cultural Transformation:
A social cultural transformation is a transformed situation in which social, cultural, economical changes have obvious distinction. It describes how culture & society have changed over time. Cultural factors, consists of values, beliefs, attitudes, ideologies, ideas, morals and manners, customs and traditions etc play a vital role in influencing social change. People have to change or have the tendency to change by the transformation of time to maintain the new trends, achieve the goals, and follow the regulations. It is thought that culture is symbolically coded and can thus is taught from one person to another means that cultures, although bounded, can change.
Some characteristics of social cultural change may be-
1. Change into urban life from rural
2. From agricultural to industry economy
3. Introduction of economic pattern and their focus on individual freedom and initiative.
4. Keep competition for economic survival so that both parents are forced to work.
5. Increased participation of women activities outside the house etc.
3. Effect of Colonialism and Post colonialism on socio-Culture activities:
? Socio culture in colonial era: Colonial period plays the most important role in changing socio-cultural trends of Bangladesh. Major changes were made in this time. Colonialism vastly affected the food, religion, language, art, painting, architecture, festival, theatre, political culture etc. from every field of living like education , literature, government footprint of colonial rule are wide seen. Several Anglo-Indian foods like curry, raj etc were introduced in colonial period. Also official table manner of British were introduced. In Indian subcontinent there were some native religions along with Muslims. But later on Christian’s community were grow up in colonial era. English were made an official language instead of Persian. And wide spread use of English was begun from colonial era. Pattern of art, and painting changed from mid-Asian to western. Architectural design has a significant transaction to modernization. Novels and historical books are vastly written instead of religious poetry. The most significant changes were made of in political sector on Bangladesh. From traditional system of kingdom this continent enormously started exercising democratic system of government in colonial period. Bureaucracy was introduced. Governor system was implemented instead of subadar. Lifestyle was being modernized during British era. But due to the mutation of British culture and Bangladeshi culture we lost our unique socio cultural identity during this time.
? Post colonial factors: In post colonial period of time the most important changes of socio-cultural area is growth of nationalism in Bangladeshi people. Bangla were becoming the most prominent language in every sectors of the country. Up to 20th century family tradition of Bangladesh were combined in nature. But with the advancement of technology and widespread economical growth of the country more advanced single family tradition is now taking place. Use of ICT is changing the core of our socio-cultural dimensions. Whether it is good or bad it’s a point of debate but because of this widespread use of ICT kinship is declining. And free access of information and adaptation of different cultural factor in our own culture added diversity in Bangladeshi culture but on the other side it has taken away the core values of our own traditional culture.
4. Socio-Cultural Transformation Indicators:
Indicator Before the 90′ s After the 90’s
1. Language ? Acceptance of dialects
? Practice of pure mother tongue ? Dialects are considered as funny
? Mixed Language (Bangla With English)
( Male) ? Panjabi, Pajamas, lungi, ? half pant, Tie, T-shirt
? Western dress
( Female) ? Salwar Kameez and Sharee ? Salwar Kameez and Sharee
? Western Dress
4. Food ? Indigenous Food
? Homemade food
? Boiled rice
? fish and meat of beef, mutton, chicken ? Junk & fast food
? Street Food
? Catering service
? kabab and various western ,sub continental food
5. Fashion ? Traditional fashion ? Western style fashion
6. Music ? Classical, Folk, Live Performance
? Rabindra Sangeet and Nazrul geeti ? Western, Remind Folk, Virtul
? Band & rock song
? Mixed Western song
Quality ? Enrollment plus drop out
? Traditional curriculums & Formal exam ? Same but applied creative curriculum & teaching method.
8. Festivals and
celebrations ? Pohela Baishakh, Language Movement Day, Independence Day, National Mourning Day, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Muharram, and Durga puja. ? Same as 80’s
? Valentine day
? Friendship day
? 31st night day
? Others western day
9. Social Bondage/ Feelings/ Love ? Joint Family
? Cohesion of community high
? Collective approach ? Micro-family
? Cohesion of community lower.
10. Means of Communication ? Writing formal ; informal letter through post office ? Social media such as Face book, Imo, Viber, Mail through E-based
11. Profession ? Agricultural based ? Service Based
12. Method of Marriage ? Family Arranged ? Mostly Love based marriage
13. Games ; Sports ? Football, cricket and Ha-du-du
? Local Games ? Football, Basket ball
? Cricket is a game which has a massive and passionate following in Bangladesh.
? Internet based Games
5. Factors that affecting on our socio-cultural transformation
? Educational Factor: Before the liberation war in 1961 literacy rate of East Pakistan was only 21.5%. In 1974 literacy rate was 32.4% and it rose into 45.3% in 2001. Now in 2017 the rate is 75.5% (Male 77.1% and female 71.5%). Increasing education rate increasing the knowledge which changes the socio-cultural values of people.
? Political factors: Politics is important factor. From 1971 to 2017 several political parties ruled the government. The rules and law was different in different times. With the politics the policy was changed. The changed policies, rules, laws, orders change the socio-cultural activities.
? Scientific and Technological Factor: It is the main factor increase of transformation. ICT make the world close to all. People can share their ideas, knowledge, views one to another all over the world which influence their thinking.
? Cultural Diffusion Factor: By the dint of globalization the world becomes a village. Sharing of culture from one nation to another nation is increasing. Young generation is the main customer who accepting the foreign culture. This diffusion transforms our culture and our culture is also adopted by others.