1.5. The significance of the study
Harmon cited that Many students view homework as a daily stressor (Katz, Buzukasvili, & Feingold,2012). No matter the workload throughout the school day, it is expected that every student will complete some form of homework (Maltese et al., 2012). The results of this study may be beneficial for instructional designers, district leaders, teachers, parents, and
students, and could possibly provide insight into the type of environment that affects work completion and academic motivation. In addition, the results could also provide a greater understanding regarding how a homework environment affects student performance levels in mathematics”. This research cloud result in increase of collaborative amongst that teaching community mentioned above and allow teacher to increase student’s performance. In additionally, this finding shows the role played by parent (parental support) to his or her child. Take home activities or homework are very important because it is the intersection between home and school. It serves as window through which you can observes your children’s education and express positive attitudes towards your children and their education. As children grow older, homework, increases in importance. For teachers and administrators, homework is cost effective way to provide additional instruction in practice (Sydney and Goldstein, 1999)
SECTION 2. Review of the related literature
By this literature review, effort was made to find out information about the “Strategies to increase student’s performance in mathematics using take home activities”
2.2. Definition of key concepts
? Take home activities is like to say homework activities. It refers to a set of school tasks that are assigned by teachers for students to complete outside of the non-school hours Tammi, A(as cited in Cooper et al., 2006).
2.3. Teaching Mathematics in learner centered way.
Homework is largely a learner-centered learning activity and in order to implement learner-centered homework fully, teachers and school leaders must understand students’ preferred ways of doing homework and their sources of motivation to maximize the desired outcome (?flazo?lu & Hong, 2012). However, if a student is asked to perform in class all day, it is unknown as homework at home has influence on their achievement or motivation, particularly in mathematics. Research supports that teachers assign take-homework activities to students for practice to strengthen skills and concepts taught in class. Teachers proof students understand the concept when their take-homework activity is successfully completed. They receive also learners’ need and additional practice or assistance if students do not complete take-homework activity properly.
2.4. The role of take-home activities in the teaching Mathematics
Warton, P.M(1997 as cited by Epstein & Van Voorhis (1988, 2001, p.181) ) the purpose of homework can be grouped into ten strands ‘practice, participation, preparation, personal development, parent-child relations, parent-teacher communication, peer interactions, policy, public relations and punishment. These strands addressed through cooperation and making research which lead speed up in performing mathematics tasks. Furthermore, Cooper (1989 cited by Epstein & Van Voorhis 2001) similarly found that students who completed homework had better report cards and test results than those who did not complete it. Take-home activities play such roles for teaching and learning community:
In mathematics, practice exercises are the most important activity that cannot be ignored. Take-home activity/homework involve in such practice exercises but take-home activity performed after class especially at home. Practice is defined as the actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it (https//en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/practice). Practice, preparation, and personal development in mathematics take place in the time while learner is doing exercises and take-home activities. Epstein (1988, 2001, p.181) found that teachers recognized ‘practice, preparation and personal development’ to contribute to the overall purpose of homework.
This suggests that even those who do not see an immediate impact from homework, believe that it will help students’ personal development but also prepare them for the next stages of education and beyond. This is further supported by Sharp (2002) who recognized that, despite homework not having a direct link to achievement in younger children, it did promote independent learning and prepare them for secondary school. (Warton, P.M 1997)
Take-home activities act as way of communication between teacher-parents, child-parent and also school-parent. In addition to the correlation between completing homework and improved achievement, homework plays a fundamental role in both home-school involvement and students’ relationships with their parents. A key purpose of homework outside of ‘enhancing instruction’ is to ‘establish communication between parent and child’. Acock & Demo, 1994 (cited by Cooper et al, 2016, p.2).
Warton, P.M(1997) cited that Homework acts as a bridge between school and home, and the ability to engage parents in school life has a positive impact on teachers – when teachers feel as though there is more parental involvement in school they feel more positive about teaching (Epstein & Dauber, 1991, Hoover-Dempsey et al, 1987 cited by Epstein & Van Vourlis, 2001).
In Rwandan education system, the word interaction, cooperation and relationship are considered by all teachers due to when someone read Rwanda Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) such word are repeated more especially in generic competences and cross cutting issues to be addressed during the process of learning and teaching. Take-home activities or homework promote peer interaction and public relations. In fact, promotion of cooperation, interaction and relationship take place while learner is doing a research by asking his/her peer, parents, neighbors, and teachers. Additionally, homework helps learner to use libraries, references materials and computers websites as resources to find more information. Although take-home activity promotes cooperation, interaction and relationship, it teaches also learner to work independently which help a child to perform individual work such quizzes or test and exams and allows him/her to explores more subjects and extending learning by applying skills to new situations.